Aftermarket Services - Deloitte

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Aftermarket servicesThe quest for profitable growth and stability in turbulent times

ContentsIntroduction 2Aftermarket services business becoming an imperative for manufacturers3Manufacturers face multiple challenges in delivering aftermarket services efficiently10Digital technologies could be the differentiator for immediate and sustainable success in aftermarket services13Winning in aftermarket services may require a multipronged approach 16Accelerating the next wave of growth 20Endnotes 21

Aftermarket servicesIntroductionMDeloitte conducted a series of global executiveANUFACTURERS HAVE REALIZEDthe unparalleled potential of aftermarketinterviews with 35 North American and Europeanservices to foster and secure furthermanufacturing experts and service leaders. Basedgrowth of their entire firm - not only due to the facton the findings, we offer several insights relevantthat for many of them their aftermarket business isto the current situation that manufacturers cancontributing 50% to their revenues and in manyconsider in defining and executing their owncases more than 100% of the company’s profit - butaftermarket service strategy, including:also because many of them are affected by thecurrent slowdown of the economy and the Opportunities that aftermarket services provideaftermarket remains the only silverlinen on thefor manufacturers in navigating through bothprofit horizon. On top changes in customerexternal shocks and times ofdemands, increasing market maturity, cyclicaleconomic downturnfluctuations in new equipment sales, and pressureon pricing are among the major factors driving The role of digitization in enhancing servicemany manufacturers to seek new revenueofferings and creating transformationalopportunities also within aftermarket models that center on value deliveredThis shift appears to be taking place as more Strategies for manufacturers to overcome thecustomers are emphasizing service levelcommon challenges they face in aftermarketagreements (SLAs) that guarantee product uptimeservicesand are thus looking for service providers who canproactively support their equipment before it is outof service. In return, these customers are willing topay a price premium.In past economic downturns, the aftermarketservice business has been a consistentWhile the current COVID-19 crisis does represent arevenue source and profit stabilizer.very specific external shock and no structuralExperience shows that manufacturers whoproblem, one thing is for certain: Servicefocus on services have outperformed theirchampions will perform significantly better in thepeers and exited past crises stronger thaninevitable economic downturn. As new equipmentbefore. We call them “Service Champions.” Asorders are disrupted and capital spending comesthe global economy heads toward anotherinto question, aftermarket products and servicesdownturn, manufacturers that prioritizewill be an increasingly essential and stabilizing partand drive aftermarket services may beof the industrial business mix. Manufacturersshould take advantage of this disruption to pushmore resilient during the crisis. A key to thisthrough long-planned changes and innovationsaftermarket service growth comes fromaround aftermarket that can change the nature ofensuring consistent and efficient delivery oftheir relationship with their customer basethose services.and channels.2

The quest for profitable growth and stability in turbulent timesAftermarket services businessbecoming an imperative formanufacturersREVENUE SHARE FROM new product sales forservices are typically less impacted by changes inmanufacturers has been declining over thethe external environment and can provide stablepast decade.1 Margins on new equipmentcash flows in times when economic activity is slow.sales are typically less than those on aftermarketToday, the average operating margin from theservices in global markets. Moreover, demand foraftermarket business globally is about 2.5 times thenew industrial equipment may decline significantlyoperating margin from new equipment sales (figureas companies focus on preserving cash and1).2 From an operator perspective, postponingreducing capital spending to manage the short- andinvestments in the latest technology is a validmedium-term business impact of the current andoption for industrial manufacturers in uncertainfuture economic developments.times. However, maintaining existing equipment orselectively investing in upgrades in production canbe a much-needed strategy during uncertain times.Aftermarket services may help offset thesepressures on original equipment margins, as theseFIGURE 1US industrial manufacturers are expanding into services as they offerhigher marginsProduct/equipment vs. services revenue and operating marginProduct/equipmentOperating 8.2%77.1%22.9%9.0%23.0%76.4%23.6%Revenue contributionSources: Deloitte analysis of financial reports of major US industrial products companies; executive interviews.Deloitte Insights

