HP1 Reshapes Nucleosome Core To Promote Phase Separation Of Heterochromatin

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ArticleHP1 reshapes nucleosome core to promotephase separation of 1669-2Received: 8 November 2018S. Sanulli1, M. J. Trnka1, V. Dharmarajan2, R. W. Tibble1,3, B. D. Pascal2, A. L. Burlingame1,P. R. Griffin2, J. D. Gross1* & G. J. Narlikar4*Accepted: 17 September 2019Published online: 16 October 2019Heterochromatin affects genome function at many levels. It enables heritable generepression, maintains chromosome integrity and provides mechanical rigidity to thenucleus1,2. These diverse functions are proposed to arise in part from compaction ofthe underlying chromatin2. A major type of heterochromatin contains at its core thecomplex formed between HP1 proteins and chromatin that is methylated on histoneH3, lysine 9 (H3K9me). HP1 is proposed to use oligomerization to compact chromatininto phase-separated condensates3–6. Yet, how HP1-mediated phase separation relatesto chromatin compaction remains unclear. Here we show that chromatin compactionby the Schizosaccharomyces pombe HP1 protein Swi6 results in phase-separated liquidcondensates. Unexpectedly, we find that Swi6 substantially increases the accessibilityand dynamics of buried histone residues within a nucleosome. Restraining thesedynamics impairs compaction of chromatin into liquid droplets by Swi6. Our resultsindicate that Swi6 couples its oligomerization to the phase separation of chromatinby a counterintuitive mechanism, namely the dynamic exposure of buriednucleosomal regions. We propose that such reshaping of the octamer core by Swi6increases opportunities for multivalent interactions between nucleosomes, therebypromoting phase separation. This mechanism may more generally drive chromatinorganization beyond heterochromatin.Swi6 has two structured domains, the chromodomain, which binds theH3K9me mark, and the chromoshadow domain (CSD), which forms adimer and contributes to nucleosome binding4,7 (Fig. 1a, Extended DataFig. 1a). The chromodomain and CSD are connected by a hinge regionthat binds DNA in a sequence non-specific manner7. Previous studiesshowed four molecules of Swi6 can bind to a single H3K9me nucleosome and we find dinucleosomes bind at least seven Swi6 molecules3(Extended Data Fig. 1b–e).To understand the mechanism of Swi6 action, we probed how Swi6engages a mononucleosome using cross-linking mass spectrometry(XLMS). We used nucleosomes containing a methyl lysine analogue onH3K9 (H3Kc9me3 nucleosomes)4 (Fig. 1b, Extended Data Fig. 2a–d).In addition to cross-links between the chromodomain and H3, weobtained extensive cross-links between the Swi6 CSD and the octamercore, particularly H2B (Fig. 1b, Extended Data Fig. 2d). The CSD–CSDdimer interface is known to interact with proteins containing the motifφX(V/P)Xφ (in which φ and X indicate a hydrophobic and any aminoacid, respectively)8,9. The CSD of mammalian HP1 proteins has beenshown to interact with the H3αN helix region of the nucleosome core10,11.However, the CSD of Swi6 does not interact substantially with the H3αNhelix region and we do not observe crosslinks between the Swi6 CSDand the H3αN region9. Instead, we detect cross-linking between theSwi6 CSD and the α1-helix of H2B, which also contains a φX(V/P)Xφmotif (Extended Data Fig. 2c, d). Using 1H–15N heteronuclear singlequantum coherence (HSQC) NMR we found that binding of the H2Bpeptide containing the φX(V/P)Xφ motif (residues 36–54) causeschemical shift perturbations in the CSD cleft indicating a direct interaction9 (Fig. 1c, Extended Data Fig. 1e, f). Crystal structures show thatφX(V/P)Xφ motifs adopt a linear unfolded conformation to fit into thecleft of CSD dimers12. It is therefore plausible that a portion of the H2Bα1-helix rearranges to resemble a short linear motif in order to bindthe CSD. These experiments demonstrate that Swi6 interacts with thenucleosome core, in addition to the H3 tail, and that the CSD domaincan specifically bind the H2B α1-helix (Fig. 1d).We noticed several new H3–H3 and H4–H4 cross-links that arose inthe Swi6-bound state (Extended Data Fig. 2g). These intra-histone crosslinks are not within the standard distance captured by the cross-linkerthat was used. For example, the buried residues E97 and E105 of histoneH3, the Cα atoms of which are approximately 15 Å from the alpha carbonof K56, cross-link with K56 only in the presence of Swi6 (Fig. 1e, ExtendedData Fig. 2h). Together with the possibility that CSD binding partiallyunfolds the H2B α1-helix, the new intra-histone cross-links suggestthat Swi6 binding perturbs the canonical conformation of the histoneoctamer. Analogously, the previously observed interaction betweenmammalian HP1 proteins and the buried H3αN helix region may alsobe indicative of a conformational change within the octamer10,11.To test for the effect of Swi6 on nucleosome conformationmore directly, we carried out hydrogen deuterium exchange massDepartment of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. 2Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL, USA.1Program in Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. 4Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California SanFrancisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. *e-mail: jdgross@cgl.ucsf.edu; geeta.narlikar@ucsf.edu3390 Nature Vol 575 14 November 2019

