Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied EconomicsInstitut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied EconomicsDocument de Treball 2012/08 pàg. 1Working Paper2012/08 pag. 1Document de Treball 2012/08 44 pàgWorking Paper2012/08 44 pag.“Policy options for the promotion of electricvehicles: a review”Jordi Perdiguero and Juan Luis Jiménez1
Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied EconomicsDocument de Treball 2012/08 pàg. 2Working Paper2012/08 pag. 2WEBSITE: www.ub.edu/irea/ CONTACT: email@example.comThe Research Institute of Applied Economics (IREA) in Barcelona was founded in2005, as a research institute in applied economics. Three consolidated researchgroups make up the institute: AQR, RISK and GiM, and a large number of membersare involved in the Institute. IREA focuses on four priority lines of investigation: (i) thequantitative study of regional and urban economic activity and analysis of regional andlocal economic policies, (ii) study of public economic activity in markets, particularly inthe fields of empirical evaluation of privatization, the regulation and competition in themarkets of public services using state of industrial economy, (iii) risk analysis in financeand insurance, and (iv) the development of micro and macro econometrics applied forthe analysis of economic activity, particularly for quantitative evaluation of publicpolicies.IREA Working Papers often represent preliminary work and are circulated to encouragediscussion. Citation of such a paper should account for its provisional character. Forthat reason, IREA Working Papers may not be reproduced or distributed without thewritten consent of the author. A revised version may be available directly from theauthor.Any opinions expressed here are those of the author(s) and not those of IREA.Research published in this series may include views on policy, but the institute itselftakes no institutional policy positions.2
Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied EconomicsDocument de Treball 2012/08 pàg. 3Working Paper2012/08 pag. 3AbstractThe upward trend in fuel prices and the desire to reducepollution levels mean that the electric vehicle has become anincreasingly attractive alternative in recent years. The aim of thisstudy is to examine the main barriers that the electric vehiclemust overcome if it is to become a successful mode oftransport and to review the main public policies thatgovernments might implement to help in overcoming theseobstacles. Public policies have been directed at four basicfeatures of the electric vehicle: the charging network; increasingdemand for these vehicles; industrialization and research anddevelopment programs; and the introduction of electric vehiclesin programs of sustainable mobility. This article describes thepublic policies that have been implemented around the world toovercome the barriers to the adoption of electric vehicle so thatit might become the vehicle of the future.JEL classification: H23; P28; Q42.Keywords: Electric vehicle; public policies; recharge system.Jordi Perdiguero, Departament de Política Econòmica. Grup de Recerca en Governs iMercats (GiM). Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada (IREA). Avda. Diagonal 690.08034. Barcelona. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgJuan Luis Jiménez, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Departamento de AnálisisEconómico Aplicado. Despacho D. 2-12. Campus de Tafira. 35017. Las Palmas. E-mail:email@example.com; tlf: 34 928458191Acknowledgements:Thanks are due to Miquel Cruz for his useful comments and suggestions. The usualdisclaimer applies.3
Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied EconomicsDocument de Treball 2012/08 pàg. 4Working Paper2012/08 pag. 41. IntroductionAlthough electric vehicles have experienced increasing popularity in recent years, theirhistory can in fact be traced back many years. The first electric vehicle was built in1834 and by the early 1890s electric vehicles were on sale as one of the maincompetitors to the internal combustion engine (hereafter ICE), capturing more than athird of the market (Kley et al, 2011). However, ICE vehicles managed to imposethemselves owing to their lower costs, both in terms of vehicle production and the priceof petroleum fuel, while electric vehicles were handicapped by a travel range that wasdependent on battery life.However, rising oil prices 1, the reduction in the cost and the increased autonomy ofelectric batteries, and increasing concern regarding the emission of greenhouse gases2in developed economies , have combined to raise interest in the potential of electricvehicles.Thus, once again the electric vehicle has emerged as a serious competitor to the ICEvehicle. The electric vehicle offers many advantages, which can be summed up in itsoverall greater energy efficiency. This perhaps is the primary motive prompting publicauthorities to implement a package of measures to help introduce the electric vehicle ata range of levels (state, regional and