Axial And Centrifugal Compressors Application Guide

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GE Oil GasAxial and Centrifugal CompressorsApplication GuideBently Nevada* Asset Condition MonitoringContents1. Disclaimer.32.Purpose.33. Scope.34. References.45. Protection/Management.46. Types of Centrifugal Compressors.46.1 Process Centrifugal Compressors. 46.2 Package Centrifugal Compressors (Integrally Geared Compressors). 57. Typical Malfunctions.57.1 Compressor Surge and Stall. 57.2 Anti-surge control and recycle valves. 77.3 Choke. 87.4 Thrust Force:. 97.5 Fluid-Induced Instability. 97.6 Unbalance. 107.7 Misalignment. 128. Transducers 128.1 Selection of Transducers and Locations 128.2 Proximity Probes 128.3 Shaft Radial Vibration 138.4 Axial (thrust) Position 138.5 Keyphasor Sensor 148.6 Accelerometers (seismic transducers) 148.7 Temperature Sensors 158.8 Speed Sensors 15All drawings and diagrams contained herein were produced by GE and cannot bereproduced or copied without GE’s express consent.application guide

application guide9. Bently Nevada 3500 Series Machinery Protecting System 159.1 3500 System Overview 159.2 System Copmonents Selection 169.2.1 Instrument Rack 169.2.2 Power Supplies 169.2.3 Trasnient Data Interface Module 179.3 Monitor Module Selection 169.3.1 Vibration Monitors 179.3.2 Keyphasor/Speed/Overspeed Monitors 189.3.3 Temperature Monitors 209.3.4 Relay Modules 209.3.5 Alarm Setpoints 219.6.6 Vibration Instrumentation diagram for Dual Flow Centrifugal Compressor 239.6.7 Vibration Instrumentation diagram for Axial Flow Compressor 249.6.8 Vibration Instrumentation diagram for Integrally Geared Compressor (3 or 4 stage) 2610. The Industrial Internet 2811. Management with System 1* Software 2811.1 Outline of System1 2811.2 Thermodynamic Performance 2911.3 Automated Machinery Diagnostic Functionality 2911.4 Centrifugal Compressor RulePak 3011.5 Axial Flow Compressor RulePak 3011.6 Integral Gear Compressor RulePak 3112. SmartSignal Integration 31APPENDIX 1 System 1 Software and Network Connectivity 32APPENDIX 2 Process Inputs for the RulePaks 34APPENDIX 3 OptiComp* BN 35APPENDIX 4 Data Required for Thermodynamic Performance 37APPENDIX 5 Discussion of 3500 Thrust Measurement and API 670 Compliance 38APPENDIX 6 Voting Truth Tables for Normal AND and True AND voting 402

application guide2 PurposeThe purpose of this document is to establish guidelines for theselection and installation of GE’s Bently Nevada transducersand protection and monitoring systems on axial and centrifugalcompressors with fluid film bearings – classified as criticalmachines. These recommendations apply to both new machinesand existing machine installations targeted for retrofit.3 ScopeThe American Petroleum Institute (API) 617 style compressors aretypically found in refinery and petrochemical applications.GE strongly recommends the continuous collection, trending andanalysis of the radial vibration, axial position, and temperaturedata using a machinery management system such as System 1*software. Use of these tools will enhance the ability to diagnoseproblems and analyze the performance of the compressors.Compressor asset management best practices indicate the use ofthe following items: Proper transducer suite Corresponding 3500 machine protection system System 1 asset monitoring platform Thermodynamic performance Automated machinery diagnostic functionality (RulePaks)The table to the right provides a more detailed view of the specificcomponents.Integrally GearedGE assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions that mayappear in this document and reserves the right to change thisdocument at any time without notice. This document is not to beconstrued as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwiseany license or right under any copyright or patent, whether or notthe use of any information in this document employs an inventionclaimed in any existing or later issued patent.Compressor typeAxialThis application guide is intended to provide guidance only. Theprocedures provided will not apply to all situations, and may varybased on different circumstances such as government or industryregulations, customer-specific requirements, and public safety lawsand regulations.Centrifugal1 DisclaimerTRANSDUCERS Radial Vibration (X/Y) Best Practice ComponentsAxial Position (Thrust) Casing Accelerometers (Gearbox) Keyphasor* and Speed Temperature PROCESS INPUTS (DCS) Pressures Flows Temperatures Speed Machine State (SU/SD, Steady State) MACHINERY PROTECTION SYSTEM(MPS) 3500 Local Display 3500 Rack 3500 Power Supplies 3500 TDI Module 3500 Monitoring Modules 3500 Relay Modules MACHINERY CONDITIONMANAGEMENT SYSTEM (MCMS) System 1 Core System 1 RulePaks - Integrally GearedCompressors System 1 RulePaks - CentrifugalCompressors System 1 RulePaks - AxialCompressors Bently Performance(Thermodynamics) SmartSignal Integration Machine State 3