abcH2A H3H2B H4CSDCSD perturbationsHCD0NTdCSD bindsH2B helixBroadeningeH4H3Hinge bindsDNAE105α2E97CD bindsH3K9me3CSP (ppm)0.25Interactionwith CSDK31αNK56α1D85α3Fig. 1 Swi6 contacts histone octamer core and alters intra-histone crosslinks. a, Swi6 domain architecture. CD, chromodomain; H, hinge; NT,N-terminal region. b, Histone residues that cross-link to Swi6 are mapped inblack on the nucleosome structure. Different histones are coloured asindicated. The H2B region interacting with the CSD is in orange. c, Swi6 CSDcrystal structure is coloured by chemical shift perturbation (CSP; purple) andbroadening beyond detection (teal) after the addition of H2B peptide (PDBcode 1E0B). d, Model for engagement of Swi6 with nucleosome. e, Swi6 bindingremodels histone–histone contacts. Examples of residues found cross-linkedonly after Swi6 binding are represented as red spheres. Histones H3 and H4 arecoloured in blue and purple, respectively.spectrometry (HDX-MS) as a function of time on H3Kc9me3 mononucleosomes alone or in complex with saturating concentrations ofSwi6 (Extended Data Fig. 3). This method measures the exchange ofbackbone amide hydrogens with solvent deuterium, and reports onprotein backbone conformation, dynamics and solvent accessibility13.Given the role of Swi6 in compaction of chromatin, the simplestexpectation was that Swi6 would reduce solvent accessibility of mononucleosomes. Therefore, we expected decreased deuterium uptakeafter Swi6 binding, which is also a typical consequence of protein–protein interactions13. Instead, Swi6 binding resulted in a robust and widespread increase of deuterium incorporation throughout the histoneoctamer (Fig. 2a–c, Extended Data Fig. 3b, c). Notably, the H3 and H4regions showing the highest degree of deuterium incorporation afterSwi6 binding are buried within histone–histone and histone–DNA interfaces in the canonical nucleosome structure, which suggests partialunfolding of histone helices (Fig. 2d, e). These observations indicatethat Swi6 binding causes a conformational change in the nucleosomethat results in a widespread increase in the solvent accessibility of buried histone residues.To characterize the effect of Swi6 on nucleosomes further, we usedthe orthogonal method of methyl-TROSY NMR spectroscopy, whichallows studies of macromolecular assemblies as large as the proteasome and nucleosome14,15. In contrast to HDX-MS, this approach allowsresidue-level resolution, assessment of changes in magnetic environment due to binding or conformational changes and determinationof the timescale of side-chain dynamics. H3 and H2B histones werelabelled with 13C on the methyl groups of isoleucine, leucine and valine(ILV) in an otherwise deuterated environment.Binding of Swi6 to the nucleosome induced shifts and broadening of select resonances (Fig. 3a, b). Because Swi6 is deuterated, itsbinding affinity for the nucleosome is tight (dissociation constant(Kd) 100 nM), and nearly all of the ILV residues that undergo resonance broadening are buried, we interpret differential resonancebroadening as intramolecular conformational dynamics on the millisecond–microsecond timescale in the histone octamer core inducedby Swi6 (Fig. 3c, d, Extended Data Fig. 4, Supplementary Table 1 for Kdvalues). Importantly, the changes in side-chain dynamics detected byNMR are consistent with the changes in backbone solvent accessibility detected by HDX-MS and the changes in intra-histone cross-links(Extended Data Fig. 5a, b). For example, H3 residues I51 and I62, whichare strongly affected by Swi6 based on methyl-TROSY NMR, are in thehistone regions that display higher