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Subject Index - ASTM International

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DS68-EB/Feb. 2002Subject IndexAA-286, 21A-A-59230, 139Abbott, Patrick, iii, vi, 149Absorption equivalence, 55Acetate, 39Acetone, 39, 158Acetylene, 158Acoustic impedance, 32, 35–39,46Acoustic velocity, 35–40, 46Acrylic, 38Adjacent conductormagnetization, 135Air, 39, 41, 155–158, 162, 164Alcohol, 39, 158Alloy steel, 14, 36, 43, 94, 128–130Alternating current, 142Alumina, 22, 37, 114Aluminum, 4, 35, 41–43, 52, 55,83, 90, 115Aluminum alloy, 6, 7, 35, 42, 55,83, 90–92Ammonia, 39, 158Amplitude attenuation, 77, 81, 82,86AMS 2641, 138, 139AMS 2644, 102–106AMS 2647, 107, 110–113, 116AMS 3040, 3042, 3044, 136, 138AMS 3041, 3043, 136, 138, 141AMS 3045, 3046, 136–138, 141AMS 3161, 139Anatase, 22Antimony, 4, 52, 92API gravity, 139, 140Argon, 39, 155, 156, 158Arsenic, 4ASME Boiler Code, 84, 132–136,142Asphalt, 25ASTM A 275, 133–136, 138, 139,141, 142ASTM A 966, 135, 136Copyright 2002 by ASTM STMASTMASTMASTMASTMASTMASTMASTMASTMD 1298, 139D 1500, 139D 2161, 141E 1025, 63E 1032, 59E 11, 136, 137E 1135, 102, 107E 1316, 80E 1416, 59E 1417, 106–108, 114E 1444, 131–138, 141, 142E 1647, 69E 165, 109, 115E 1742, 59E 709, 132E 747, 66, 67E 94, 55–58reference radiographs, 70,71Astroloy, 19Atomic mass, 4, 5Atomic number, 4, 5Attenuation, 41, 52–54Audio frequencies, 3Avogadro constant, 2BBabbit, 92Barium, 4, 52Barium titanate, 46Beam spread, 33, 45Beam width, 33Benzene, 39, 158Benzol, 39Beryllium, 4, 35, 52, 92Beryllium oxide, 22Bismuth, 4Boron, 4Boron carbide, 22Boron nitride, 22Brass, 8–10, 35, 42, 55, 83, 92, 115Brick, 25Brightness, 102, 106, 116Bronze, 8–10, 35, 83, 92, 93, 115173www.astm.org

174HANDBOOK OF REFERENCE DATA FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTINGBrookite, 22Bubble test, 164Bulk modulus, 33, 42Butane, 159CCadmium, 4, 35, 52, 93Calcium, 4, 52, 93Capacitive reactance, 77, 87, 88Capillary leaks, 151, 153Carbide-tipped tools, 115Carbon, 4, 52, 114Carbon dioxide, 39, 158Carbon monoxide, 39, 158Carbon steel, 14, 36, 83, 94, 95,127, 128Cast aluminum alloy, 6, 90Cast copper alloy, 8Cast iron, 13, 35, 93, 126Cast stainless steel, 16Castor oil, 39Cellulose, 23Ceramics, 22, 37, 46, 115Cerium, 4Cesium 137, 51, 60Chlorine, 39Chromium, 4, 53, 93Circular magnetization, 133–134Cobalt, 4, 53, 130Cobalt 60, 51, 60Cobalt-base superalloy, 21Coercive force, 125–130Columbium, 93Concrete, 25, 56Conductance of orifices, 155Conductance of tubes, 157Conductivity, 77–80, 90–95Contrast sensitivity gage, 69Conversion equations for ET, 78–79Conversion factors, 25, 120, 125,160, 161Copper, 4, 8, 35, 42, 53, 55, 83, 93Copper alloy, 8–10, 35, 42, 55, 83,92–94, 115Cosmic rays, 117Crimped tube leaks, 151Critical angle of refraction, 42, 43Curie point, 126–130DDemagnetizing factors, 143Density, 4–25, 35–39, 46, 158, 159Depth of focus, 33Depth of penetration, 77, 80–85,95Developers, 101, 102, 104, 105,107, 114Development times, 114Dielectric constant, 46Diesel oil, 39Diffusivity activation energy, 152Direct current, 142Dwell times, 106, 115Dysprosium, 4EEddy current testing, 75–95Effective diameter, 88Ehrlich, Charles D., iii, vi, 149Electromagnetic radiationspectrum, 117Electromagnetic testing (ET), 75–97, 169Emulsifiers, 102, 105–107Energy spectrum, 3, 117Equivalent penetrametersensitivity, 63–65Erbium, 4Ethane, 158Ethyl alcohol, 158Ethylene, 158Europium, 4Exposure, 60–62FFaraday constant, 2Ferromagnetic materials, 126–130,142Fill factor, 77, 84, 86, 131–133Flat plate testing, 85Flint, 25Flow rate, 151, 155, 156Fluorescence, 102, 103, 106, 119Fluorescent screens, 61

