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INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGYMA MODULE (15 credits): ARCL0101PREHISTORIC STONE ARTEFACT ANALYSISMODULE HANDBOOK 2018-19WEDNESDAY 11 am – 2 pm, Term 1Room 410 and Lithics Lab, Institute of ArchaeologyTurnitin Class ID: 3884599Turnitin password: IoA1819Deadlines for coursework for this module:Target dates for return of marked coursework to students:1st report: 5th December2nd report: 31st January1st report: 7th January2nd report: 28th FebruaryCo-ordinator: Prof Ignacio de la TorreEmail: Room 204BTelephone: 020-7679-4721Please see the last page of this document for important information about submission and markingprocedures

1 OVERVIEWShort descriptionThis series of lectures, practical work and discussion provides an introduction to basic and advancedanalytical techniques and addresses some of the methodological and interpretative approaches usedin the study of lithic assemblages. It is twofold in its approach: 1) it addresses technologiescharacteristic of the Old Stone Age/Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods; 2) it considers ways that lithicartefacts and lithic analysis can contribute towards an understanding of past human cognition,behaviour and the interpretation of human material culture. There is an emphasis on practicalhandling and study as this is the best way to learn about struck stone artefacts.Module scheduleLecturerDateI. de la Torre03-OctI. de la Torre10-OctTomos Proffitt17-OctI. de la Torre24-OctWeek 5Week 6Practical (most practicals inRoom 410 or Lithics Lab)Labelling and curation, raw materialidentification (Lithics Lab)Origins of stone tool technology Artefact categories, core and flakeattributes (Room 410)Stone tool experimentalExperimental knappingflaking(in the IoA basement)Acheulean technologyAnalysis of knapping experiments Acheulean handaxes (Room 410)Refitting of stone toolsRefitting (Room 410)**Reading week (no teaching)** **Reading week**C. Martin-Ramos**Reading week**31-Oct7-NovWeek 7Illustration of stone toolsI. de la Torre14-NovWeek 8Middle Palaeolithic technologyI. de la Torre21-NovWeek 9Upper Palaeolithic technologyI. de la Torre28-NovUlrike SommerI. de la Torre05-Dec12-DecWeek 1Week 2Week 3Week 4Lecture (all lectures inRoom 410)Approaches to lithic analysisWeek 10 Neolithic lithic technologiesWeek 11 Lithic use wear analysisHand, digital and high magnificationimaging of stone tools (Lithics Lab)Middle Palaeolithic stone tools(Room 410)Upper Palaeolithic stone tools(Room 410)Neolithic artefacts (Room 410)Microscopy (SEM lab, basement)Data crunching of lithic assemblages(Room 410)In addition to these contact hours on Wednesdays 11 am- 2 pm, you can use room 410 to prepareyour reports every Friday 9-10 am in Term 1. Also, room 410 is booked all week 9 am to 5 pmduring Reading Week (5th-9th November).Room 410 is reserved for you during these slots. If there is any issue (e.g., the door is locked), youcan ask Judy Medrington in Room 411A or Fiona McLean in Reception to open the door for you.If you find that you need more time to complete your report, please contact the course co-ordinatorand time slots will be arranged in the Lithics Lab.2 Page

TEXTBOOKSThere are a number of books that provide a good introduction to lithic technology, terminology, andmethods of analysis. If you have to choose only one, read Inizan et al. (which is the best and is freefor downloading). For those of you who wish to try your hand at flint knapping, then Whittaker is auseful reference.*** Highly recommendedAndrefsky, Jr., W. 2005. Lithics: Macroscopic Approaches to Analysis. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology.Holdaway, S. and Stern, N. 2004. A Record in Stone: the study of Australia's Flaked StoneArtefacts. Melbourne: Museum Victoria; Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press*** Inizan, M.-L., Roche, H. and Tixier, J. 1992. Technology and Terminology of KnappedStone. Meudon: CREP.In French: hnologie de la pierre taillee.pdfIn English: hnology and Terminology of Knapped Stone.pdfOdell, G.H. 2004. Lithic Analysis. New York/ London: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Shea, John, J. 2013. Stone tools in the Paleolithic and Neolithic Near East. A Guide. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.Whittaker, J.C. 1994. Flintknapping: Making and Understanding Stone tools. Austin University ofTexas Press.The following articles give a good overview of, and references about the topic:Andrefsky, W. Jr. 2009. The analysis of stone tool procurement, production and maintenance.Journal of Archaeological Research 17, 65-103.Nelson, M.C., 1991. The Study of Technological Organization, in: Schiffer, M.B. (Ed.),Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 3nº1. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 57-100.Odell, G. H. 2000. Stone Tool Research at the end of the Millennium: procurement andtechnology. Journal of Archaeological Research 9(1), 45-100.3 Page

