Final Report External Evaluation Of The Global Water Security .

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External Evaluation of theGlobal Water Security &Sanitation Partnership (GWSP)REPORT 30 AUGUST 2021

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EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF THE GLOBAL WATER SECURITY & SANITATION PARTNERSHIP (GWSP)AcronymsADBAsian Development BankAfDBAfrican Development BankAFRCCAfrica Climate Change ProgramAGWAAlliance for Global Water AdaptationAMCOWAfrican Ministers' Council on WaterASAAdvisory Services and AnalyticsASPGAfrican Sanitation Policy GuidelinesBETFBank Executed Trust FundBMGFBill & Melinda Gates FoundationBnBillionBUBank UnitCAEWDCentral Asia Energy and Water DevelopmentCCTFIACTF – IBRD as Implementing AgencyCIWACooperation in International Waters in AfricaCIWACooperation in International Waters in AfricaCONIWASFormer Chair Coalition of NGOs in water and sanitationCOPConference of the PartiesCOVID-19Coronavirus PandemicCRCCitizen Report CardCSOCivil Society OrganizationsCWISCitywide Inclusive SanitationCWPFChina-World Bank Group PartnershipCWSACommunity Water and Sanitation AgencyDACDevelopment Assistance CommitteeDFNDP2DINEPADLIPartnership for Support to the Implementation of Uganda’s National DevelopmentPlansNational Directorate for Drinking Water and Sanitation (Direction Nationale del’Eau Potable et de l’Assainissement)Disbursement Linked Indicator UNIVERSALIAi

iiEXTERNAL EVALUATION OF THE GLOBAL WATER SECURITY & SANITATION PARTNERSHIP (GWSP)DRCDemocratic Republic of CongoDRMDisaster Risk ManagementEAPEast Asia and PacificECAEurope and central AsiaECACDFEurope and Central Asia Capacity Development FacilityEEPPEuropean Commission-ECA World Bank Partnership ProgramERRPEmergency Response and Recovery PlansESMAPEnergy Sector Management Assistance ProgrammeEU2020Europe 2020 Knowledge & Advisory ServicesFAOFood and Agricultural OrganisationFCASFragile and Conflict-Affected StatesFCIFinance, Competitiveness and InnovationFCVFragility, Conflict, and ViolenceFGDFocus Group DiscussionFITFinancial Innovation TeamFLIDFarmer-Led Irrigation DevelopmentFLLField-Level LeadershipFS-7SDFree-Standing Trust Fund for ECA SD Sector UnitFSMFecal Sludge ManagementFS-WATFree Standing Trust Funds For GWADRFYFiscal YearGAFSPGlobal Agriculture and Food Security ProgramGAMA-SWPGreater Accra Metropolitan Area Sanitation and Water ProjectGEFGlobal Environmental FacilityGEWEGender Equality and Women’s EmpowermentGFDRRGlobal Facility for Disaster Reduction and RecoveryGIZDeutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbHGLGlobal LeadGPGlobal PracticeGPBAGlobal Partnership for Results-Based Approaches UNIVERSALIA

EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF THE GLOBAL WATER SECURITY & SANITATION PARTNERSHIP (GWSP)GPOBAGlobal Program for Output Based AidGRIDGreen, Resilient, and Inclusive DevelopmentGSGGlobal Solutions GroupGWCLGhana Water Company LimitedGWSPGlobal Water Security and Sanitation PartnershipICEMInternational Centre for Environmental ManagementICRInternational Committee of the RedIDAInternational Development AssociationID-FSIndonesia Free-Standing Trust Fund ProgramID-ISAUSAID Trust Fund for Indonesia Infrastructure Support;ID-PNPIndonesia Program for Community EmpowermentIDSUNIndonesia Sustainable UrbanizationILOInternational Labour OrganizationIOAInstitutional and Organizational AssessmentIRRFReform and Reconstruction in Iraq MDTFIWMDIntegrated Water Management and DevelopmentIWRMIntegrated Water Resource ManagementIWSPWater Secure IndiaJICAJapan International Cooperation AgencyJiTJust-in-timeJMDTFGJordan Inclusive Growth and Job Creation MDTFJMPJoint Monitoring ProgramKThousandK&LKnowledge and LearningKfWKreditanstalt fur WiederaufbauKGGTFKorea Green Growth Trust FundKWBPKorea World Bank Partnership FacilityLACLatin America and the CaribbeanLICLow-Income CountryLICSULow-Income Urban Customers Support Unit UNIVERSALIAiii