SUBJECT INDEX 175Fluorocarbon, 23, 150Frequency constant, 46GGadolinium, 4Gallium, 4, 35Gamma rays, 3, 50–51, 55, 60, 117Gases, 39, 151, 154–159, 164Gasoline, 39General data, 1–28Geometric unsharpness, 56–60Germanium, 4Glass, 25, 37, 41, 115, 150Glycerin, 39Gold, 4, 35, 93Granite, 25Graphite, 83, 93HHafnium, 4, 55Hafnium carbide, 22Half-value layer thickness, 52, 56Halocarbon, 158Halogen test, 164Hastelloy, 19, 93Haynes alloy, 19, 21Helium, 39, 151, 155, 159Hexane, 159Holmium, 4Hydrogen, 39, 151, 155, 159Hydrogen sulfide, 159IIdeal gas constant, 152Illuminance, 125Illumination, 135, 136Image quality indicator, 63, 65–67Incoloy, 19Inconel, 19, 20, 35, 42, 43, 55, 83,93Incrament 800, 8Indium, 4Induced current flow, 135Inductive reactance, 77, 87, 88Industrial X-ray wavelengths, 3Infrared wavelengths, 3, 117Inverse square law, 61, 62Iridium, 4, 93Iridium 192, 51, 60Iridium-platinum alloy, 93Iron, 4, 13, 21, 35, 43, 53, 55, 93,126Iron carbide, 130Iron oxide, 130, 137Iron-base superalloy, 21ISO 13664, 13665, 136ISO 3059, 136ISO 4986, 131ISO 6933, 131, 136, 138ISO 9934–1, 131, 133–136KKerosene, 39Kinematic viscosity, 125, 139, 141Krypton, 159LL-605, 21Lead, 4, 35, 53, 55, 56, 93Lead metaniobate, 46Lead screens, 69Leak elements, 151Leak equations, 152Leak rate conversions, 160Leak test methods, 164Leak testing, 149–165, 170, 171Leakage rate, 151, 152, 160, 164Lift-off, 85Light sources, 116Limestone, 25Linear absorption coefficient, 51–52Linear attenuation coefficient, 52–54Liquids, 39Lithium, 4, 93Longitudinal magnetization, 131–133Longitudinal wavespeed, 35–39,46Lucite, 38, 41Luminous efficiency, 117