deuterium uptake. The NMR resultsalso rule out that disassembly of the nucleosome contributes to theHDX-MS data, because the cross-peaks of free histones fall in a differentchemical shift region than what we observe15. Analogous millisecond–microsecond dynamics within the histone core were not observedin previous methyl-TROSY studies using a linker histone, which alsoenables chromatin compaction, suggesting that our observationsreflect a Swi6-specific effect16.On the basis of the results above, we propose that Swi6 loosenshistone–histone and histone–DNA interactions through simultaneous engagement of the H3K9me3 mark by the chromodomain, thenucleosomal DNA by the hinge and the H2B α1 helix by the CSD dimer,allowing the buried histone residues to breathe and become solventexposed (Fig. 1d, Extended Data Fig. 5c).To test whether conformational changes inside the octamer areimportant for the assembly of Swi6 on nucleosomes, disulfide linkages that lock the octamer into its ground state conformation wereemployed15,17. If conformational rearrangements within the octamercore are energetically coupled to Swi6 binding, then constraining theserearrangements is predicted to reduce Swi6 binding affinity (ExtendedData Fig. 5d, e). We introduced cysteine residues at H3-I62 and H4-A33to lock this buried H3–H4 interface that showed major perturbationsby NMR, HDX-MS and XLMS (Fig. 4a, Extended Data Fig. 5a). We generated nucleosomes with enzymatically methylated H3K9 and nearly90% disulfide-linked histones (Extended Data Figs. 6a, 7). The disulfidecross-link reduces Swi6 affinity for H3K9me3 methylated nucleosomesby approximately fivefold, whereas it does not substantially affectbinding to unmethylated nucleosomes (Extended Data Fig. 6b, c, Supplementary Table 1). Similar results were obtained with another set ofdisulfide linkages (Extended Data Fig. 6d–h, Supplementary Table 1).These results indicate that Swi6 binding and octamer distortion arecoupled in the context of specific H3K9me3-recognition.Notably, the binding of ZMET2, a plant DNA methyl-transferase thatalso binds H3K9me chromatin and bridges nucleosomes, is minimallyaffected by conformationally constrained nucleosomes18 (ExtendedData Fig. 6i). We conclude that nucleosome core distortion is not ageneral property of H3K9me binding proteins and that the ability ofSwi6 to deform the octamer core relies on its specific interactions withthe nucleosomal template.The marked increase in conformational dynamics observed withinsingle nucleosomes raised the possibility that these dynamics have arole in the compaction of chromatin by Swi6. We addressed this possibility using a classic in vitro method that monitors inter-array selfassociation via pelleting19 (Extended Data Fig. 8a). We assembled 12nucleosome-arrays containing the H3I62C–H4A33C cysteine pair. Asobserved previously for human HP1 proteins, we found that Swi6 pellets H3K9me3 nucleosome arrays in a dose-dependent manner whenthe dynamics at the H3–H4 interface are not restrained19 (Fig. 4b). Theconcentration of Swi6 required to pellet 50% of the arrays (C50%) isapproximately twofold greater for unmethylated versus methylatedchromatin (Fig. 4b, Extended Data Fig. 8b). Moreover, the differentshapes of the concentration dependencies suggest that the effect ofSwi6 is less cooperative in the absence of H3K9me.Notably, when observed under a microscope, the Swi6–nucleosome array pellets appear as phase-separated condensates (Fig. 4cand Extended Data Fig. 8c). Swi6 and nucleosome arrays formedthese condensates under physiological conditions, whereas Swi6 andNature Vol 575 14 November 2019 391