ivEXTERNAL EVALUATION OF THE GLOBAL WATER SECURITY & SANITATION PARTNERSHIP (GWSP)LMICLower Middle-Income CountryLTLeadership TeamM&EMonitoring and EvaluationMDBMultilateral Development BankMDGMillennium Development GoalsMDTFMulti-Donor Trust FundMENAMiddle East and North AfricaMEWRIMinistry of Energy, Water Resources and IrrigationMFDMaximizing Finance for DevelopmentMHHMenstrual Health and HygieneMHMMenstrual Hygiene ManagementMICMiddle-Income CountriesMnMillionMNA-FSMENA VPU Free-Standing Trust Fund ProgramMNAISAMENA Transition Fund – IBRDMNXTAMENA Region Umbrella 2.0MONREMinistry of Natural Resources and EnvironmentMPAMultiphase Programmatic ApproachNBSNature-Based SolutionsNCERWASSNational Center for Rural Water Supply and Environmental SanitationNGONon-Governmental OrganizationO&MOperations & MaintenanceOECDOrganization of Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentOREPAsOffice régional de l’eau potable et de et AssainissementPAMSIMASIndonesia’s Community-Based Drinking Water and Sanitation ProgramPforRPayment-for-ResultsPHRDPolicy and Human Resources Development Fun – TA Trust FundPIRPolicy, Institutional, and RegulatoryPMUProject Management UnitsPNGSPPapua New Guinea Strategic Partnership UNIVERSALIA

EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF THE GLOBAL WATER SECURITY & SANITATION PARTNERSHIP (GWSP)PPIAFPublic-Private Infrastructure Advisory FacilityPPPPublic-Private PartnershipPWSWPartnership for a Water Secure WorldPWUDPartnership for Infrastructure DevelopmentQERQuality Enhancement ReviewsQIIQuality Infrastructure InvestmentSARSouth AsiaSAWISouth Asia Water InitiativeSCCFIASCCF-IBRD as Implementing AgencySDGSustainable Development GoalSECOState Secretariat for Economic AffairsSHEPSchool Health Education ProgramSIEFStrategic Impact Evaluation Fund -Human DevelopmentSIWIStockholm International Water InstituteSOPStandard Operating ProcedureSPEIGStrategic Partnership for Egypt’s Inclusive GrowthSPFState and Peace Building FundSSISocial Sustainability and InclusionSUNScaling Up NutritionTATechnical AssistanceToCTheory of ChangeToRTerms of ReferenceTTLTask Team LeaderUMICUpper Middle-Income CountriesUNUnited NationsUNCCDUnited Nations Convention to Combat DesertificationUNEPUnited Nations Environment ProgramUNESCOUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationUNFCCCUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeUNHCRUnited Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNIVERSALIAv

viEXTERNAL EVALUATION OF THE GLOBAL WATER SECURITY & SANITATION PARTNERSHIP (GWSP)UNICEFUnited Nations Children’s Emergency FundUoFUtility of the FutureUS United States DollarUSAIDUnited States Agency for International DevelopmentUTFUtility Turnaround FrameworkVIHEMAVietnam Health Environment Management AgencyWASHWater, Sanitation, and HygieneWCGWater Consultative GroupWEFWater Expertise FacilityWETWater Expert TeamWFPWorld Food ProgrammeWHOWorld Health OrganizationWPPWater Partnership ProgramWRGWater Resources GroupWRMWater Resources ManagementWSCWater and Sanitation CompaniesWSPWater and Sanitation ProgramWSSWater Supply and SanitationWWFWorld Wildlife FundZIMREFZimbabwe Country Engagement UNIVERSALIA

EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF THE GLOBAL WATER SECURITY & SANITATION PARTNERSHIP (GWSP)ContentsEXECUTIVE SUMMARY . XIII1. INTRODUCTION . 11.1 Overview . 11.2 Purpose and Scope . 22. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY . 32.1 Overall Approach . 32.2 Data Collection Methods . 32.3 Limitations . 43. BUILDING ON PRIOR PARTNERSHIPS. 63.1 WSP and WPP Recommendations . 64. RESPONDING TO EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT . 104.1 GSWP Designed to Advance and Adapt to Evolving Key Global Priorities . 104.1.1 Responding to COVID-19 . 104.1.2 Sustainable Development Goals – SDG6 . 124.1.3 Climate Change . 144.2 Strategic Pillars and Priority Themes . 194.3 Cross-cutting Development Priorities . 244.3.1 Pro-Poor Development. 244.3.2 Gender Equality and Inclusion. 264.3.3 Fragile and Conflict Affected Contexts . 325. ORGANIZATIONAL COHERENCE AND PERFORMANCE. 365. into Implementation Model . 36Responding to the Needs of World Bank Operational Teams . 39Raising Awareness and Sharing Knowledge Externally . 43Block C Approach . 45Transformative Influence and/or Impact. 545.5.1 On Client Countries . 545.5.2 On World Bank . 575.5.3 On Development Partners and Programs . 615.6 On Partnership . 645.6.2 Towards a Partnership Framework . 665.6.3 Partnerships and Priority Themes . 675.7 Sustaining Benefits . 705.8 Risks and Risk Mitigation . 74 UNIVERSALIAvii

viiiEXTERNAL EVALUATION OF THE GLOBAL WATER SECURITY & SANITATION PARTNERSHIP (GWSP)6. ORGANIZATIONAL CAPACITY . 816. Council Member Expectations . 81GWSP Management of Secretariat . 83Communications . 84Monitoring and Reporting Mechanisms . 866.4.1 M&E and the Block C Approach . 876.4.2 M&E and “Safely Managed Water and Sanitation’ . 886.4.3 Integration of Gender, Vulnerable Groups and Climate Change in the M&E System . 906.4.4 Annual Reporting. 917. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . 927.1 Conclusions . 927.2 Recommendations . 937.2.1 Overall Strategy . 937.2.2 Knowledge into Implementation. 937.2.3 Responding to the Needs of Operational Teams . 937.2.4 Collaboration across Global Practices . 947.2.5 Country Ownership . 947.2.6 Water and Climate Change . 957.2.7 Fragile and Conflict-Affected States and Contexts . 957.2.8 Partnership . 957.2.9 Governance of the GWSP . 967.2.10 Communications . 967.2.11 Block C Approach. 977.2.12 M&E and the Results Framework . 987.2.13 “Safely Managed” Water and Sanitation . 99 UNIVERSALIA

EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF THE GLOBAL WATER SECURITY & SANITATION PARTNERSHIP (GWSP)FiguresFigure 2.1 Evaluation Timeline . 4Figure 4.1 Share of Grant Components Addressing Climate-Related Priority Theme . 15Figure 4.2 World Bank Resilience Rating System . 16Figure 4.3 Primary Theme Distribution by Fiscal Year . 20Figure 4.4 Secondary Theme Distribution by Fiscal Year . 21Figure 4.5 Priority Theme Distribution by Fiscal Year . 22Figure 4.6 Gender Tagged Projects . 28Figure 5.1 “Knowledge into Implementation” in Uganda . 38Figure 5.2 “Knowledge into Implementation” in Nepal . 38Figure 5.3 AskWater Requests by Type of Request (2015-2021) . 41Figure 5.4 GWSP Collaborated with 410 Partners in FY18-20 . 65Figure 6.1 Disbursements in FY18, FY19 and FY20 . 85Figure iii.1 Institutional and Organizational Assessment Model . 127Figure iii.2 Water GP Partnership Results Framework . 128Figure iii.3 GWSP Results Framework Dimensions . 128Figure iii.4 Supporting Stronger Delivery . 129Figure iii.5 Evaluation Timeline . 137 UNIVERSALIAix