Aftermarket servicesFor some manufacturers, aftermarketcontinue to deliver over 50% of aalready accounts for the entire profitmanufacturer’s profit with an upward trend.6generated by the company. In these cases, Prioritizing relationship-building: Aftermarketnew equipment is no longer sold to generateservices offer OEMs the ability to supportprofits for the firm, but to fuel the futurecustomers in different ways, such as buildingaftersales business on the installed by supporting longer equipment lifespansWhile this holds true for absolute serviceduring downtimes like today. So, manufacturerschampions, many other manufacturersshould think of switching selected customers tomanufacturers generate 40–50% of theirusage-based business models, which provideoverall profits from services.3recurring cash flow. Ensuring continuous support: In this crisis,Many large original equipment manufacturerscustomers may decide to switch to self-service,(OEMs) who have not focused on the aftermarketbut now, more than ever, is the time for OEMsin the past seem to realize the value they canto stay connected with their customers andgenerate and are trying to expand their serviceensure business continuity by providingofferings. For example, a leading manufacturerremote assistance.intends to double its services revenue in the nextsix years. The company has nearly one million of its Staying connected closely with the customers:machines connected to the cloud and sees anThrough off-site service delivery, OEMs canopportunity to provide services to customersmaintain close connect with customers. Serviceleveraging the connected equipment.4 Withtechnicians are the most importantuncertainty ahead, the expansion of aftermarketrepresentation of a manufacturer - some haveservices is likely not a choice, but rather aninstalled “resident engineer” or “technicianimperative for all but a few manufacturers.ambassador” programs; they are critical to keepequipment running and are the first to knowAftermarket services could help manufacturersabout any demands, ideally before anystabilize their business during and in the aftermathofficial request.of economic downturns and prepare for futuregrowth rapidly by: Delivering value beyond the obvious: Somemanufacturers have already optimized their Driving recurring revenue streams:aftermarket offering in recent years and startManufacturers that focus on services often havefacing severe limitations of continous revenue80% of their installed base under serviceand profit growth by increasing prices for sparecontracts, allowing them to continue deliveringparts, expanding their service portfolio,constant revenue streams.5pushingservice level agreements and the like.They look into selling output and sharing risks Securing high margins from spare parts:with their customers based on subscription-Aftermarket parts and services will likelybased fee structures for their equipment.4

The quest for profitable growth and stability in turbulent timesFIGURE 2Five common improvement areas for aftermarket service providers01 Inventory optimization Improving part forecast accuracy through AI Safety stock optimization through predictive models Manufacturing lot size optimization (“one-piece”) Introduction of managed dealer inventory02 Network optimization Setup of regional spare parts hubs Third-party logistic provider for specific regions Consolidation of technician network Distribution, installation, and setup partnering Installed base tracking to optimize aftermarketnetwork hubs based on customer portfolio03 Service process optimization Reduction of admin service process waste Elimination of unnecessary interfaces Advanced planning of technician and parts Use new relevant digital technologies (e.g., VR) Use digitization to drive productivity and clientengagement04 Procurement spend reduction Supplier volume bundling Identification of above-market price spare parts Spare parts supplier renegotiations Introduction of a supplier platform05 Pricing and terms management Service discount standardization Introduction of dynamic technician pricing Value-based spare part pricing Payment term review and standardization Use of different pricing metrics and newcontracting modelsSource: Deloitte analysis based on executive interviews with manufacturing experts and service leaders.Deloitte Insights“In times of crises when it becomes difficult to dispatch field service technicians to address customers’critical equipment needs, remote assistance capabilities are crucial to ensure business continuity ofour customers by directly accessing their machines and solving 80% of electrical problems online—quickly and efficiently.”— Julien Laran, head of service at Bobst Group SA5