Articleα1All regions withincreased accessibilityH2AC-termH4α2H2Bα2 α3 αCdαN α1H3α2 α3Buried regions withincreased 2α3Deuterium uptake–5 to 5%5 to 15%15 to 35% 35%Buried regions withincreased accessibilitybNucleosomeNucleosome Swi6Deuterium (%)cH2Aα2 α3100Deuterium (%)α1100Deuterium (%)a100H3 74–84αN α1 α2 α3500110 102 103 104 105log[t (s)]H3 48–61αN α1 α2 α3500110 102 103 104 105log[t (s)]H4 90–102α1 α2 α3500110 102 103 104 105log[t (s)]Fig. 2 Swi6 binding increases solvent accessibility of buried histoneresidues. a, Differential HDX-MS of individual histones within Swi6-boundversus free nucleosomes from a single time point (104 s; all time points inExtended Data Fig. 3b). Each horizontal bar represents an individual peptide.Peptides are placed beneath schematic of secondary structure elements.Colour map represents the percentage increase in deuterium uptake observedupon Swi6 binding. The percentage increase values are derived from severalpeptides obtained from one of two independent experiments with similarresults. b, Kinetics of deuterium uptake of example histone peptides (residuenumbers indicated) over time (t). Data are mean and s.d. of several peptidesobtained from one of two independent experiments with similar results.Error bars not shown for points when shorter than the height of the symbol.c, Histones in nucleosome structure (PDB code 1KX5) coloured according tothe percentage of deprotection in a. For clarity, only one copy of the histones iscoloured. DNA is in light green. d, Histone-buried regions showing increase indeuterium uptake after Swi6 binding are highlighted. Residues proximal toDNA and histones are in orange and red, respectively. e, Histone regions in dshown in space-fill representation.mononucleosomes, Swi6 alone, or arrays alone did not (Extended DataFig. 8d, e). Similar to HP1α, Swi6 can also form droplets in the presence of DNA alone5 (Extended Data Fig. 8f). However, compared witharrays, a higher Swi6 concentration is required to form droplets withDNA alone. These data suggest that the multivalency provided by thenucleosome arrays as well as the specific Swi6–histone contacts areimportant to regulate phase separation driven by Swi6.Further tests revealed that the Swi6-array condensates are liquidlike because they are reversible, can undergo fusion and are capableof exchanging contents20 (Extended Data Fig. 9a–d). In addition, weobserved a higher nucleosome concentration within the phase-separated condensate (Extended Data Fig. 9c, e). These results providedirect experimental evidence that Swi6 compacts chromatin into liquidcondensates.Disulfide-linkage of the H3–H4 interface substantially impairs theability of Swi6 to pellet H3K9me3 nucleosome arrays into phaseseparated droplets (Fig. 4b, c). Such impairment is not observed withunmethylated arrays (Extended Data Fig. 8b, c). Furthermore, neitherZMET2 nor a general protein denaturant can promote phase separation of arrays under matched conditions (Extended Data Fig. 8g, h).These results indicate that phase separation of chromatin relies on thetypes of histone core dynamics promoted by Swi6 in the presence ofthe H3K9me3 mark. Notably, the array experiments were performedusing saturating Swi6 concentrations, indicating that, beyond enhancing Swi6 binding, octamer dynamics also promote inter-nucleosomalinteractions (Supplementary Table 1, Methods). This conclusion wasfurther validated by the observation that octamer dynamics are alsorequired for chromatin sedimentation driven by Mg2 (Extended DataFig. 