176HANDBOOK OF REFERENCE DATA FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTINGMMackintosh, David, iii, vi, 75Magnesia, 22Magnesium, 4, 35, 42, 43, 53, 55,93, 115Magnesium alloy, 11, 42, 93Magnetic field strength, 77, 79,88, 125Magnetic flux, 77, 88, 89, 125Magnetic flux density, 77, 79, 88,125Magnetic particle sensitivity, 137,138Magnetic particle suspensions,141, 142Magnetic particle testing, 123–147, 170Magnetic particle testingparameters, 135–143Magnetic particles, 135–137Magnetic permeability, 77–79, 84,88, 95Magnetization, 125, 131–135Manganese, 4, 35, 53Marble, 25MAR-M, 20, 21Mass absorption coefficient, 52Mass density, 4–25, 35–39, 46,158, 159Mass spectra, 162Mass spectrometer, 164Mass-to-charge ratio, 162Maximum geometricunsharpness, 59Mean free path, 158, 159Melamine, 23Methane, 39, 159Microwaves, 3Minimum wavelength, 51Modulus of elasticity, 33, 42Molar gas constant, 2Molecular diameter, 158, 159Molecular flow, 154, 155, 157Molecular weight of gases, 158,159Molybdenum, 4, 53, 93Molybdenum disilicide, 22Monel, 35, 55, 83, 94Motor oil, 39Mullite, 22Muntz metal, 9, 92NN-155, 21NDT Handbook, 134–138NDZ, 8Near field transition point, 33, 44Neodymium, 4Neon, 155, 156, 159Nickel, 4, 35, 42, 53, 94, 130, 142Nickel alloys, 19, 20, 35, 55, 83,94, 130Nickel silver, 8, 10, 35Nickel-base superalloy, 19, 20Nicrosilal, 13Ni-hard, 13Nimocast, 20Nimonic, 20, 21Niobium, 4, 53Ni-Resist, 13Nitric oxide, 159Nitrogen, 39, 155, 156, 162Nitrous oxide, 159Nomogram for geometricunsharpness, 57, 58Nomograph for IQI, 64Nondestructive testing standards,167–171Nylon, 23OOhm’s Law, 87Olive oil, 39Orifice leaks, 151, 155Osmium, 4, 94Oxygen, 39, 159PPalladium, 4, 94Parafin oil, 39

SUBJECT INDEX 177Penetrant material classification,101Penetrant material tests, 106Penetrant process flow charts,108–113Penetrant system tests, 105, 107Penetrant testing, 99–121, 169,170Penetrants, 101, 102, 104–107, 164Pentane, 159Permeability, 77–79, 84, 88, 95,125–130Permeability of vacuum, 88, 125Permeation leaks, 151, 152Petroleum, 39Phase, 77, 81, 85, 88Phenol, 23Phenylene, 23Photometry, 116, 117Physical constants, 2Physical leaks, 151Piezoelectric materials, 46Pipe sizes, 70Planck constant, 2Plastics, 23, 24, 38, 114, 115Platinum, 4, 94Plexiglass, 38Poffenroth, Dennis, viPoisson’s ratio, 34, 42Polyethylene, 38Polymers, 23, 24, 38Polystyrene, 38Porcelain, 25Potassium, 4Presley, Connie, viPressure change test, 164Pressure units conversions, 161Prods, 134, 135Propane, 159Pumpdown curves, 163PVDF, 38, 46Pyromet, 20PZT, 46QQuality / sensitivity, 63–69Quartz, 41, 46RRadio frequencies, 3Radio waves, 117Radiographic absorptionequivalence, 55Radiography, 49–72, 168, 169Radiometry, 116, 117Radium 226, 51Rayleigh wavespeed, 35, 36Reciprocity law, 60, 61Reference leaks, 150Reflection coefficient, 33Refraction, 42Remote field testing, 75, 84Removers, 101, 102, 105Rene, 20Resistivity, 77–80, 84, 87, 90–95Rhenium, 4Rhodium, 4, 94Robinson, Sam, iii, vi, 99Rubber, 25Rubidium, 4Ruthenium, 4, 94Rutile, 22SS-816, 21SAE AS4792, AS5282, AS5371,138Sandstone, 25Sapphire, 37Saturation flux density, 125–130Scandium, 4Screens, 61, 69Search unit, 33, 44, 45Selenium, 4, 53, 94Selenium 75, 51Sensitivity, 63–69, 164Shear modulus, 34, 42Shear wavespeed, 35–38Sieve sizes, 136, 137Silal, 13Silica, 22, 37, 151Silicon, 4, 53Silicon carbide, 22, 37Silicon iron, 126, 127