local).These measures resort not only to the traditional instrument of the subsidy for thepurchase of electric vehicles, as applied to hybrid or “green” ICE vehicles in countriessuch as the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom and Spain 3, but also to othermeasures that tackle the “chicken or the egg” dilemma: there are no electric carsbecause there are no recharging points and there are no charging points becausethere are no electric vehicles. Thus, additional measures have been designed by the1Prices of Brent crude oil (taking into account inflation) increased from 23.95 dollars in 1973 to102.61 dollars in 1979 (an increase of 428.4 percent). In recent years the price increase hasbeen equally remarkable rising from 28.59 dollars in 2002 to 87.33 dollars in 2008 (an increaseof 305.5 percent).2Examples include successive Climate Conference Summits, and the European Union itself, inwhich transportation and vehicle markets as well as energy providers are regulated. Directivesestablish maximum contamination levels, including a 20% reduction in greenhouse gasemissions on 1990 levels to be achieved by 2020. These policies all play a role in stimulatingand creating conditions for road transport electrification.3Jiménez et al (2012a) summarize the work in this area and analyze the effect of Spain’svehicle replacement plan on prices, sales and the environment.4
Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied EconomicsDocument de Treball 2012/08 pàg. 5Working Paper2012/08 pag. 5public authorities to introduce recharging systems that can support the development ofelectric vehicles; to promote the necessary research and development; and, finally, toinclude these vehicles in sustainable mobility plans.The aim of this paper is to review the broad range of measures that the public sectormight implement to promote the electric vehicle and to report on the findings of the firstpilot programs implemented in various countries. To the best of our knowledge, this isthe first time that the public policy measures undertaken to promote the electric vehiclehave been presented in a systematic and orderly way. It should be noted that in thediscussion that follows we consider measures proposed to promote both electricvehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.4The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Following on from this introduction,section 2 presents the strengths and weaknesses of electric vehicles in comparisonwith those of the internal combustion engine. Section 3 reports the main actions takento date in deploying charging networks, while section 4 discusses measures taken inrelation to promote the demand for electric vehicles. Measures to enhance the electricvehicle industry, primarily as part of research and development (R&D) programs, arepresented in section 5, while section 6 examines those directed at incorporating electricvehicles in sustainable mobility plans. Section 7 reviews less frequently adoptedinitiatives, and finally the main conclusions are presented in the last section.2. Drivers of electric vehiclesElectric vehicles have a number of advantages over ICE vehicles, yet present anumber of drawbacks. One of the main reasons for promoting electric vehicles is thatthey exploit more energy efficient technology than that use by ICE vehicles. As theWWF (2008) and the International Energy Agency (2008) report, electric vehicles arefour times more energy efficient than ICE vehicles. In fact, Ahman (2001) shows howvehicles powered by alternative energy (basically, electric vehicles, plug-in hybridelectric vehicles and fuel-cell electric vehicles) are twice as energy efficient as currentICE vehicles.4Srivastava et al (2010) report that the plug-in hybrid vehicle is the next candidate for replacingexisting ICE vehicles. The plug-in hybrid vehicle can serve as the bridge between ICE vehiclesand full electric vehicles.5
Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied EconomicsDocument de Treball 2012/08 pàg. 6Working Paper2012/08 pag. 6This increased energy efficiency can also result in a reduction in greenhouse gasemissions, although the magnitude of these reductions depends critically on thetechnology used to produce the electricity. If most of the electricity can be producedusing sources of renewable energy (solar, wind, etc.), reductions in greenhouse gaseswill be high, but if the dominant technologies are coal and oil, the reduction will beminimal (Transport and Environment, 2010). 5 As Hadley and Tsvetkova (2009) pointout, the impact of the introduction of hybrid or electric vehicles will depend on thetechnological mix used for electricity generation, as well as the time of day (demandpeaks or valleys) when recharging takes place, among others.A further advantage of the electric vehicle is that it should lead to an improvement incity air quality (as electricity generating plants are typically located some distanceaway) and noise levels. As Greenpeace et al (2010) report, if the increase in electricitydemand coincides with a valley in consumption, this could improve the efficiency ofelectricity generating plants. 