Audit And Statistical Process Control - Institut Agro Montpellier

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Short Term Training Course (STTC) “Safety and Quality in Innovative Food Production Systems” 20-26 May, 2018 Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand Lecture 11: Auditing in Food Processing Industries "The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsi ble for any use which may be made of the information contained therein."

Auditing in Food Processing Industries

Quality Audit Systems in Food Safety Management Systems A systematic and independent examination to determine whether activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively to achieve objectives Typically performed at defined intervals (monthly, annual, biannual) Any failure in their proper implementation may be published publicly and may lead to a revocation of quality certification

Objectives Of Quality Audit Food manufacturers commonly use audits as an effective mechanism to verify compliance with GMP regulation (GMP).GMP audits have two important goals Audits are intended to verify that manufacturing and Control systems are operating under a state of control. Audits permit timely correction of potential problems that may otherwise result in higher quality loss (cost).

Types Of Quality Audit The quality audit system is mainly classified in three different categories: i Internal Audit ii. External Audits iii. Regulatory Audit In food industries all three audit system may be used to carry out 1. Product manufacturing audit 2. Plant sanitation/GMP audit 3. Product Quality audit 4. HACCP audit

Internal Audit Purpose of Internal audit:- To ensure that adequate Quality systems are maintained To asses compliance with the C-GMP’s and firms standard operating procedures (SOPs) To achieve consistency between manufacturing and testing facilities To identify problems internally and Correct problems prior to a external or regulatory audit.

Types Of Internal Audit Tier One Tier Two Tier Three Carried out by:- Interdepartmental heads, staffs of other department inside company Local Quality assurance Group Corporate Compliance Group and External Consultant Purpose:- Require Short time and Focus is on house keeping and documentation Require Longer period and more focus on system than housekeeping More focusing for asses the readiness of regulatory audit Frequency:- More often Less Less than tier two Qualification:- Receive Some basic training More exclusive training Highly trained and experienced or specialist with the expert knowledge of GMP

FS leader An Example of Internal Audit Process Prepare audit schedule Auditor Assign auditors without conflict Eliminate nonconformities Auditor plan Audit and issue finding Examine C and P actions Review report and record CARs Take C and P actions Review C and P actions Submit report

External Audit Purpose of External Audit:- Ensuring that requirements are well understood Enabling reduction of in-house QC testing of raw materials Reducing the risk of failure Carried Out by a company on its vendors or sub contractors External auditors have experience of GMP and as well as regularly audited by their certification body

Regulatory Audit Purpose of Regulatory audit:- Networking and confidence-building between national inspection authorities Development of quality systems plan Work towards global harmonization of GMP principles Carried out by regulatory bodies such as US FDA, national regulatory bodies Failure of regulatory audit: withdrawal of a manufacturing or import/export license After regulatory audit, a formal report will be delivered

What is to be audited:5 P’s Premises Primary materials People Procedures Processes defined and Recorded Plant facilities-floors, walls, ceilings, windows for more effective food safety environment Employee Hygiene-how employee's hygiene may affect food safety risk should be observed In-process control- food safety and sanitation policy, raw materials, operation conditions Pest control-to be outsourced from a trained firm and record should be kept

Role of GMP Audits in Q.A And Q.C programme GMP audits find objectionable condition that is unknown to responsible production , QC ,QA or management personnel. The auditor will see whether such actions are frequent or not .From this he can signal other GMP problems. Audits may be effective in: - changing SOPs, modifying manufacturing equipment or procedure - upgrading equipment or procedure - Improving employee training programme - Developing new or revised documentary system

Selecting Audit teams Limitations of Personnel audit Experience and knowledge, which is individual. Emphasize on familiar issues as well as particular area Team is required to cover many different systems and large amount of data. Composition of team will vary depending upon the nature and scope of the audit Leader is usually a senior auditor who has extensive knowledge of the firm’s operations and exhibit strong leadership qualities.

Reporting Audit Finding Audit reports should contain complete details of the problem detected. . action is taken to eliminate problems and Corrective to measure the overall adequacy of the audit program uses reports There are two important reporting phases:1) Preliminary reports during the audit 2) Final report to the management Conti .

Preliminary reports during the audit: 1) Benefits can be gained from having dialogues with employees 2) Finding is communicated with affected personnel. 3) Discussion may help the employees to learn why problems happened.

Final report to the management Management must review the final reports and determine what steps need to be taken to eliminate deficiencies. Management should sincerely encourage detection of problems and express appreciation for being able to improve quality operations. The audit reports may be shared with manger supervisor who may discuss finding with employees. The workers and supervisory personnel should be given the opportunity to explain their views and ideas about the audit findings.