8i). Notably, at 2 and 3 mM Mg2 , chromatin arrays form sphericaldroplets, raising the possibility that Mg2 -driven compaction can alsobe coupled to phase separation (Extended Data Fig. 8j). This finding isconsistent with previous in vitro studies that show a lack of a definedstructure in arrays that were cross-linked after Mg2 -dependent sedimentation21. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the dynamicexposure of buried histone core residues promotes compaction ofchromatin and phase separation, and that HP1 proteins play an activepart in promoting such exposure.Previous work has underscored the dynamic nature of HP1-mediatedheterochromatin foci in cells6,22–24. This behaviour may be explained bythe liquid-like properties that we observe for Swi6–chromatin droplets.To probe how in vitro Swi6–chromatin phase separation relates toin vivo heterochromatin organization, we used two Swi6 mutations thatimpair Swi6 oligomerization and gene silencing: the dimerX mutation,which inhibits dimer formation by the CSD, and the loopX mutation,which reduces higher order oligomerization4,25 (Fig. 4d). Comparedwith wild-type Swi6, binding of both loopX and dimerX to mononucleosomes is minimally affected by restraining histone dynamics, whichsuggests that these mutants are defective in promoting nucleosomedistortion (Extended Data Fig. 10a, b). Furthermore, the dimerX mutantfails to form phase-separated condensates with nucleosome arrays,even under saturating conditions for nucleosome binding (Fig. 4d,Extended Data Fig. 10c). This finding directly correlates with previousin vivo observations that Swi6 heterochromatin foci are disrupted bymutating the CSD25.By contrast, the loopX mutant does not inhibit array phase separation, but forms larger droplets than wild-type Swi6 over time. Notably,these droplets show greater wetting behaviour than the droplets withwild-type Swi6, which suggests a lower surface tension and reducedstability of the system20 (Fig. 4d, Extended Data Fig. 10c, d). The lowerstability is consistent with the defective oligomerization of the loopXmutant4. Correspondingly, in vivo, we observed that the loopX mutation results in fewer and more diffuse Swi6 foci (Fig. 4e, Extended DataFig. 10e). We conclude that the formation of Swi6–heterochromatincondensates relies on the ability of Swi6 to oligomerize and promoteoctamer distortion. Furthermore, changes in the intrinsic materialproperties of the Swi6–chromatin condensates in vitro correlate withchanges in heterochromatin foci and gene silencing in vivo.HP1 molecules have been shown to promote compaction of chromatin by bridging across nucleosomes as dimers or oligomers3,26. Inaddition, intrinsic chromatin compaction has been shown to involve392 Nature Vol 575 14 November 2019

