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The Pearson Guide to theGPATandOther Competitive Examinations in PharmacyThird EditionUmang ShahAshok AkabariAmit Kumar BaserAshish Patel

Copyright 2017 Pearson India Education Services Pvt. LtdPublished by Pearson India Education Services Pvt. Ltd, CIN: U72200TN2005PTC057128, formerly known asTutorVista Global Pvt. Ltd, licensee of Pearson Education in South Asia.No part of this eBook may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without the publisher’s prior written consent.This eBook may or may not include all assets that were part of the print version. The publisher reserves the right toremove any material in this eBook at any time.ISBN 978-93-325-8561-4eISBN 978-93-325-8785-4Head Office: A-8 (A), 7th Floor, Knowledge Boulevard, Sector 62, Noida 201 309, Uttar Pradesh, India.Registered Office: Module G4, Ground Floor, Elnet Software City, TS-140, Block 2 & 9, Rajiv Gandhi Salai, Taramani,Chennai 600 113, Tamil Nadu, India.Fax: 080-30461003, Phone:, Email:

Contents vviviixxiiixxivUNIT 1: PHARMACEUTICSChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Physical Pharmaceutics Pharmaceutical Engineering (Unit Operation) Pharmaceutical Technology and Modern Pharmaceutics Dispensing Pharmacy Biopharmaceutics Jurisprudence Cosmetics Preparation Microbiology 2: PHARMACOLOGYChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Chapter 7Chapter 8Chapter 9Basic Pharmacology Autonomic Nervous System Endocrine Pharmacology Central Nervous System Chemotherapy and Chemotherapy of Cancer Therapeutic Aspect of Inflammatory Disorders Drugs Acting on Cardio-Vascular System Drugs for Gastrointestinal Tract Disorder Pharmacological Drugs Classification 3: PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRYChapter 1 Physical Chemistry Chapter 2 Organic Chemistry 3.33.27

iv ContentsChapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Chapter 6Analytical Chemistry Biochemistry Medicinal Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry 3.863.1463.1843.275UNIT 4: PHARMACOGNOSYChapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5Introduction to Pharmacognosy Drug Containing Alkaloids Drug Containing Glycosides Drug Containing Terpenoids Drug Containing Carbohydrate, Resin and Tannin 5: NIPER SpecialNIPER – Seats Matrix NIPER JEE – Examination Syllabus NIPER Special NIPER JEE – Question Paper I NIPER JEE – Question Paper II NIPER JEE – Question Paper III NIPER JEE – Question Paper IV NIPER JEE – Question Paper V Some Tips for Preparation of NIPER JEE and GPAT 6: SOLVED PAPERS1. L. M. College of Pharmacy, Gujarat (Government of Gujarat) Assistant Professor RecruitmentExamination Question Paper 2016 2. ESIC Pharmacist (Employees State Insurance Corporation -Allopathic) Recruitment Question Paper 2016 3. UPSC Drug Inspector Examination Paper 2011 4. Gujarat Government Lecturer Examination in Degree/Diploma Pharmacy College-Gpsc 2010 5. Gujarat Drug Inspector Exam Paper—GPSC 2010 6. GPAT Paper 2012 7. GPAT Paper 2011 8. GPAT Paper 2010

PrefaceThe Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT) is an online national level examination for admission into all post graduatepharmacy programs approved and conducted by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), New Delhi.The GPAT is conducted annually for admission to the postgraduate courses in the affiliated institutes of AICTE andUniversity Grants Commission (UGC). The GPAT score is also recommended for appearing in the National Instituteof Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) examination and Ph.D. programmes in various universities.The Pearson Guide to the GPAT and Other Competitive Examinations in Pharmacy in its third edition, is a sincereattempt to produce effective course material for the GPAT aspirants.The book has six units, where the first four units are covering major sections of GPAT syllabus. Each chapter ofthe book covers important definitions; theoretical explanations and tabular data to help students learn effectively. Gradedlevels of MCQ (Multiple Choice questions) have been included in the chapter end exercise, which are in line with theprevious year questions from GPAT, GATE, and NIPER JEE. This book is also useful for various entranceexaminations such as Gujarat Public Service Commission (GPSC), Maharashtra CET (MH CET); Manipal University,and Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examinations for Drug Inspector; government lectureship. Unit 5 of thistitle contains all important information regarding NIPER JEE examination syllabus, preparation guidelines, and 5 mocktest papers. This book also contains a separate unit (Unit 6) with all previous years’ solved papers from GPAT, GPSCand UPSC examination’s Drug Inspector; government lecturer and pharmacist’s examination. There is a specialemphasis on GPAT 2017 question paper which is included in front matter of the book. Five new updated Mock-testshave been uploaded online for further practice.We hope this book will help students understand the concepts and enable them to solve maximum questions inminimum time.Finally, we wish all the very best to every student preparing for the GPAT examination.Umang ShahAshok AkabariAmit BaserAshish Patel