Aftermarket servicesFIGURE 3Industrial manufacturers’ focus on digital technologies, service orientation,customer centricity, and business models has significantly increased since 2008Frequency of related keywords in the “Letters to shareholders” of top 25 industrial manufacturers201820132008Digital technologies932713Service orientation291414Keywords related to digitaltechnologies over the last10 years increased.7xANDCustomer centricity1028Keywords related to service orientation,customer centricity, and business models increasedfrom 2008 to 2018.13Business model121023 2xSource: Deloitte analysis based on text analytics of “Letters to shareholders” of top 25 US industrial manufacturers by 2018revenues.Deloitte Insights are beingdriven by a shift towardselling outcomestransactional to a relationship-based businessmodel that can include long-term incentivized,pay-per-use contracts. While this bears significantpotential for many manufacturers, it can requireTraditionally, manufacturers have focused onthem to take on the extended responsibilities,selling equipment, while aftermarket servicesrisks (operational and reputational), penalties,remained as an ancillary business, and so theand revenue payments linked to use. However, itoverall business models were mostly transactionalallows manufacturers to work closely with theirin nature. However, over the past few years, duecustomers and ease the pressure on part pricesto the changing market conditions, manycaused by customers searching for cheaper sparemanufacturers have been moving towards aparts at online wholesalers.relationship-based business model, sellingoutcomes. But, as a result of the unprecedented“Companies need to become solutioncrisis, manufacturers must focus on deliveringproviders in the future. The ultimate goal isadvanced connected services, viewing themselvesto develop our organization in a way thatas solution providers who improve businesswe sell solutions to our customers’outcomes for customers (figure 4). Manufacturersproblems.”should work toward selling uptime and partnering— David Windhager, senior vice president,with customers to avoid equipment breakdown.Customer Service & Digital Solutions atConsequently, manufacturers are moving from aRosenbauer Group6

The quest for profitable growth and stability in turbulent timesFIGURE 4The aftermarket services business is shifting from being “transactional”to “contractual” to “pay-for-performance”Digitalization is enabling this shiftYesterdayCustomer and manufacturerswere at different endsof the chainEquipmentfailureRaise repairrequestCustomerTodayCustomers are closerto manufacturersService contractRepair-replacement-newproduct is offeredManufacturer/serviceprovider investigatesthe faultWithin terms andconditions, repairand replaceCustomerEquipmentfailureRegular overhauland repairservicesTomorrowManufacturers are closely aligned with customersto aim for zero unplanned downtimeCustomer experience: Product upgraded to avoid stoppage Better operations and outcomes Real-time evaluation Detect anomalies—provideprescriptive insights Predictive insights based onperformance data Predictive insights on new ideas/solutions to elevate performanceShares ownershipof productCustomer hasfull transparencySource: Deloitte analysis.Deloitte Insights services are expected to become a mainstay for many traditional aftermarket serviceproviders in the future. Manufacturing customers are increasingly looking to improve their overallequipment effectiveness (OEE), the percentage of manufacturing time that is genuinely productive, acrucial measure of manufacturing productivity.7

Aftermarket servicesFIGURE 5Factors driving the adoption of industrial subscription modelsCustomer requirementsand benefitsCompany requirementsand benefitsExisting industryuse casesDriven by both growingglobal competition anduncertain economicenvironment, customersof industrial equipmentwant to increasingly shiftfrom capex to opexWith decreasing new equipmentsales, industrial productmanufacturers are seekingsubscription models to stabilizerevenues and reengage customersto boost service revenues andprotect market shareTangible use cases showthat subscription modelscan really work and findstrong application acrossa variety of industriesSource: Deloitte analysis.Deloitte Insights, an increasing number of manufacturingindustry customers to defer or cancel new equipmentcustomers have defined zero unplanned downtime asdeliveries. So, manufacturers should consider movingtheir topmost priority. They are shifting their focusfrom pure products to selling outcomes thatfrom a capex (capital expenditure) to opex (operatingcustomers want, which could be a win-win for bothexpenditure) model, i.e., from making significantmanufacturers and customers (figure 6).capital investments to obtain equipment ownershipand capabilities, to paying expenses to use theSome companies are modeling their servicesequipment and related capabilities as a after automotive OEMs and dealersto sell extended service agreements alongManufacturers should work closely as partners withwith equipment. Some manufacturingtheir customers in achieving the targeted outcomes.dealers are bundling subscriptions alongMany manufacturers are increasingly focusing onwith other monthly fees for maintenanceusage-based service-focused business models, suchand repairs based on the number of hoursas subscription-based pricing or pay-per-usethe equipment is expected to operate. Forcontracts (figure 5). For instance, Heidelberg, oneinstance, one of the largest dealers of a largeof the leading manufacturers of printing machinesmanufacturer plans to have most or all itsglobally, is currently transforming its operationstoward pay-per-use models.7equipment sold across Canada, the UnitedManufacturers can createmore value by focusingon long-term relationshipbased businessProviding dealers with access to digitalKingdom, and South America, connectedto the manufacturer’s cloud, including service information systems,parts inventory optimization tools, andremote troubleshooting tools, can enabledealer technicians to read live equipmentThe financial uncertainties caused by overalldiagnostics and remotely identify and solveeconomic downturns may compel manufacturingequipment problems.8