6Despite the potential benefits of electric cars, it should be borne in mind that they donot represent an unequivocal panacea. As the Transport & Environment report (2009b)stresses, it is likely that technological advances in electric vehicle development will notbe fast enough to ensure compliance with the greenhouse gas limits fixed for thecoming decades. Kageson (2005) expresses his doubts about the possibilities of hybridvehicles being introduced quickly enough, since in 2004 only 8,500 new hybrid vehicleswere registered, representing just 0.06 percent of new vehicles in EU-15.One explanation for the slow introduction of electric vehicles is the obstacles thistechnology faces when compared to internal combustion. According to the Citi report(2009), the main obstacles are:5Bradley and Quinn (2010) also point to the need to change utility factors if we consider thathybrid vehicles will introduce different characteristics, different driving behaviors, in addition toother factors that can have a significant influence on the utility factor. For the Spanish case, seethe analysis provided by Romero (2012).6As Ryan et al (2009) show, it is not only the introduction of electric vehicles that can improvethe level of emissions but also an increase in taxes on gasoline, as the latter would help reducethe level of pollutant emissions from the fleet of vehicles. For a comprehensive review of taxeffects on levels of contamination see Sterner (2007).6
Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied EconomicsDocument de Treball 2012/08 pàg. 7Working Paper2012/08 pag. 71. Costs. - Although the long-term costs of electric vehicles are not as great as those ofICE vehicles (based on lower maintenance and fuel costs), the cost of acquisitionremains higher because of the price of the cell battery pack. Ensuring a competitivepurchase price will, therefore, largely depend on the evolution of battery costs (themain cost involved in these vehicles). Predictions of battery costs vary fromcompany to company, but seem to provide for a significant reduction, which shouldfacilitate their competitiveness.However, for the time being, and for some time to come, the cost of the battery willremain one of the main obstacles to the adoption of the electric vehicle, so much sothat some companies are beginning to spread the cost of the battery, which is beinggranted under lease. The cost of acquisition seems to be a barrier to the spread ofelectric vehicles, and has led to public sector intervention through subsidies for thepurchase of such vehicles, and to R&D support to reduce battery costs.2. Infrastructure for recharging. - Although in some cities, such as London, Rome andBerlin, small networks exist for recharging vehicles, the spread of such networks isslow. Charging points installed in homes are slow but relatively inexpensive (around 250), while more rapid charging requires an investment of several thousand euros.The failure to develop recharging networks can induce “range anxiety” in vehicleowners, that is, the fear of not reaching a charging point before the battery dies. Thisfear can be a significant barrier to the introduction of the electric vehicle, and herethe public sector can play an active role in disseminating information about thelocation of these charging points to help reduce this “anxiety”.A further point to note regarding recharging points is their compatibility. Thehomogeneity of systems between countries, in order to avoid any incompatibility, isessential for the diffusion of electric vehicles. Here, there is an obvious role forpublic regulation.3. Consumer acceptance. - Various reports conclude that consumers would be willingto make the switch if the electric vehicle reduced energy costs. Pike Research(2009) reports that two-thirds of consumers would even be willing to pay a higherprice for the vehicle, under this condition. Thus, a regulatory framework and a set ofclear, stable electricity rates are important in ensuring consumers are fully informedof the savings in their energy costs. Measures to facilitate public information7
Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied EconomicsDocument de Treball 2012/08 pàg. 8Working Paper2012/08 pag. 8concerning energy supply to the potential consumers of electric vehicles wouldtherefore help in the introduction of electric vehicles.4. The evolution of other technologies. - The existence of vehicles using othertechnologies (fuel cell, biofuels, ethanol, hydrogen, etc.) and the conversion of ICEvehicles in more environmentally friendly cars (with higher levels of fuel efficiency)represent obvious competitors for electric vehicles. 