AcknowledgementsWriting a book is never one man effort, but it is often result of the invaluable contribution of a number of individuals indirect or indirect manner. This suitably applies to this title. Without help, encouragement & blessings from several persons,we would never have been able to finish this work.Numerous people have been instrumental in enabling us to give a concrete shape to our book. I must mention the namesof those people who have made a catalytic impact on the development of this book.First and foremost, we pay reverence to the omniscient, omnipresent, omnipotent, The God who has perpetually patronizedme with the contentiousness and love.Words are an inadequate medium to express my deep sense of gratitude.Motivation, encouragement and guidance keep person moving towards new endeavor.I wholeheartedly express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Rajesh Maheshwari (Assistant Professor, Faculty of Pharmacy,Sumandeep Vidyapeeth), Dr. Sandip Patel, Mr. Dharmang Pandya, Ms. Kanan Gamit, Ms. Kunti Shah, Ms. Jagruti Prajapati,Ms. Avani Chokshi, and Ms. Mansi Paradkar (Assistant Professor, Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, CHARUSATUniversity) for helping us in reviewing of the book modules and MCQ’s.We wholeheartedly take this opportunity to place on record our profound gratitude to our respected Parents, who arealways a source of strength and inspiration to us and sincerely aspired to see us pursue a higher education. We sincerelyfeel that all the credits should go to our family, for their consistent prayers, affectionate blessings, selfless care and endlessconfidence in us. We heartily believe that without support of our family, we would have never come to the stage of writingthis acknowledgement.Umang ShahAshok AkabariAmit BaserAshish Patel

Syllabus for GPATPHARMACEUTICSIntroduction to physical pharmacyRefer Unit 1: Chapter 1 Matter, Properties of Matter: State of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heats and vapor pressure, sublimation critical point, eutecticmixtures, gases, aerosols-inhalers, relative humidity, liquid. Complexes, liquid crystals, glassy state, solids- crystalline,amorphous and polymorphism. Micromeretics and Powder Rheology: Particle size and distribution, average particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods fordetermining particle volume, methods of determining particle size- optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation;measurements of particle shape, specific surface area; methods for determining surface area; permeability, adsorption,derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties. Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tensions,spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization,detergency, adsorption at solid interfaces, solid-gas and solid- liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties ofinterface. Viscosity and Rheology: Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature; non-newtonian systems: pseudoplastic,dilatant, plastic; thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, negative thixotropy, determination of viscosity, capillary, fallingball, rotational viscometers. Dispersion Systems: Colloidal dispersions: Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids inpharmacy; Suspensions and Emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, theory ofsedimentation, effect of Brownian motion, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation parameters, wettingof particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations; Emulsions-types,theories, physical stability. Complexation:Classification of complexes, methods of preparation, analysis, & applications. Kinetics and Drug Stability: General considerations & concepts, half-life determination, Influence of temperature, light, solvent, catalytic speciesand other factors, Accelerated stability study, expiration dating.