xEXTERNAL EVALUATION OF THE GLOBAL WATER SECURITY & SANITATION PARTNERSHIP (GWSP)TablesTable 3.1 Assessment of Integration of WSP and WPP Evaluation Recommendations in GWSP . 8Table 4.1 Percentage of Activities Addressing Indicators under Each Priority Theme . 22Table 4.2 GWSP Country-Specific Grants in FCAS . 33Table 4.3 GWSP Informed Lending in FCAS Across all GPs . 34Table 5.1 “Knowledge into Implementation” Activities Undertaken by GWSP . 37Table 5.2 GWSP Funding Received by Block C Country . 47Table 5.3 Average GWSP Grant Amount Allocated to Countries by Region and Block C Classification FY18and FY21 . 47Table 5.4 Informed Lending Amounts by Fiscal Year and Country Classification . 52Table 5.5 Average Amount of Lending Informed per Dollar on GWSP Activity. 52Table 5.6 Percentage Increase in Amount of Lending Informed per GWSP Dollar Received by Activity . 53Table 5.7 Percentage of Activities Addressing Indicators by Category and Fiscal Year . 54Table 5.8 Informed Lending Generated by GWSP Supported Activities . 56Table 5.9 Informed Lending Generated by GWSP Supported Activities in FY20 by Region . 56Table 5.10 Water GP Managed Active Grants by Trustee Bank Unit . 59Table 5.11 GWSP Priority Theme and Indicators Addressed by Partnerships, FY20 . 68Table 5.12 Sustainability Influence on New Water GP Lending . 73Table 5.13 Risk and Severity at-a-Glance . 76Table 6.1 GWSP Block A Indicators Measure Knowledge Generation . 86Table 6.2 Example of Tailored Indicators in Select Block C Countries. . 87Table 6.3 Water Global Practice Core Indicators . 88Table 6.4 Agenda 2030, SDG6 Targets and Indicators. 89Table 6.5 GWSP Indicators on inclusion – by Block . 90Table i.1 List of Stakeholders Consulted – Ghana Case Study . 100Table i.2 List of Stakeholders Consulted – Haiti Case Study . 101Table i.3 List of Stakeholders Consulted – Uganda Case Study . 101Table i.4 List of Stakeholders Consulted – Vietnam Case Study . 102Table i.5 List of Stakeholders Consulted – Knowledge Products Case Study . 103Table i.6 List of Stakeholders Consulted – Nepal Case Study . 104Table i.7 List of Stakeholders Consulted – World Bank Staff. 104Table i.8 List of Stakeholders Consulted – Global . 107Table iii.1 Proposed Case Study Sampling . 133Table iii.2 Sense-Making Workshop Participants . 135Table iii.3 Overview of Methodology . 137Table iv.1 Projects Alignment with GWSP Indicators Illustrated by the Number of Items Addressed andNumber of Projects . 138 UNIVERSALIA

EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF THE GLOBAL WATER SECURITY & SANITATION PARTNERSHIP (GWSP)AppendicesAppendix I Stakeholders Consulted. 100Appendix II Documents Reviewed. 109Appendix III Detailed Methodology . 124Appendix IV Supporting Evidence . 138 UNIVERSALIAxi

EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF THE GLOBAL WATER SECURITY & SANITATION PARTNERSHIP (GWSP)xiiiExecutive SummaryIntroductionThe World Bank’s Global Water Security and Sanitation Partnership (GWSP) was created in 2017. Itresulted from the integration of both the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) and Water PartnershipProgram (WPP), towards realizing the shared “Water-Writ-Large” Agenda of the World Bank’s WaterGlobal Practice (GP) and its Partners. This agenda notably seeks to address water sector challengesthrough a holistic approach, in which global agendas, commitments and priorities at the intersection ofwater and other sectors are advanced.Driven by this purpose, the GWSP has pursued a “Knowledge into Implementation” model, premised onthe production of quality knowledge and analytics, allowing it to deploy trusted knowledge-basedleadership and support, both globally and in specific contexts. It has supported countries and the globalcommunity more broadly in overcoming water development challenges and meeting priorities throughknowledge mobilization, Technical Assistance (TA), country dialogues, policy advice, strategic planningand development, capacity enhancement, lending influence, and more.Now four years since the GWSP’s creation, the Water GP commissioned this evaluation of GWSP to belearning-oriented and formative, and to take stock of progress made to-date. It has sought to understandthe extent to which the GWSP is on track to advance the three pillars of the Water GP’s Strategic ActionPlan, namely, to Sustain Water Resources, Deliver Services, and Build Resilience, while supportingcountries’ realization of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 (and related SDGs), addressing climatechange, and building back better post-COVID-19 pandemic. As made clear by this evaluation, overall, theGWSP is a strategic and well-designed, much valued, highly effective and well-managed MDTF.Responding to External EnvironmentAt the outset, GWSP’s design has drawn extensively on WSP and WPP evaluation recommendations,resulting in an innovative, strategically oriented and well-designed Water GP-Donor/Council Memberpartnership. GWSP has been well positioned to advance global water (SDG6) and climate change (SDG13)agendas. It has enabled a strategic flexibility for Water GP staff to adapt to evolving key global and nationalpriorities, as made evident by its responses to the COVID-19 pandemic.GWSP’s delivery of the “Water-Writ-Large” Agenda has focused on five priority themes, namelySustainability, Resilience, Institutions, Inclusion, and Financing”. This has aligned closely with the WaterGP Strategic Action Plan and Business Lines, across Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS), Water ResourcesManagement (WRM), Water in Agriculture, and beyond.GWSP has integrated pro-poor development and sustainability considerations throughout its work,including global knowledge product development, contextualized analytics, TA, and in enabling “boots onthe ground” of World Bank teams. Overall, just under half of country-specific allocations between FY18FY21 went to countries classified as IDA only.GWSP funding has contributed to implementing the World Bank Strategy for Fragility, Conflict andViolence 2020-2025, with a significant proportion of GWSP resources allocated to Fragile and ConflictAffected States (FCAS). GWSP has developed rapid assessment tools to quickly respond to emergencyoperations and has increased its resilience work in FCAS. GWSP has supported the humanitarian- UNIVERSALIA