Nucleosome Swi6caIbound/Ifree 0bIbound/Ifree 0.5I130δ1I62δ115I74δ1Ibound/Ifree V45γ1L42δ1V41γ2 L103δ1 L98δ1L42δ2 L77δ11.51.01.01HSwi620001234Swi6 (μM)d Arrays 13.5µMSwi6WTArrays dimerXArrays loopX13.5 μmDimerXLoopX10 μmdcr1Δ 12δ1I119δ1I124δ1I130δ14 μM60 C50H30.5H2B2 μM8012NS-H(ppm)H31.5 μM100d0.50.01 μM–H3K9me3H3 H4 S-Sfdcr1Δ LoopXOligomerization andbridging acrossnucleosomes3.5 μmFolding chromatinin phase-separatedcondensatesH2BFig. 3 Swi6 binding increases protein dynamics within octamer core.a, Methyl-TROSY spectra of Ile-methyl-labelled H3 and Leu/Val-methyl-labelledH2B in nucleosome alone (purple), and bound to Swi6 (black). Threeresonances in H2B are not assigned as they correspond to residues V15, V38 andV66 present only in Xenopus H2B. Some resonances are largely unaffected(I124, L98, L99, V115 and two not assigned), whereas others are broadened and afew new resonances appear in the presence of Swi6. b, Peak volumes of H3 andH2B residues in the nucleosome–Swi6 complex (Ibound) relative to those in thenucleosome alone (Ifree). Spectra were normalized using volumes of theirrespective L98 and two non-assigned peaks, which do not show broadeningupon Swi6 binding. Only unambiguously assigned peaks are included inthe quantification. Cross-peaks that disappear are taken to have an Ibound valueof zero. c, Cα of Ile residues in H3 and Leu or Val residues in H2B shown as redspheres in the nucleosome structure (PDB code 1KX5). Colour intensity ofspheres represents extent of broadening determined by Ibound/Ifree. d, Surfacerepresentation of nucleosome in c. Experiments were performed twice tooptimize conditions; data from one experiment are reported.interactions made by histone tails with nearby nucleosomes27. Ourwork uncovers another fundamental driver of chromatin compaction,namely the structural plasticity of the octamer core. We find that Swi6leverages this plasticity to increase intrinsic histone core dynamics andaccessibility by engaging the nucleosome core. The transient exposureof buried histone core residues can enable these residues to participatein weak multivalent interactions between nucleosomes, promotingformation of phase-separated liquid condensates20. We thereforepropose that nucleosome disorganization by Swi6 together with themultivalency provided by Swi6 oligomerization drives the compactionof chromatin into phase-separated liquid droplets. This mechanismultimately results in a less accessible chromatin state, consistent withthe reduced histone turnover observed in S. pombe heterochromatin28.Our model suggests mechanisms for how HP1 ligands can regulatethe phase separation of heterochromatin: for example, by competing with the histone core for interaction with the CSD. Furthermore,functional differences among HP1 orthologues and paralogues canarise from differences in their ability to bind and reshape nucleosomes.For example, the different specificities of mammalian HP1 and Swi6CSDs for histone and non-histone ligands may result in different waysof deforming the nucleosome core and thereby different mechanismsfor fine-tuning heterochromatin phase osomedisorganizationMerge25L97δ2Cells (%)13C(ppm)I119δ120H3K9me3H3 H4 S-HH3 H4A260 nmNucleosomeArray soluble fraction (%)a50403020100Swi6 promotes nucleosomedynamics within the coredcr1Δ Swi6 WTdcr1Δ Swi6 loopX0 1 2 3 4 5 6/7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6/7Canonicalnoonicanicalconformationormarmam tionttioEnsembleEnseEnsn mmbleb ofoadditionaladdiadditiondditionalal statesstatet sExposedEExpxpregions interactionsNumber of foci per cellFig. 4 Octamer dynamics promote Swi6-mediated compaction ofchromatin and phase separation. a, Cysteine residues (red) introduced in H3and H4 used for disulfide cross-links. b, Array self-association assays usingnucleosome arrays containing H3K9me3 H4 S-S (oxidized, green) andH3K9me3 H4 S-H (reduced, blue) octamers as a function of increasingconcentrations of Swi6. Dotted line represents C50, the Swi6 concentration atwhich 50% of arrays sediments. Measurements entailed at least threeindependent experiments and error bars reflect s.d. c, Bright-fieldrepresentative images of the Swi6-array mixtures analysed in b, showing phaseseparated droplets. d, DimerX mutation abrogates Swi6-array dropletformation. LoopX-array droplets show higher wetting properties as seen byflatter morphology. Cartoons of respective Swi6 proteins are shown. Redcrosses indicate mutation location. WT, wild type. Images in c and d arerepresentative of at least three independent experiments. e, Compared withwild-type S. pombe cells, loopX cells show a reduced number of foci per cell andmore diffuse nuclear staining. Top, representative images of wild-type or loopXmutant Swi6 cells. Bottom, quantification of Swi6 foci in wild-type and loopXmutant cells. Experiments were repeated independently at least three timesand more than 250 cells per condition were analysed. f, Model for Swi6–heterochromatin. Oligomerization of Swi6 (green) on H3K9me3-marked (redspheres) nucleosomes loosens histone–DNA and histone–histone contacts,increasing dynamics within the octamer core. Nucleosomes can then accesslarger ensemble of dynamically interconverting conformational states,increasing opportunities for transient weak multivalent interactions withother nucleosomes, including histone tails. Such interactions and nucleosomebridging by Swi6 enable the compaction of chromatin into liquid droplets.Black box shows that nucleosomes in solution can sample an ensemble ofconformational states, of which the canonical conformation (orange) observedin the crystal structure is the most populated. Swi6 increases intrinsic histonecore dynamics and accessibility. As a result, this increases the proportion ofalternative conformational states of the nucleosome (blue).Nature Vol 575 14 November 2019 393