7 Identifying the best technologyfor the future and focusing public efforts in developing this technology will not be astraightforward matter.In attempts to overcome these barriers, various factors will come into play. These canbe classified as being either endogenous (government support, industry initiatives) orexogenous (increases in fuel prices, economic crisis, reduction of fossil fuel reserves)in nature. In this study, we focus above all on the former, but we must not forget theexistence of the latter, which may have a significant influence on the adoption orotherwise of electric vehicles. In the case of the endogenous factors, it is not onlypublic authorities that can promote the introduction of electric vehicles but industry toohas a role to play in overcoming the barriers that hinder development (especially ofbatteries and charging networks).The role of the Public Administration is clearly critical as far as environmentalregulations that indirectly promote the use of electric vehicles are concerned. In thecase of Europe these include: 1) Directive 2009/28/EC which states that 10% of theenergy used in transport must be provided by renewable sources by 2020. 2) The ECregulation 443/2009 which imposes reductions in average emission levels for vehiclemanufacturers, setting objectives of 130 gCO2/km for 2015 and 95 gCO2/km for 2020.3) The European strategy to promote the use of environmentally friendly vehicles(COM, 2010; 186 final) which establishes as priorities the development of electricvehicles that are at least as safe as conventional ones, a European standard forcharging points, a public charging network, a smart grid and research programs for thesafe recycling of batteries.If we examine a number of pilot projects implemented in various cities around theworld, we can see how the nature and extent of public intervention have changedconsiderably. Wiederer and Philip (2010) present case studies in four cities that have7For a review of energy efficiency in the car industry see Jiménez et al (2012b).8
Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied EconomicsDocument de Treball 2012/08 pàg. 9Working Paper2012/08 pag. 9run pilot schemes for the introduction of electric vehicles and which provide examplesof the roles that the public sector might adopt.- Singapore, in June 2010, initiated a project to invest 20 million dollars in setting upa comprehensive network of recharging points, and to provide subsidies for thepurchase of electric vehicles. The primary goal of local government is to attract theelectric car industry to Singapore.- The Indian city of Bangalore has no specific plan to promote electric vehicles, yetthere are over a thousand electric vehicles of the REVA brand (a domesticproducer) on the streets. This seems to indicate that, at least in this particular case,there is no need for active intervention on the part of the public authorities topromote demand for electric vehicles.- In the City of London, the scheme has entailed a 17-million pound investment,including the installation of a network of charging stations, the electrification of itspublic transport fleet and incentives for purchasing and marketing electric vehicles.To develop this ambitious project (submitted in May 2009), the city council’s transitagency “Transport for London” is working with a consortium of electric vehiclemanufacturers, major utilities in London and car rental companies.- The City of Berlin has initiated two simultaneous electric vehicle programs, bothpowered and funded by private industry. The city is administratively limited tohelping companies and ensuring the compatibility of the two offers as far as thecharging network is concerned.It is interesting to note how the pilot projects run in these cities have given differentemphases to the deployment of electric vehicles: industrialization, in the case ofSingapore; full network development, in the case of London; and the rechargingnetwork, in the case of Berlin. Likewise, the degree of public sector involvement variessignificantly from one project to another: from simple guidelines for private companies(the case of Bangalore and Berlin) to an active role in the market though heavyinvestment (the case of Singapore and London).9
Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied EconomicsDocument de Treball 2012/08 pàg. 10Working Paper2012/08 pag. 10The sections that follow break down the measures applied by the public authorities asthey seek to address the main barriers and to promote the development of electricvehicles.3.Recharge systemBefore examining in greater depth the possible barriers that the recharge system mightrepresent to the introduction of electric vehicles, and the main measures adopted bythe public sector in relation to them, we outline the various types of recharge and theirmain characteristics.As Wiederer and Philip (2010) report there are three types of system: first, slowrecharging points or Level 1 points, located primarily in homes, apartment buildings orin public spaces close to residences. It is thought that car owners will use thesestations essentially to recharge their vehicles over night, that is, when electricityconsumption is in the valley period. However, workplace parking lots or shoppingcentres are also potential sites for these points and consumers are, therefore, morelikely