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT AND COURSEWORKTurnitin password: IoA1819 (case sensitive)Turnitin ID: 3884599This module is assessed by means of two lithic reports (Report #1: 1500 words. Report #2: 2500words), which together total 4000 words (see below for further details). Each report counts for 50%of the mark.TEACHING METHODSThis 15-credit module is taught through a series of lectures, practical handling and discussion.Classes will follow a two-part format of lecture and practical discussion.WORKLOADThere will be 30 hours of lectures and practical handling and discussion for this module. Studentsare expected to spend about 35 hours undertaking background reading for the lectures, and about85 hours in preparation for coursework, adding up to a total workload of 150 hours for the module.PREREQUISITESIt is useful, but not essential, to have some background experience in Palaeolithic studies (e.g. froman undergraduate course or part of a course, through professional experience).2 AIMS, OBJECTIVES AND ASSESSMENTAIMSThe aims of the module are: To increase understanding of past lithic technologies To promote a comprehensive understanding of the type of information that lithic artefactscan provide about past human behaviour. To explore the range of analytical techniques, methods and theoretical perspectivesemployed in the study of stone tool assemblagesOBJECTIVESOn successful completion of this module a student should: Recognise and understand lithic technologies characteristic of the Stone Age/Palaeolithicand Neolithic periods Be familiar with the analytical and theoretical approaches used in lithic analysis. Understand the ways in which lithics as a form of material culture inform us about thehuman past. Be able to critically evaluate interpretations of lithic assemblages. Be familiar with a range of case studies related to specific aspects of lithic analysis.LEARNING OUTCOMESOn successful completion of the module students should have developed: Observational skills and critical reflection The ability to apply acquired knowledge of a topic4 Page

COURSEWORK - ASSESSMENT TASKSThe module will be assessed by two lithic reports. Each report accounts for 50% of the final mark.The first lithic report will focus on the recognition of the main technological features of experimentaland/or archaeological stone tools. In this assignment, students will be asked to identify technotypological groups and describe taphonomic, technological and typological attributes of the maincategories.The second lithic report will be on the analysis and interpretation of a stone tool database. Resultsshould then be placed within a local and wider geographical context.Both reports should include a technological, morphometric and typological description anddiscussion of the lithics studied. The reports should be accompanied by forms, diagrams, tables,illustrations and photographs of some of the pieces studied. Detailed guidelines on the preparationof each report are provided separately.It is advisable to start work on the practical analysis of the reports as soon as you can. If you areunclear about the report or have any other questions you can discuss them with Ignacio de la Torre.The nature of the assignments and possible approaches to them will be discussed in class, inadvance of the submission deadline. However, if students are unclear about the nature of anassignment, they should discuss this with the module coordinator (Ignacio de la Torre).Students are not permitted to re-write and re-submit essays in order to try to improve their marks.However, students may be permitted, in advance of the deadline for a given assignment, to submitfor comment a brief outline of the assignment.SUBMISSION OF FIRST LITHIC REPORT IS WEDNESDAY 5TH DECEMBER 2018.SUBMISSION OF SECOND LITHIC REPORT IS THURSDAY 31ST JANUARY 2019.Return of coursework by:1st report: 7th January (first day of Term 2)2nd report: 28th FebruaryPlease note that in order to be deemed to have completed and passed in anymodule, it is necessary to submit all assessments.Word countsThe following should not be included in the word-count: title page, contents pages, lists offigures and tables, abstract, preface, acknowledgements, bibliography, lists of references,captions and contents of tables and figures, and appendices.5 Page