viii Syllabus for GPATImportance of microbiology in pharmacyRefer Unit 1: Chapter 8Structure of Bacterial Cell; Classification of microbes and their taxonomy:Actinomycetes, bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses. Identification of Microbes: Stains and types of staining techniques, electron microscopy; Nutrition, cultivation, isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes,fungi, viruses, etc; microbial genetics and variation. Control of Microbes by Physical and Chemical Methods: Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection, disinfectants and antiseptics and theirevaluation. Sterilization: Different methods, validation of sterilization methods &equipments; Sterility testing of all pharmaceutical products.Microbial assays of antibiotics, vitamins & amino acids. Immunology and Immunological Preparations: Principles, antigens and heptans, immune system, cellular/humoral immunity, immunological tolerance, antigenantibody reactions and their applications. Hypersensitivity, active and passive immunization. Vaccines and sera: theirpreparation, standardization and storage. Genetic Recombination: Transformation, conjugation, transduction, protoplast fusion and gene cloning and their applications. Developmentof hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies. Study of drugs produced by biotechnology such as Activase, Humulin,Humatrope, HB etc. Antibiotics: Historical development of antibiotics. Antimicrobial spectrum and methods used for their standardization. Screeningof soil for organisms producing antibiotics, fermenter, its design, control of different parameters. Isolation of mutants,factors influencing rate of mutation. Design of fermentation process. Isolation of fermentation products with specialreference to penicillins, streptomycins, tetracyclines and vitamin B12. Introduction to pharmaceutical jurisprudence & ethicsRefer Unit 1: Chapter 6 Pharmaceutical Legislations:A brief review; Drugs & Pharmaceutical Industry - A brief review; Pharmaceutical Education An Elaborate Study of the Followings: Pharmaceutical Ethics; Pharmacy Act 1948; Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945; Medicinal & ToiletPreparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955; Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 & Rules; Drugs PriceControl Order. A Brief Study of the Following Acts with Special Reference to the Main Provisions and the Latest Amendments: Poisons Act 1919; Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act 1954; Medical Termination ofPregnancy Act 1970 & Rules 1975; Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960; States Shops & Establishments Act &Rules; Insecticides Act 1968; AICTE Act 1987; Factories Act 1948; Minimum Wages Act 1948; Patents Act 1970. A brief study of the various Prescription/Non-prescription Products. Medical/Surgical accessories, diagnostic aids,appliances available in the market.Introduction to dispensing and community pharmacyRefer Unit 1: Chapter 4 Prescription: Handling of prescription, source of errors in prescription, care required in dispensing procedures including labelingof dispensed products. General dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products; Pharmaceutical

S yllabusforGPAT ixcalculations: Posology, calculation of doses for infants, adults and elderly patients; Enlarging and reducing recipespercentage solutions, alligation, alcohol dilution, proof spirit, isotonic solutions, displacement value etc. Principles Involved and Procedures Adopted in Dispensing of: Typical prescriptions like mixtures, solutions, emulsions, creams, ointments, powders, capsules, pastes, jellies,suppositories, ophthalmic, pastilles, lozenges, pills, lotions, liniments, inhalations, paints, sprays, tablet triturates, etc. Incompatibilities: Physical and chemical incompatibilities, inorganic incompatibilities including incompatibilities of metals and theirsalts, non-metals, acids, alkalis, organic incompatibilities. Purine bases, alkaloids, pyrazolone derivatives, amino acids,quaternary ammonium compounds, carbohydrates, glycosides, anesthetics, dyes, surface active agents, correction ofincompatibilities. Therapeutic incompatibilities. Community Pharmacy: Organization and structure of retail and whole sale drug store-types of drug store and design, legal requirements forestablishment, maintenance and drug store-dispensing of proprietary products, maintenance of records of retail andwholesale, patient counseling, role of pharmacist in community health care and education (First aid, communicablediseases, nutrition, family planning). Organization and Structure of Hospital Pharmacy: Organization of a hospital and hospital pharmacy, Responsibilities of a hospital pharmacist, Pharmacy and therapeuticcommittee, Budget preparation and Implementation. Hospital Formulary:Contents, preparation and revision of hospital formulary. Drug Store Management and Inventory Control: Organization of drug store, Types of materials stocked, storage conditions; Purchase and Inventory Control principles,purchase procedures, Purchase order, Procurement and stocking. Drug Distribution Systems in Hospitals: Out-patient dispensing, methods adopted; Dispensing of drugs to in-patients. Types of drug distribution systems.Charging policy, labeling; Dispensing of drugs to ambulatory patients; Dispensing of controlled drugs, Dispensing ofancillary supplies. Central Sterile Supply Unit and their Management: Types of materials for sterilization, Packing of materials prior to sterilization, sterilization equipments, Supply ofsterile materials. Manufacture of Sterile and Non-sterile Products: Policy making of manufacturable items, demand and costing, personnel requirements, manufacturing practice, Masterformula Card, production control, Manufacturing records. Drug Information Services: Sources' of Information on drugs, disease, treatment schedules, procurement of information, Computerized services(e.g., MEDLINE), Retrieval of information, Medication error- types of medication errors, correction and reporting. Records and Reports: Prescription filling, drug profile, patient medication profile, cases on drug interaction and adverse reactions, idiosyncraticcases. Pharmacoeconomics: Introduction to pharmacoeconomics, different methods of pharmacoeconomics,application of pharmacoeconomics. Pharmacoepidemiology: Definition and scope, method to conduct pharmacoepidemiological studies, advantages & disadvantages ofpharmacoepidemiological studies. Nuclear Pharmacy:Methods of handling radioisotopes, radioisotope committee.