ArticleOur work also raises the possibility that histone modifications andhistone variants modify chromatin compaction by directly affectingthe conformational plasticity of the histone octamer.More generally, the phase separation- and octamer deformationbased mechanism for compaction of chromatin proposed here canexplain how the genome can be functionally organized without invoking structures such as the 30-nm fibre29. Indeed, consistent with sucha possibility, recent reports suggest that nucleosomes in mitoticchromatin adopt non-canonical conformations30. Future studies willuncover how broadly octamer plasticity and phase separation regulatechromatin organization. contentAny methods, additional references, Nature Research reporting summaries, source data, extended data, supplementary information,acknowledgements, peer review information; details of author contributions and competing interests; and statements of data and codeavailability are available at ., A. D. et al. Chromatin histone modifications and rigidity affect nuclearmorphology independent of lamins. Mol. Biol. Cell 29, 220–233 (2018).Allshire, R. C. & Madhani, H. D. Ten principles of heterochromatin formation and function.Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 19, 229–244 (2018).Canzio, D. et al. Chromodomain-mediated oligomerization of HP1 suggests anucleosome-bridging mechanism for heterochromatin assembly. Mol. Cell 41, 67–81(2011).Canzio, D. et al. A conformational switch in HP1 releases auto-inhibition to driveheterochromatin assembly. Nature 496, 377–381 (2013).Larson, A. G. et al. Liquid droplet formation by HP1α suggests a role for phase separationin heterochromatin. Nature 547, 236–240 (2017).Strom, A. R. et al. Phase separation drives heterochromatin domain formation. Nature547, 241–245 (2017).Eissenberg, J. C. & Elgin, S. C. R. HP1a: a structural chromosomal protein regulatingtranscription. Trends Genet. 30, 103–110 (2014).Smothers, J. F. & Henikoff, S. The HP1 chromo shadow domain binds a consensus peptidepentamer. Curr. Biol. 10, 27–30 (2000).Isaac, R. S. et al. Biochemical basis for distinct roles of the heterochromatin proteins Swi6and Chp2. J. Mol. Biol. 429, 3666–3677 (2017).Dawson, M. A. et al. JAK2 phosphorylates histone H3Y41 and excludes HP1α fromchromatin. Nature 461, 819–822 (2009).Lavigne, M. et al. Interaction of HP1 and Brg1/Brm with the globular domain of histone H3is required for HP1-mediated repression. PLoS Genet. 5, e1000769 (2009).394 Nature Vol 575 14 November 201924., Y. et al. Peptide recognition by HP1 chromoshadow domains revisited: plasticity in thepseudosymmetric histone binding site of human HP1. J. Biol. Chem. 292, 5655–5664(2017).Hoofnagle, A. N., Resing, K. A. & Ahn, N. G. Protein analysis by hydrogen exchange massspectrometry. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 32, 1–25 (2003).Rosenzweig, R. & Kay, L. E. Bringing dynamic molecular machines into focus by methylTROSY NMR. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 83, 291–315 (2014).Sinha, K. K., Gross, J. D. & Narlikar, G. J. Distortion of histone octamer core promotesnucleosome mobilization by a chromatin remodeler. Science 355, eaaa3761 (2017).Zhou, B.-R. et al. Structural insights into the histone H1-nucleosome complex. Proc. NatlAcad. Sci. USA 110, 19390–19395 (2013).Luger, K., Mäder, A. W., Richmond, R. K., Sargent, D. F. & Richmond, T. J. Crystalstructure of the nucleosome core particle at 2.8 A resolution. Nature 389, 251–260(1997).Stoddard, C. I. et al. A nucleosome bridging mechanism for activation of a maintenanceDNA methyltransferase. Mol. Cell 73, 73–83.e6 (2019).Azzaz, A. M. et al. Human heterochromatin protein 1α promotes nucleosome associationsthat drive chromatin condensation. J. Biol. Chem. 289, 6850–6861 (2014).Alberti, S., Gladfelter, A. & Mittag, T. Considerations and challenges in studyingliquid-liquid phase separation and biomolecular condensates. Cell 176, 419–434(2019).Maeshima, K. et al. Nucleosomal arrays self-assemble into supramolecular globularstructures lacking 30-nm fibers. EMBO J. 35, 1115–1132 (2016).Cheutin, T., Gorski, S. A., May, K. M., Singh, P. B. & Misteli, T. In vivo dynamics of Swi6 inyeast: evidence for a stochastic model of heterochromatin. Mol. Cell. Biol. 24, 3157–3167(2004).Cheutin, T. et al. Maintenance of stable heterochromatin domains by dynamic HP1binding. Science 299, 721–725 (2003).Festenstein, R. et al. Modulation of heterochromatin protein 1 dynamics in primaryMammalian cells. Science 299, 719–721 (2003).Haldar, S., Saini, A., Nanda, J. S., Saini, S. & Singh, J. Role of Swi6/HP1 self-associationmediated recruitment of Clr4/Suv39 in establishment and maintenance ofheterochromatin in fission ye