CHECK WORD COUNTLithic report #1Lithic report #2Word count15002500Range1,425-1,5752,375-2,625Penalties will only be imposed if you exceed the upper figure in the range. There is nopenalty for using fewer words than the lower figure in the range: the lower figure is simply foryour guidance to indicate the sort of length that is expected.In the 2018-2019 session penalties for overlength work will be as follows: For work that exceeds the specified maximum length by less than 10% the mark willbe reduced by five percentage marks; but the penalised mark will not be reducedbelow the pass mark, assuming the work merited a Pass.For work that exceeds the specified maximum length by 10% or more, the mark willbe reduced by 10 percentage points, but the penalised mark will not be reducedbelow the pass mark, assuming the work merited a Pass.Coursework submission procedures All coursework must normally be submitted both as hard copy and electronically.(The only exceptions are bulky portfolios and lab books which are normally submittedas hard copy only).You should staple the appropriate colour-coded IoA coversheet (available in the IoAlibrary and outside room 411a) to the front of each piece of work and submit it to thered box at the Reception Desk (or room 411a in the case of Year 1 undergraduatework)All coursework should be uploaded to Turnitin by midnight on the day of thedeadline. This will date-stamp your work. It is essential to upload all parts ofyour work as this is sometimes the version that will be marked.Instructions are given below.Note that Turnitin uses the term ‘class’ for what we normally call a ‘module’.1.Ensure that your essay or other item of coursework has been saved as aWord doc., docx. or PDF document, and that you have the Class ID for the course(available from the module handbook) and enrolment password (this is IoA1819for all modules this session - note that this is capital letter I, lower case letter o,upper case A, followed by the current academic year)2.Click on gb/login3.Click on ‘Create account’4.Select your category as ‘Student’5.Create an account using your UCL email address. Note that you will beasked to specify a new password for your account - do not use your UCL passwordor the enrolment password, but invent one of your own (Turnitin will permanentlyassociate this with your account, so you will not have to change it every 6 months,unlike your UCL password). In addition, you will be asked for a “Class ID” and a“Class enrolment password” (see point 1 above).6.Once you have created an account you can just log in at gb/login and enrol for your other classes without6 Page

going through the new user process again. Simply click on ‘Enrol in a class’. Makesure you have all the relevant “class IDs” at hand.7.Click on the module to which you wish to submit your work.8.Click on the correct assignment (e.g. Essay 1).9.Double-check that you are in the correct module and assignment and thenclick ‘Submit’10.Attach document as a “Single file upload”11.Enter your name (the examiner will not be able to see this)12.Fill in the “Submission title” field with the right details: It is essential thatthe first word in the title is your examination candidate number (e.g. YGBR8In what sense can culture be said to evolve?),13.Click “Upload”. When the upload is finished, you will be able to see a textonly version of your submission.14Click on “Submit”.If you have problems, please email the IoA Turnitin Advisers on, explaining the nature of the problem and the exact module andassignment involved.One of the Turnitin Advisers will normally respond within 24 hours, Monday-Fridayduring term. Please be sure to email the Turnitin Advisers if technical problemsprevent you from uploading work in time to meet a submission deadline - even if youdo not obtain an immediate response from one of the Advisers they will be able tonotify the relevant Module Coordinator that you had attempted to submit the workbefore the deadline7 Page

TEACHING SCHEDULELectures and most practicals will be held on Wednesday from 11 am to 2 pm in room 410. The firsthour will normally include a short introduction to the topic, followed by a description of stone toolattributes. The second hour will be a practical where the lecturer will discuss artefact characteristicsand help the students to recognise the main attributes. The third hour will be used for the studentsto practice analysis.Most hands-on work will be in room 410, but some practicals will be held in the Lithics Lab (204A)or the IoA basement.COURSE SYLLABUSThe following is a session outline for the module as a whole and identifies essential andsupplementary readings relevant to each session. Electronic journal and scanned readings areavailable through the online Reading List and on Moodle. Books are in the Institute of ArchaeologyLibrary. Recommended readings are considered essential to keep up with topics covered in themodule sessions, and it is expected that students will have read these prior to the session underwhich they are listed.Session 1: October 3rdLecture: Approaches to Lithic AnalysisIgnacio de la TorreIn the first part of this session we will introduce the module, review the history of the discipline,discuss theoretical perspectives, and present methods of lithic analysis, with a focus on the valueand reason for employing particular methods.Essential readingIsaac, G. L. 1977. Squeezing blood from stones. In (R. V. S. Wright, Ed.) Stone tools as culturalmarkers: change, evolution, and complexity. New Jersey: Humanities Press, 5-12.Tostevin, G.B., 2011. Levels of Theory and Social Practice in the Reduction Sequence and ChaîneOpératoire Methods of Lithic Analysis. PaleoAnthropology 2011, 351-375.Further readingBinford, L.R., 1973. Interassemblage variability - the Mousterian and the functional argument, in:Renfrew, C. (Ed.), The Explanation of Culture Change: Models in Prehistory. Duckworth, London,pp. 227-254.Bisson, M. S. 2000. Nineteenth Century Tools for Twenty-First Century Archaeology? Why theMiddle Paleolithic Typology of François Bordes Must Be Replaced. Journal of ArchaeologicalMethod and Theory 7, 1-48.Boëda, E., Geneste, J. M. & Meignen, L. 1990. Identification de chaînes opératoires lithiques duPaléolithique ancien et moyen. Paléo 2, 43-80.8 Page