x Syllabus for GPATImportance of unit operations in manufacturing, stoichiometry:Refer Unit 1: Chapter 2 Unit Processes Material and energy balances, molecular units, mole fraction, tie substance, gas laws, mole volume, primary andsecondary quantities, equilibrium state, rate process, steady and unsteady states, dimensionless equations, dimensionlessformulae, dimensionless groups, different types of graphic representation, mathematical problems. Fluid Flow: Types of flow, Reynold's number, Viscosity, Concept of boundary layer, basic equations of fluid flow, valves, flowmeters, manometers and measurement of flow and pressure. Evaporation: Basic concept of phase equilibria, factor affecting evaporation, evaporators, film evaporators, single effect and multipleeffect evaporators, Mathematical problems on evaporation. Distillation: Roult's law, phase diagrams, volatility; simple steam and flash distillations, principles of rectification, Mc-Cabe Thielemethod for calculations of number of theoretical plates, Azeotropic and extractive distillation. Drying: Moisture content and mechanism of drying, rate of drying and time of drying calculations; classification and types ofdryers, dryers used in pharmaceutical industries and special drying methods. Size Reduction: Definition, objectives of size reduction, mechanisms of size reduction, factors affecting size reduction, laws governingenergy and power requirements of a mills including ball mill, hammer mill, fluid energy mill. Size separation: Differenttechniques of size separation, sieves, sieve shakers, sedimentation tank, cyclone separators, bag fillers Etc. Mixing:Theory of mixing, solid-solid, solid-liquid and liquid-liquid mixing equipments. Filtration and Centrifugation: Theory of filtration, continuous and batch filters, filter aids, filter media, industrial filters including filter press, rotaryfilter, edge filter, Etc. Factors affecting filtration, filtration, optimum cleaning cycle in batch filters. Principles ofcentrifugation, industrial centrifugal filters, and centrifugal sedimenters. Crystallization: Characteristics of crystals like-purity, size, shape, geometry, habit, forms size and factors affecting them, Solubilitycurves and calculation of yields. Material and heat balances around Swenson Walker Crystallizer. Supersaturation,theory and its limitations, Nucleation mechanisms, crystal growth.Study of various types of Crystallizers, tanks,agitated batch, Swenson Walker, Single vacuum, circulating magma and Krystal Crystallizer, Caking of crystals andits prevention. Numerical problems on yields; Dehumidification and Humidity Control: Basic concepts and definition, wet bulb and adiabatic saturation temperatures, Hygrometric chart and measurement ofhumidity, application of humidity measurement in pharmacy, equipments for Dehumidification operations; Refrigeration and Air Conditioning:Principle and applications of refrigeration and air conditioning; Material of Construction: General study of composition, corrosion, resistance, Properties and applications of the materials of construction withspecial reference to stainless steel and glass.

S yllabusforGPAT xi Material Handling Systems: Liquid handling - Different types of pumps, Gas handling-Various types of fans, blowers and compressors, Solidhandling-Bins, Bunkers, Conveyers, Air transport. Corrosion:Classification, mechanism of corrosion, factors affecting, prevention and control. Plant Location:Layout, utilities and services. Industrial Hazards and Safety Precautions:Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, fire and dust hazards. Industrial dermatitis, Accident records Etc. Automated Process Control Systems: Process variables, temperature, pressure, flow, level and vacuum and their measurements; elements of automaticprocess control and introduction to automatic process control systems; elements of computer aided manuf

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