The quest for profitable growth and stability in turbulent timesFIGURE 6Working with customers to generate positive outcomes is an imperativeLevel of service offeringsProduct/serviceCore product withadded servicesProduct-servicesystemsOutcomes andsolutions*No-to-low level ofservice offeringsBasic maintenanceand repair servicesServices bundled withproduct offeringsProduct ValueService CostProduct ValueService DifferentiationProduct service ValueFocus is on long-termrelationship over anextended life cycle;pay-per-useTRADITIONALMODELMOST OF THEINDUSTRIAL OEMSARE HERE TODAYE.G., ELEVATORMANUFACTURERSWorking withcustomers to generatepositive outcomesE.G., AIRCRAFTENGINEMANUFACTURERSCompanies sell outcomes and not just products and/or services*Source: Deloitte analysis.Deloitte Insights“Competition is likely to be more intense in the aftermarket space over the next three to five years andthe differentiating factor for manufacturing customers could depend on who can bring the most valueto the customer.”— Joseph Odekerken, director, Sustainment Business Transformation at Lockheed Martin Corporation9

Aftermarket servicesManufacturers face multiplechallenges in deliveringaftermarket services efficientlyMANUFACTURERS FACE MULTIPLEintensify proximity with customers and eventuallychallenges in moving from their coremake a difference when customers decide on abusiness model of manufacturing andnew machine.selling products to selling services and outcomesthat completely transform their business (figure 7).Here are some common challenges (figure 8)Optimizing overall equipment effectiveness (OEE)manufacturers face in delivering aftermarketfor customers, securing the availability ofservices efficiently:production by providing more remote services,Macroeconomic forcesenabling machine operators to conductmaintenance tasks themselves without waiting fora technician, or offering insights from machineEconomic downturns: Regardless whetherdata will be the name of the game in the future. Atcaused by an external shock or by overall structuralthe same time, it should allow manufacturers toissues, crisis do happen - and will continue to do so.FIGURE 7Shifting from products to services while expanding the services portfolio toinclude outcome-based solutions is difficult to executeLow riskMedium riskOutcome-basedValuepropositionInput-basedHigh riskAsset efficiencySolutionsE.G., REMOTEMONITORINGE.G., AVAILABILITY(process delegation)Product lifecycle servicesProcess supportE.G., REPAIR ANDMAINTENANCEE.G., ENERGYEFFICIENCY AUDITProduct suppliedCustomer processOffering focusSource: Deloitte analysis.Deloitte Insights