H3 H4 d H3K9me3 H3 H4 S-H H3K9me3 H3 H4 S-S Array soluble fraction (%) A 260 nm Swi6 ( M) 01234 0 20 40 60 80 100 Swi6 - 1 M1.5 M2 M4 10 m 12N S-S 12N S-H f ab C 50 e Folding chromatin in phase-separated condensates Exposed regions of nucleosomes template inter-nucleosome interactions Oligomerization and bridging across nucleosomes .

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centromeres. Nonetheless, HP1α can be detected at mitotic cen-tromeres in human cells (Hayakawa et al., 2003). Furthermore, the mitotic centromeric targeting of HP1α is independent of its CD (Hayakawa et al., 2003). Thus, it has been suggested that HP1 is re-cruited to mitotic centromeres through a mechanism distinct from

for exploring the dynamics of supramolecular structures like the nucleosome (which consists of 50,000 atoms). On the other hand, normal modes analysis (NMA)22,23 proved to be an efficient but physically meaningful, complemen-tary tool for analyzing the equilibrium dynamics of large structures and assemblies. Recently, simplified NMAs

The nucleosome is the basic structural unit of chromatin. Each nucleosome consists of about 146 . of core histone (including two each of histone H3 , H4, H2B and H2A)4. Members of the linker histone Hl/H5 family further stabilise the nucleosomal arrays. Initially, chromatin was thought to be an inert structure involved . information .

association with histone proteins, forming the fundamental re-peating unit of chromatin, the nucleosome. The nucleosome consists of 146 bp of DNAwrapped around a histone core oc-tamer composed of two each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 [1]. The histone proteins are each composed of a globular domain and unstructured N- and C-terminal tails.

Structural basis of nucleosome assembly by the Abo1 AAA ATPase histone chaperone Carol Cho1,8*, Juwon Jang1,8, . When histone H3-H4 mixed with Abo1 (w/Abo1) and ATP ( ATP) was flowed into a DNA cur-tain, DNA molecules were decorated with histones as shown by the appearance of Cy5 signal (red), whereas the absence of Abo1

the basis for Set8 being restricted to monomethyla-tion of H4K20, we do not understand the structural basis for Set8's preference for a nucleosome substrate. Set8 exhibits remarkably greater enzy-matic activity on nucleosomes than on free histone substrates [15,16]. This suggests that Set8 must interact with other surfaces of the nucleosome in

ABSTRACT Nucleosome positioning is important for the structural integrity of chromosomes. . Nucleosomes form the basis for packaging of DNA into chromatin. Two copies each of histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 are wrapped by . servations that each histone pair, H2A/H2B and H3/H4, is indepen-dently regulated (Jackson, 1987; Smith and Stillman .

histone-DNA contacts Catalyze nucleosome sliding or nucleosome removal. . (structural maintenance of chromosomes) proteins, which are conserved from bacteria to man . ATPase domains. Model of Cohesin in Mitotic Chromosomes. Molecular Basis of Cohesion Cohesin Nasmyth 2002 Science 297:559. Title: Microsoft PowerPoint - Chromatin Structure .

Six-Core Core i7 16-Core SPARC T3 10-Core Xeon Westmere-EX 8-Core POWER7 Quad-core z196 Quad-core Itanium Tukwila 8-Core Xeon Nehalem-EX Six-Core Xeon 7400 Dual-Core Itanium 2 Itanium 2 with 9MB cache POWER6 Cell Itanium 2 Barton curve shows

work/products (Beading, Candles, Carving, Food Products, Soap, Weaving, etc.) ⃝I understand that if my work contains Indigenous visual representation that it is a reflection of the Indigenous culture of my native region. ⃝To the best of my knowledge, my work/products fall within Craft Council standards and expectations with respect to

ASP.NET Core ASP.NET Core is HTTP pipeline implementation sits on top of .NET Core uses the middleware concept (but at a higher abstraction level than OWIN) comes with its own server (Kestrel) adds DI to provide services ASP.NET Core MVC is Microsoft's application framework Host.NET Core ASP.NET Core

nuclei, which package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes. They can be grouped into five major classes: H1/H5, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. These are organized into two super-classes: core histones, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 and linker histones, H1 and H5. Two core histones assemble to form one octameric nucleosome core

and Luxembourg Certified Accountant (Expert Comptable). The author may be contacted at oliver.hoor@atoz.lu. 1. OECD, Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations (2010), International Organizations’ Documenta-tion IBFD. 2. OECD Model Tax Convention

AAMI HE75, Human factors engineering – Design of medical devices, Clause 9, Usability Testing, provides an excellent guide to the types of formative evaluations that are useful in early device UI development such as cognitive walkthroughs, heuristic evaluations, and walk-through-talk-through usability tests. Annex D of IEC 62366 also provides descriptions of these formative techniques .