178HANDBOOK OF REFERENCE DATA FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTINGSilicon nitride, 22, 37Sillimanite, 22Silver, 4, 53, 83, 94Sintered leaks, 151Skin depth, 80–82, 84, 86Slate, 25Slotwinski, John, iii, vi, 31Snell’s Law, 33Sodium, 4Soft X-ray wavelengths, 3Solder, 94Solvent removers, 101, 114Specific gravity conversion, 140Spectral radiance of bulb, 118Speed of light, 2Spinel, 22Stainless steel, 16, 17, 36, 42, 43,83, 94, 129, 130Standard cracks, 116Standard leaks, 150Steel, 14–18, 36, 42, 43, 55, 56, 60,68, 70, 83, 94, 115, 127–130Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 2Stellite, 21Strontium, 4Subsonic frequencies, 3Sulfur dioxide, 159Superalloys, 19–21SUS viscosity, 139, 141Suspension vehicles, 138, 139TTantalum, 4, 53, 94Teflon, 38Tellurium, 5Temperature coefficient of leaks,151–153Temperature conversions, 120,125Tenth-value layer thickness, 52,56Terbium, 4Thallium, 5Thermal conductivity, 164Thermal speed, 158, 159Thermal stability, 103Thorium, 5Thulium 170, 51, 60Tin, 5, 36, 54, 94Titanium, 5, 36, 42, 43, 54, 55, 94Titanium alloy, 12, 36, 42, 83, 94Titanium carbide, 22Titanium diboride, 22Tool steel, 18Tool steel ring test, 137, 138Transitional flow, 154Transmission coefficient, 32Tubular testing, 84, 86Tungsten, 5, 36, 42, 54, 94UUdimet, 20Ultra-high frequencies, 3Ultrasonic attenuation, 41Ultrasonic cleaning, 114Ultrasonic equations, 32–34Ultrasonic frequencies, 3Ultrasonic testing, 31–47, 164,167, 168Ultraviolet densitometry, 119Ultraviolet light intensity, 136Ultraviolet stability, 103Ultraviolet wavelengths, 3, 117Unitemp, 20Units for electromagnetic testing,77Units for magnetic particletesting, 125Uranium, 5, 36, 43, 54, 55, 94Uranium carbide, 22Uranium oxide, 22Urea formaldehyde, 24VVacuum, 88, 125, 162–164Vanadium, 5, 54, 94Very high frequencies, 3Virtual leaks, 163Viscosity, 125, 139, 141, 158, 159Viscous flow, 154, 156Visible light intensity, 136

SUBJECT INDEX 179Visible light wavelengths, 3, 117Vision and eye measurements,117–119WWaspaloy, 20, 94Water, 39–41, 151Water vapor, 155, 156, 159Wavelength of maximumemission, 51Wavespeed, 35–40, 46Wien displacement law constant,2Wire rope, 96Wire sizes, 65, 67, 68Wood, 25Wrought aluminum alloy, 7, 91,92Wrought copper alloy, 9, 10Wrought iron, 13Wrought stainless steel, 17XXenon, 159X-ray absorption / attenuation,51–56X-ray sources, 50–51X-ray wavelengths, 50–51X-rays, 3, 49–67, 69YYokes, 142, 143Young’s modulus, 33, 42Ytterbium, 5Ytterbium 169, 51, 60Yttrium, 5ZZinc, 5, 36, 54, 55, 94Zircaloy, 94Zircon, 22Zirconium, 5, 54, 55, 94Zirconium diboride, 22Zirconium oxide, 22, 37, 42

astm a 966, 135, 136 astm d 1298, 139 astm d 1500, 139 astm d 2161, 141 astm e 1025, 63 astm e 1032, 59 astm e 11, 136, 137 astm e 1135, 102, 107 astm e 1316, 80 astm e 1416, 59 astm e 1417, 106–108, 114 astm e 1444, 131–138, 141, 142 astm e 1647, 69 astm e 165, 109, 115 astm e 1742, 59 astm e 709, 132 astm e