xivEXTERNAL EVALUATION OF THE GLOBAL WATER SECURITY & SANITATION PARTNERSHIP (GWSP)development-environment nexus by strengthening institutions in fragile contexts. In addition, GWSPsupport and analytical work have been instrumental in rebuilding the Bank’s relationship with FCAS andin leveraging partnership for humanitarian action. However, challenges remain with respect to thecapacity of Water GP staff working in FCAS to access, absorb and deploy the range of GWSP supportedglobal knowledge products for greatest impact.Organizational Coherence and PerformanceThe GWSP “Knowledge into Implementation” model provides additionality to the Water GP in enablingthe mobilization of high-quality knowledge, country exposure to global diagnostics, extensive knowledgeadaptation to contextual priorities, Just-in-Time (JiT) TA provision, laying the groundwork for replicationand scale up in lending operations, and long-term country engagement.With GWSP embedded in the Water GP, there is a near complete integration of knowledge mobilizationand operational work, with a strategic value-add. The GWSP has been able to support the needs of countryoperational teams in multiple ways: through the provision of knowledge and analytics, JiT TA, through theAskWater Service Desk and with financing through WEF, through its support of pilot approaches, andfinally through cross-fertilization of experience across contexts and countries. GWSP enables knowledgemobilization and engaged “knowledge-based advocacy” globally, regionally, and nationally. Doing so hasraised the profile of water issues and increased the reach and influence of the Water GP.Knowledge-based work and operations are highly integrated at country-level. GWSP enables countries toexamine, pilot and implement work and approaches against which they are not ready to borrow, drawingon leading global knowledge and expert support. Impacts are already noticeable in terms of changingpractices, collaboration among stakeholders at country level, policy influence, and community beneficiarylevel behaviour change.GWSP is having increasing influence on World Bank operations and lending, and thus country borrowing,to address key water development and sustainability challenges. Influenced operations also provide anumbrella for continued GWSP engagement and support, towards addressing a broader range of knownand emergent priorities.The Block C approach, adopted in nine countries for the purposes of tracking and learning about the meritsand limitations of the GWSP, has demonstrated the benefits of the overall GWSP approach in providingadditionality to country teams and World Bank lending operations in the water sector. Learning from theBlock C approach about the GWSP overall – intent on “shifting the needle” in these countries – clearlyindicates that sustained outcomes to date have been highly dependent on country context.The GWSP has had significant and growing influence on the World Bank Group. Increasing collaborativework is underway with a host of World Bank GPs, on knowledge, at activity and at project levels, and muchmutual learning is underway as a result. GWSP activities are also seeing increasing influence on lendingand operations across GPs.GWSP activities are complementary to a broad range of development processes within water, sanitation,and related sectors globally. Through own and joint knowledge activities, as well as engagement in globalinitiatives and fora, complementarities have been realized between GWSP work and that of a whole rangeof other national, regional and global partners, notably in building knowledge to address global water,sanitation and related issues and to influence global discourse on water accordingly. Indeed, much ofGWSP’s work and activities is undertaken through a host of diverse partnerships. Of note, the concept of“partnership” is loosely used to mean many types of relationship, such that GWSP and its “partners”would benefit from a more r

GAFSP Global Agriculture and Food Security Program GAMA-SWP Greater Accra Metropolitan Area Sanitation and Water Project GEF Global Environmental Facility GEWE Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment GFDRR Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery GIZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH GL Global Lead

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