HACCP Assessment Risk rating Risk control plan Review for continual improvement Target objective Operation control Policy Plan Act Do check FSMS-Critical Control Audit Trail (“Process” and “PDCA” Approach to enable “Value Added” Assessment

A complete ISO 22000:2005 audit documents for a Catering Services No. Process Description Interfaces/ Communication Mgt/ F Purchasing Kitchen and B Key Resources Sale Cust Svc 1. Menu design Human, Database 2. Purchase Ingredients Human, Database, Fax 3. Receiving Inspection Human, Weight M. 4. Storage Human, Cold/Dry, Trolley 5. Ingredients Preparation Human, Crockery, Utensils, Oven 6. Sales / Taking Orders Human Database 7. Cooking and packaging Human, Crockery, Utensils, Oven, Packaging material 8. Pre-serving inspection Human 9. Delivery Human, Transport

A complete audit documents for a Catering Services ISO 22000:2005 “Process Approach” Audit Timetable Time Auditor A Auditor B Opening Meeting Management Site walk-through Kitchen Purchasing Customer Service Lunch Auditors’ interim meeting Process Step 1 Process Step 6 (Menu design/ planning) (Sales and taking order) Auditors’ review Closing meeting

A complete audit document for a Catering Service ISO 22000:2005 “Process Approach” audit checklist S/N Requirements Remark 1. All logistic records maintained? How? Y 2. All duties and responsibilities of the personnel clearly defined? 3. Are records of education/ skills maintained? 4. Do acceptance request and criteria conform to customer request? 5. Are supplier checked for approval of stock? 6. Are inventory list of stock available? 7. Does the department have a procedure to handle stock need, inspection, reject and storage? 8. Does the department keep record of all information? 9. Effective handling of stock segregation, identification and traceability? 10. Are procedure for preparing food in place? 11. Maintaining of working environment cleanliness? 12. How disposed of garbage/leftover is handle. 13. Is there any procedure to monitor general health condition of personnel? 14. Are performance data controlled/ maintained? 15. Availability of customer order/ product 16. How do you preserve/ protect product after preparation and prior to delivery? 17. How do you identified/ traced products to correct customer? 18. Are records of customer feedback/ complaint monitored/ maintained? N

Example of an HACCP audit Programme Organization : Standard : Assessment date : Scope : Lead auditor : Auditor : Time Opening meeting LA HACCP team Product description and intended use Flow diagram and on-site verification A Review of HACCP Plans Hazard analysis Critical Control Points Critical Limits Monitoring Correction Action

LA Audit of process and storage facilities Confirmation of process flows Verification of critical limits, critical control points, monitoring system and correction action Product identification Cleaning and sanitation Personal hygiene practice Pest control A Reviewing of documentation records Cleaning and sanitation programme Pest control Equipment maintenance and calibration Verification of HACCP system and review of verification records Reviewing of documentation and records Training Health screening Personal hygiene practice CCP monitoring and corrective action records Product traceability and recall procedure Preparation of audit Closing meeting

Corrective action request and audit reporting

Supplement Documents ISO 19011:2002 International CODEX-General Principles of Food Hygiene EUREPGAP- General Regulation Fresh Fruit and Vegetables

Legal compliance and conformance with ISO standards In general, nonconformance can be found in both adequacy and site audits If a nonconformance is found, then corrective action request (CAR) should be raised specifying the nonconformance conditions The auditors should perform the audit following the guidelines given ISO 19011

Legal compliance required by ISO standards If legal compliance to certain legislations required by the ISO standards, it shall be audited and the auditor shall ensure that he is competent to perform such audit Legal compliance not covered by the ISO standards Any legal non-compliance found by the auditor should be raised as an observation for legal matters which are outside the scope of the audit. The auditor may not have sufficient legal knowledge to audit certain legal compliance.

Classification of Non-conformance Scheme 1 Scheme 2 Critical If non-conformance can lead to a massive product recall Related to food safety Category1 Where a total element or a significant part of an element of the FSMS is missing Major Category 2 Deficiencies such as omission of Where there are significant documented FSMS element number of minor deficiencies Gross nonconformance with FSMS occurring in a FSMS element. elements Minor Omission of a control point in HACCP program Category 3 Where there is a single deficiency found in a FSMS element.

An example of an HACCP Audit report S/N Audit finding Clause No Category 01 Personnel responsible for overall food safety, review and approval of any changes in process, formulation, equipment was not defined 1 Minor (Category 2) 02 Following were noted in the Hazard analysis: i. Not all possible causes were identified. ii. Not all potential hazards were correctly identified iii. Not all control resources were correctly identified 6 Minor (Category 2) 03 The entire HACCP Plan need to be improved to ensure the correct potential hazard, causes, right control measure were identified. 10 Minor (Category 2)

“ Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food” धन्यवाद ขอบคุ ณ 谢谢 Terima Kasih Gratias tibi ago شکریہ Takk Grazie Merci Cảm ơn ông ありがとう ধন্যবাদ 감사합니다 谢谢 ຂອບໃຈ Danke

The quality audit system is mainly classified in three different categories: i Internal Audit ii. External Audits iii. Regulatory Audit . Types Of Quality Audit. In food industries all three audit system may be used to carry out 1. Product manufacturing audit 2. Plant sanitation/GMP audit 3. Product Quality audit 4. HACCP audit

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and measured pile capacities. API-1993 provides potentially non-conservative results for shaft capacity in loose sands, and in loose-to-medium sands with high length (L) to diameter (D) ratios. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate these skewed trends, reproducing the database comparisons given by Jardine et al (2005) between calculated (Q c) and measured (Q m) shaft capacities. 2.2.2 Non-conservative .