The quest for profitable growth and stability in turbulent timesFIGURE 8Aftermarket service challenges emanate from macroeconomic forces,industry dynamics, and organizational concernsMACROECONOMIC FORCESINDUSTRY DYNAMICSEconomic downturnsPandemicsTechnological revolutionsIncreased competitionTalent shortageEntry of new playersORGANIZATIONAL CONCERNSDelivering quality serviceLack of a service-oriented cultureSource: Deloitte analysis.Deloitte Insights shortage. Manufacturers are facing aEspecially because building up a winning servicebusiness requires investments, reduced budgetsshortage of talent with new skillsets. As technologyare a common challenge for manufacturers.advances and equipment gains additional features,aftermarket services is not possible at this time,complex, and many companies are facing challengesgiven the pandemic’s evolving nature. While therein having skilled technicians who can gauge andare many unknowns about the extent of thesolve service problems accurately. The agingthe repair and refurbish process is becoming moreCOVID-19 crisis and the ultimate impact to theworkforce, especially in aerospace and defense, canglobal economy, the near-term outlook foralso leave a gap in aftermarket service talent.manufacturing industry is weak.Entry of new players. As usage-based businessIndustry dynamicsmodels are new to many OEMs, they come withsignificant additional risks. As a result, new playersIncreased competition. The level of competitionfrom other industries are emerging to capitalize onis growing in the industry as manufacturers arethis opportunity. For instance, reinsurer Munichoperating in a complex environment with multipleRe is designing specific offerings to participate instakeholders, including suppliers and partners.the attractive industrial aftermarket.8This is becoming more pronounced as many OEMsOrganizational concernsare aggressively trying to increase presence inaftermarket services, thereby intensifyingcompetition for smaller players. Along with growthDelivering quality service. Lack of experiencein counterfeit parts, low-cost rivals are raising theirin designing service packages and limited visibilitygame where service and parts operations are facingin the supply chain are critical factors affecting theintense price competition.quality of service delivered by many traditional11

Aftermarket servicesmanufacturers. Many customers even resist theAlthough customer service is mostly a localmove toward services, thus requiring significantbusiness, manufacturing is one of the mosteffort by the manufacturer to gain customerglobalized sectors in the world economy. Manyinterest, especially as many customers are stillinternational manufacturing companies,hesitant to pay for services.regardless of their headquarters, have their after-Lack of a service-oriented culture. Lack of aAsia, and EMEA.sales business evenly spread across Americas,focused service organization and a resistance tochange are important issues affecting manyOur study revealed that the service-relatedmanufacturers. Many companies are finding itchallenges for the leading manufacturingdifficult to move away from their product-/companies in both North America and Europe aremanufacturing-oriented mindset toward a morenearly identical. And even more important,customer-focused services mindset.customer needs in manufacturing are completelyglobal and typically require globally consistentsolutions and offerings. Serving aftermarketcustomers is local, but offerings should be globallyconsistent.12

The quest for profitable growth and stability in turbulent timesDigital technologies could bethe differentiator for immediateand sustainable success inaftermarket servicesIN TIMES OF crises but also considering the battleservices and digital enablement were two of the topfor service technicians we are facing since thefour business priorities.9beginning of the millenium, it becomes difficultAs manufacturing transitions toward otherto dispatch field service technicians to addresscustomers’ critical equipment needs, digitalbusiness models such as usage-based services,technologies, especially remote assistancedigital technologies are expected to play a crucialcapabilities, to help ensure business continuity.role, especially in enhancing aftermarket serviceLeveraging these capabilities, manufacturers andofferings. In a recent study conducted by Deloitte10,service providers can directly access the equipmentover 20 manufacturing leaders expect as many asand solve many problems remotely, quickly,one-third of manufacturing companies to beand efficiently.disrupted in the next decade. About two-thirds ofthe executives said that digital services would beMany manufacturers are making the shift towardthe significant driver of future revenues. Moreover,aftermarket services by leveraging digitalmanufacturing leaders believe that over the nexttechnologies to offer capabilities such as proactivedecade, the fundamental business model will beand predictive maintenance. Digital service50 percent products/equipment and 50 percentofferings are helping manufacturers gain aoutcomes, compared to a 75:25 percent mix incompetitive edge and provide an enhancedfavor of products at present.customer experience. In a recent Gartner survey ofCIOs of heavy manufacturers, new products/“Digitization has given a new lease on life toindustrial manufacturing - digital solutionssuch as predictive maintenance will have ahuge impact on OEE”Digital service offeringsare helping manufacturersgain a competitive edgeand provide an enhancedcustomer experience.— Oliver Bendig, German After Sales & IndustrialManufacturing lead at Monitor DeloitteTherefore, prioritizing digital transformation couldbe critical to enhance aftermarket services. In asurvey conducted by The Service Council,30 percent of service leaders at manufacturing and13