to recharge their vehicles during the day, that is, during peak periods of electricitydemand. This may necessitate an increase in the capacity of electricity generation.Second, there are the rapid charging or Level 2 points, located primarily in shoppingcentres, supermarket car parks or gyms, and which will also be used during the day.And third, the super-fast or Level 3 charging points, which will be located in line withexisting service stations along the highways. The following table summarises thedifferent types of charging points and their main features.Table 1: Type of recharge systemsCharging levelSpecificationTypical useLevel 1 (slow)120V / 13 AChargingofficeLevel 2 (Fast)240V / 32 AChargingsupermarket , gymLevel 3 (Rapid)Up to 500V / 200 ALike astationSource: Wiederer and Philip (2010)10atTime to chargebatteryhomenormal/7- 8 hoursat3 – 4 hoursgas30 minutes
Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied EconomicsDocument de Treball 2012/08 pàg. 11Working Paper2012/08 pag. 11As indicated in the International Energy Agency report (2008) slow recharge systemsare currently almost non-existent, with the exception of a few pilot programs andschemes. In the case of rapid charge systems, the report identifies the need for thedeployment of such points in conjunction with the development of battery “swapping”systems. Level 2 points should, it recommends, be located primarily in locations ofhigh-density traffic, stores or public car parks.High battery costs would make the “swapping” system a viable alternative. However, itwould require compatibility between models of electric vehicles and their batterysystems. But Wiederer and Philip (2010) believe it unlikely that such standardizationcan be achieved, so that a “swapping” system would not be able to replace Level 2points. Yet, such systems might be an alternative in very specific cases such as for afleet of city taxis where a uniformity of vehicle type (and, hence, of battery type) couldmake “swapping” a competitive possibility.Having defined the different types of recharge on the market, we now examine thefeatures and elements that need to be taken into account when developing an efficientcharging network.The first point to bear in mind is the diffusion of information to drivers regarding thelocation of these charging points (International Energy Agency, 2008). GPS technologycan be useful for informing consumers about the nearest available points and aboutfree parking places where vehicles can be recharged. Such information would reducedriver uncertainty and stress, enhancing the utility of electric vehicles and reducing thenumber of optimal charging points.A second issue raised by the aforementioned report is the need for standardisedcharging systems, at least on the same continent. The main features that would needto be standardized are: 1) Plug-in types; 2) Recharging protocols; 3) Communicationprotocols between cars and recharging systems; 4) Regulations for public rechargingthat ensure safety with minimal administrative barriers; 5) Battery recycling standardsand regulations; and 6) Utility regulations conducted by state/provincial authorities toensure orderly participation in this market.11
Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied EconomicsDocument de Treball 2012/08 pàg. 12Working Paper2012/08 pag. 12A third element to consider is the cost of these charging points, and the tariff system forrecovering that investment. The International Energy Agency report (2008) estimatesthe cost of such infrastructure at between 1,000 and 2,000 dollars per vehicle.Wiederer and Philip (2010) provide more detailed information by estimating the costs ofrecharge points by type. For Level 2 points designed for private use (located in privatehomes or garages), the cost ranges between 500 and 2,500 dollars. If the point ofrecharge (Level 2) is publicly accessible (located in public garages or on the street), thecost rises to between 2,000 and 8,000 dollars. Finally, for Level 3 points (located alonghighways and requiring a maximum of 30 minutes to recharge a vehicle) the costranges from 40,000 to 75,000 dollars.Based on these estimated costs, the study analyzes the price (under different levels ofuse) that would make investment in a charging network viable. According to theauthors, the price of electricity supplied to the public charging points (especially atLevel 3) would have to be raised considerably - more than 70% on current levels risingto as much as 238%. Such tariff rises would make public charging points quiteunattractive to potential consumers of electric vehicles, who logically would opt torecharge their cars at home at greatly reduced rates. Thus, the deployment of anetwork of public recharging points financed by private companies might be renderedimpractical, especially in the case of Level 3 points.To date, governments and industry have yet to reach an agreement on who shouldcover these investment costs and how they might be recovered through the charging offees. It is clear that a major investment in charging infrastructure is required and thatnational, regional and local authorities will have a significant role to play. TheInternational Energy Agency report (2008) itemises a set of measures that mightfacilitate the optimal development of charging networks:-Analyze each region to estimate the relation between demand from electricvehicles and electricity supplies, especially after the initial phase when the demandfor electric vehicles is predicted to grow.-Establish appropriate codes and standards for recharging power supplies andfor smart metering.12
Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied Economics-Document de Treball 2012/08 pàg. 13Working Paper2012/08 pag. 13Analyse development strategies at the national level to identify infrastructureand priority areas, schedules and funding.- Define the roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders (governments,regulators, utilities, vehicle manufacturers and consumers) to establish a clearstrategy of collaboration and cooperation between different levels of government, aswell as with companies and electric vehicle manufacturers.- Prioritize domestic recharge without neglecting the implementation of adevelopment plan for commercial charging stations, especially as the number ofelectric vehicles increases.- Explore the feasibility of various approaches to fast charging methods, such asthe “swapping” system.A fourth point to consider is the role to be played by the smart grid, including the needfor next-generation infrastructures and future technological developments. Analysesshould also be undertaken of consumer availability for electricity sales and thecircumstances under which this might occur.These four points need to be given careful consideration in the development of anefficient charging network and in ensuring that the charging network does not becomea barrier to the growth of the electric vehicle market (Kley et al, 2011). However, theseauthors point out that with a charging network in private homes, the public chargingnetwork may be minimal. Furthermore, they evaluate the problem of financing publiccharging points, given the low percentage use that they might attract.Kley at al (2011) likewise identify a set of barriers that might limit or prevent thedevelopment of charging networks. They identify three types of barrier: 1) regulatorybarriers, particularly the need to fix standards regarding recharging and conditionsaffecting the sale of electricity (to allow power companies to design their owninvestment plans) and permits for the installation of charging points; 2) economicbarriers, including the uncertainty regarding user demand for recharge, as well as thetype of fees to be paid by users at charging points; 3) technological barriers, principallythe uncertainty of recharge technology and future applications of smart grids.13
Institut de Recerca en Economia Aplicada Regional i PúblicaResearch Institute of Applied EconomicsDocument de Treball 2012/08 pàg. 14Working Paper2012/08 pag. 14The International Energy Agency report and RETD (2010), among others, haveoutlined joint plans for the introduction of electric vehicles and charging networks indifferent countries. These are summarized in the following table.Table 2: Planned vehicle deployment in demonstration projectsCountry/LocationOEMFrance: StrasbourgFrance: ParisToyota/EDFToyota/EDFGermany: BerlinDaimler/RWEJapan: arcelona, MadridDenmarkBetterGov.PlaceIrelandIsraelItaly: Rome, PisaNetherlands:AmsterdamCanada: ashingtonBetter PlaceDaimler/EnelMitsubishiNissanDeployment planTimeline100 vehicles (Prius PHEV)4,000 vehicles (autolib)1,400 charging stations100 vehicles (Smart EV)3,600 charging stations200 charging stations2009-201320112,000 vehicles550 charging stations500,000 charging stations50 EV s charging stations in 2009150 EV/ charging stations in 201210% of fleet electric (250,000 veh)in 20201 M R&D and demo plan100,000 charging stations100 vehicles (Smart EV)400 charging stations10,000vehiclesto40,000vehiclesUnknown (i-MiEV)Up to 1,000 vehicles (NissanLeaf)12,750 charging -202020092010Source: IEA-
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Den kanadensiska språkvetaren Jim Cummins har visat i sin forskning från år 1979 att det kan ta 1 till 3 år för att lära sig ett vardagsspråk och mellan 5 till 7 år för att behärska ett akademiskt språk.4 Han införde två begrepp för att beskriva elevernas språkliga kompetens: BI
**Godkänd av MAN för upp till 120 000 km och Mercedes Benz, Volvo och Renault för upp till 100 000 km i enlighet med deras specifikationer. Faktiskt oljebyte beror på motortyp, körförhållanden, servicehistorik, OBD och bränslekvalitet. Se alltid tillverkarens instruktionsbok. Art.Nr. 159CAC Art.Nr. 159CAA Art.Nr. 159CAB Art.Nr. 217B1B
produktionen sker på ett reproducerbart sätt. Alla geler som produceras testas därför för att kontrollera att de upprätthåller den kvalité som krävs för produktion av läkemedel. De biologiska läkemedlen kan sorteras på olika egenskaper och för geler som separerar med