application guide4 References6 Types of Centrifugal Compressors1. API Standard 670 Fifth Edition, November 20142. API Standard 617 Eight Edition, Axial and CentrifugalCompressors and Expander-compressors for Petroleum,Chemical and Gas Industry Services, September 20143. API Standard 613 Fifth Edition, Special Purpose Gear Units forPetroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services6.1 Process Centrifugal CompressorsHorizontally Split – Horizontally split compressors areused primarily for low and medium pressure applicationsin ethylene and fertilizer plants refineries, liquid naturalgas (LNG) for refrigeration, air compression, and so on.5 Protection/ManagementProtection Solution - The recommended protection system foraxial and centrifugal compressors follows the API 670 Standard forMachinery Protection Systems.Management Solution - The recommended management solutionfor centrifugal compressors includes the protection solution withthe addition of System 1* trending and analysis software. Thetable above shows recommended protection transducers on acentrifugal compressor. Each item is discussed in detail in theTransducer Selection section of the document.Note: It is recommended that the management solution includethe pre-packaged diagnostics and performance applications (ifapplicable) to manage issues before the protection system must act(i.e. the Integral Gear Compressor application package).Barrel – Vertically-split barrel compressors are used primarily forhigh-pressure applications such as ammonia, urea and methanolsynthesis, refinery recycle, natural gas compression and injection,and hazardous gases.Additional Measurements - Many measurements, suchas thermography and oil analysis, can be made on API 617compressors. In many cases, new or emerging technologyenables the online implementation of these parameters. As therobustness and value proposition of these technologies prove out,these measurements may be included in future Bently NevadaBest Practices from GE. Separate application notes providetransducer, monitor, and installation recommendations for thesemeasurements. For a copy of these application notes, pleasecontact your local account manager.Instrument Diagnostics:Extensive self-testing is performed continuously on each of GE’sBently Nevada 3500 or 3701 instrumentation packages. Self-testfailures are displayed to the end user in several ways, including:the green OK LED being extinguished, the instrument rack OK relay(normally energized) changing state, a note in the operator display(if supplied), and a note in the monitor events list. It is extremelyimportant that end users are aware of and take advantage ofthese self-test indicators so that instrumentation problems can beaddressed before there is a false or missed alarm event.Integrated Compressor Line – Integrated compressor line (ICL)is designed to achieve balance between productivity and theenvironment, power demands and space limitations, performancegoal and maintenance requirements, reliability, and availability.4

application guidepinion-shaft. Optimal impeller speed and the ability to inter-coolcompression stages supports very high efficiency. A large varietyof gases can be handled by this compressor line with appropriateconstruction materials, seal and control systems. Sometimes thesemachines are referred to as four-posters (for four stages) or simplyas air machines, because the most common service is general plantcompressed air supply.7 Examples of Centrifugal CompressorMalfunctionsOverhung Single Stage – Overhung compressors are mainlyused as boosters in petrochemical applications or for recycle inpolypropylene and polyethylene plants. The single-stage overhungconfiguration is simple and easy to maintain. Almost all gasescan be handled by this type of compressor with appropriateconstruction materials and seal systems.Pipeline – These compressors are specifically designed for pipelinecompression stations. They are used for low and medium pressureratio pipeline service and in recycle applications such as thoseperformed in methanol plants, etc.7.1 Compressor SurgeSurge is the point at a given operating speed when the compressorcannot increase gas pressure to overcome the system resistance orbackpressure. This causes a rapid, cyclic flow reversal. As a result,thrust reversal causing high axial

The American Petroleum Institute (API) 617 style compressors are typically found in refinery and petrochemical applications. GE strongly recommends the continuous collection, trending and analysis of the radial vibration, axial position, and temperature data using a machinery management system such as System 1* software. Use of these tools will enhance the ability to diagnose problems and .

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