Aftermarket services Tracking of the complete installed base:services businesses strongly agreed that it was vitalfor them to become a “digital” business. Besides,Knowledge of and access to an entire installedthe survey findings suggested that service leadersbase remains a challenge as legacy equipment isare focused on customer-centric outcomes in theirnot connected to enterprise strategies (figure 9).11 To bring in efficiencies Equipment integration and seamlessand differentiate their services, manufacturers arecommunication: Even as companies workalready harmonizing internal processes byleveraging digital technologies.toward connecting their installed base, thereare issues related to smooth integration andHowever, headwinds persist in the digital journeyseamless communication across the value chain.of aftermarket services as manufacturing Limited visibility of data: Data collectedcompanies are facing multiple challenges ineffectively deploying digital technologies for theirfrom smart products remains mostlyaftermarket services.proprietary to the manufacturers, andFIGURE 9While some are yet to begin their digital journey, many are ahead in the gameDigitaltechnologiesValue leversUse casesConnected assetsand smart parts Less unplanneddowntime Increased lifetimevalue for a customerDeere & Company has built smart, connected products withfeatures such as satellite guidance and live data monitoring. Thedata is collected through sensors and pulled into a cloud foranalysis, thereby helping customers make informed decisions.Through a web platform, the company is also able to remotelydiagnose machines in the field and help its customers withpredictive maintenance, thereby reducing downtime.12AI (artificialintelligence)/machine learning;digital twins Virtually monitoringmaintenance andrepair needs Reducing theunplanned downtimefor customersSiemens is leveraging AI to build on digital twins, composed ofdata which flows from products/equipment in the field as wellas in the factory. Siemens aims to have all its future equipmentto be equipped with a digital twin, indicating the value thistechnology will create in the near term.13Supply chain Enable traceabilityprovenance cockpitacross value chain Create transparencyon raw material andpart originsA leading European automotive OEM is currently implementinga blockchain-based solution to track spare parts. By assigninga digital identifier to each part, counterfeit parts can beimmediately identified when they are built into any vehicle.Cloud-basedsolutions thatgenerate insightsfrom data Proactivelymonitor customers’maintenance needs Serve customersproactivelyAirbus is using “Skywise,” an open data platform, to enableits customers to seek the support of 20,000 Airbus engineersthroughout the lifespan of an aircraft. This platform providesfleet analysis, efficiency monitoring, and predictive maintenancealong with data analytics tools to minimize fuel consumption.14Augmented reality(AR) and virtualreality (VR) Improve field serviceefficiency Enhance customerexperienceA leading business jet manufacturer is using AR/VR to make fieldservice more efficient and cost-effective, with fewer technicianson-site as quality checks can be done virtually by technicianslocated off-site.15Source: Deloitte analysis.14

The quest for profitable growth and stability in turbulent timesoperators/service providers have restricted datathey should use connected enterprise systems andaccess or none in some analytics to surface insights to improvevisibility, which is the backbone for delivering Ability to leveraging data effectively:cutting-edge aftermarket services. Second, theyAlthough many companies have progressed inshould continuously use and monetize insightstheir goal to connect devices and are able togenerated from data, which can help in developingcollect vast volumes of data, they have not beenbetter solutions, and, at the same time, help build aable to derive the insights they need to developcompetitive services. Differences in service standards: Globalcompanies are experiencing variations in digitalmaturity between regions, leading to variancesin service standards.To drive smoother digital transformation,manufacturers should focus on two areas. First,15

Aftermarket servicesWinning in aftermarketservices may require amultipronged approachTHE AFTERMARKET SERVICES businessmost competition from rivals and smallerincludes a diverse set of companies fromcompanies. As a result, the most significantlarge OEMs to pure-play service providers,competitor is the customer itself, who may belocal service shops and increasingly wholesalersdoing maintenance and repairs themselves.applying the amazon and alibaba receipe toAddressing the intensifying competition requiresprofessional B2B bsuinesses. While large playershaving an ecosystem view to work cooperativelyhave evolved through years of growth andand collaboratively with all the ecosystem players,consolidation, there are also many smallerincluding customers and competitor

Aftermarket services may help offset these pressures on original equipment margins, as these services are typically less impacted by changes in the external environment and can provide stable cash flows in times when economic activity is slow. Today, the average operating margin from the aftermarket business globally is about 2.5 times the

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