Debenath, A. & Dibble, H. L. 1993. Handbook of Palaeolithic Typology. Vol 1: Lower & MiddlePalaeolithic of Europe. Philadelphia: Univ. Pennsylvania Press.Delage, C. (2017). Once upon a time.the (hi)story of the concept of the chaîne opératoire inFrench prehistory. World Archaeology 49, 158-173.Dibble, H.L., Holdaway, S.J., Lin, S.C., Braun, D.R., Douglass, M.J., Iovita, R., McPherron, S.P.,Olszewski, D.I., Sandgathe, D., 2017. Major Fallacies Surrounding Stone Artifacts andAssemblages. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 24, 813-851.Geneste, J.-M. 1991. L approvisionnement en matières premières dans les systemes de productionlithique: la dimension spatiale de la technologie. In (R. Mora, X. Terradas, A. Parpal & C. Plana,Ed.) Tecnología y cadenas operativas líticas. Barcelona: Treballs d Arqueologia, 1, UniversidadAutónoma de Barcelona, 1-36.Nelson, M.C., 1991. The Study of Technological Organization, in: Schiffer, M.B. (Ed.),Archaeological Method and Theory, Vol. 3nº1. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 57-100.Pelegrin, J., 1990. Prehistoric Lithic Technology: Some Aspects of Research. ArchaeologicalReview from Cambridge 9, 116-125.Shott, M.J., 2003. Chaîne Opératoire and Reduction Sequence. Lithic Technology 28, 95-105.Schlanger, N. 2005. The Chaîne opératoire. In (C. Renfrew & P. Bahn, Ed.) Archaeology. The KeyConcepts. London and New York: Routledge, 25-31.Soressi, M., Geneste, J.-M., 2011. The History and Efficacy of the Chaîne Opératoire Approach toLithic Analysis: Studying Techniques to Reveal Past Societies in an Evolutionary Perspective.PaleoAnthropology 2011, 334-350.Torre, I. de la & Mora, R. 2009. Remarks on the current theoretical and methodological approachesto the study of early technological strategies in Eastern Africa. In E. Hovers and D. R. Braun, (eds.)Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Oldowan. Dordrecht: Springer, 15-24. Pdf available onlinePractical: Labelling and curation, raw material identificationFirst, we will review protocols for processing of stone tool collections, including washing, labellingand curation of lithics. Then we will focus on the identification of main raw materials used in stonetool production, including both macroscopic and microscopic approaches.Readings on labelling and curationMartínez-Moreno, J., González Marcén, P., Mora Torcal, R., 2011. Data matrix (DM) codes: Atechnological process for the management of the archaeological record. Journal of CulturalHeritage 12, la Torre, I. et al. 2014. Archaeological field techniques in Stone Age sites. Some case studies.Treballs d’Arqueologia 20, 21-40.Stone Age Archaeology Group (unpublished): Laboratory protocols for finds processing inarchaeological research. Unpublished document, UCL-Institute of Archaeology, available inMoodle.9 Page

Readings on raw material identificationInizan, M.-L., Roche, H. and Tixier, J. 1992. Technology and Terminology of KnappedStone. Meudon: CREP. Chapter 1.Kearey, P., 2001. Dictionary of Geology. Penguin, London.Luedtke, B.E., 1992. An Archaeologist s Guide to Chert and Flint. University of California,California.MacKenzie, W.S., Adams, A.E., 1994. A Colour Atlas of Rocks and Minerals in Thin Section.Manson Publishing, London.Session 2: October 10thLecture: Origins of stone tool technologyIgnacio de la TorreWe will discuss potential primate precursors for the origins of lithic flaking, and the archaeologicalevidence for the earliest stone tool technology from 3.3 Ma. These include the newly discoveredLomekwi technology from West Turkana (Kenya), and Oldowan flake production in the Early StoneAge. We will consider the presence, nature and meaning of variation during this time period.Reading for the emergence of stone tool technologyCarvalho, S. et al. 2008. Chaînes opératoires and resource-exploitation strategies inchimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nut cracking. Journal of Human Evolution 55, 148-163.Harmand, S., et al. 2015. 3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana,Kenya. Nature 521, 310-315.Panger, M.A., et al. 2002. Older Than the Oldowan? Rethinking the emergence of hominin tool use.Evolutionary Anthropology 11, 235-245Proffitt, T., et al. 2016. Wild monkeys flake stone tools. Nature 539(7627), 85-88.Viewings: Capuchin tool making:

Cambridge University Press. Whittaker, J.C. 1994. Flintknapping: Making and Understanding Stone tools. Austin University of Texas Press. The following articles give a good overview of, and references about the topic: Andrefsky, W. Jr. 2009. The analysis of stone tool procurement, production and maintenance. Journal of Archaeological Research 17 .

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