Internet GIS And Geospatial Web Services

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Internet GIS and Geospatial Web Services Introduction Section 1 -- What is Internet GIS? Section 2 -- Internet GIS: state of practice Section 3 -- Future development of Internet GIS Section 4 -- Function comparisons of current Internet GISprograms Section 5 -- Internet GIS applications Section 6 – Issues in the Development of Internet GISThese Internet GIS lecture slides for the MIT class 11.520/11.188 were originally developed byProf. Joseph Ferreira (MIT) and Prof. Zhong-Ren Peng (UW-Milwaukee) and used as one partof the URISA Internet GIS Workshop (Vancouver, 2006). They were modified/augmented forFall 2006-2008 for use at MIT by Professors Mike Flaxman and Joe Ferreira.1MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Session Objectives Become familiar with some existing Internet GISapplications in city, county and state governments. Examine Some National & International GIS Serviceswhich provide useful “base data” Look critically at services/methods being proposed2MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Types of Internet GIS Applications Data Sharing and disseminations; Raw GIS data, requires installed software & expertise to use Geospatial Information Sharing and publishing Often includes cartographic representationsCan produce single purpose human-readable images Web Data Services Produce machine-readable geospatial information Distributed Analysis Functions (GIS Anywhere); Interoperable GIS Web Services (GIS Anyone Anywhere).3MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Computing Platforms: The Road frameGISTimeMIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes4

Computing Platforms:Layering & Market Share Shifts(not opGISServerGISServicesInteractive ExplorationCreation, Analysis &Geospatial Content AuthoringSpatial DataInfrastructuresTimeMIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service NotesLocation Based5

Computing Architecture Issues:Internet GIS Interfaces Single User InterfacesIsolated User User as Part of Enterprise GIS User as Part of Cybershere GroupwareMultiple users, one location Multiple distributed users 6MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Computing Architecture Issues:Openness to Modification of System Use / Repurposing of Data Comment / Markup of Data Data Editing7MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Computing Architecture Issues:Openness to Modification of System Closed / Proprietary Semi-open / PublicAPI Open Source –noncommercial useonly Open Source –allowing commercialuses8MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Computing Architecture Issues:Openness to Repurposing of Data Flattened image orgraphics (picture of amap) GeoreferencedImagery Layer visibility control Layer symbolizationcontrol Examples Re-use of GoogleEarth imagery (onlyallowed in theircontext) Map layers with fixedopaque backgrounds9MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Computing Architecture Issues:Types of Geospatial Data Vector Features Raster (Gridded) Data Geo-associated Database Records Imagery Metadata Perspective Views Geotagged Photos Streaming Position Data10MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Computing Architecture Issues:Standards for Geospatial Data For many years, proprietary data formatsmost common Two issuesVendor interest in capturing/maintaining users Efficiency in operation Often by having data formats mirror internalstructuringVendors provide “value added” in software, butthen need means to “persist” data associated withthose features11MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Computing Architecture Issues:Standards for Geospatial Data Many government standards attempted Some “de facto” such as USGS Digital ElevationModels (DEM), TIGER line files Some more formal – National Spatial Data TransferStandard Generally ended up being either Too specificToo unweildy Lead to Public/Private Partnership Approach Resulting in Federal Geographic Data Committee Increased interest in open interoperability standards 12MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Computing Architecture Issues:Standards for Geospatial Data Vector Features “Simple Features” specification (2D points, lines, polys) Geographic Markup Language (GML) Raster (Gridded) Data & Imagery GeoTIFF (geographically tagged TIFF images) JPEG2 (includes GML metadata) Geo-associated Database Records SQL Simple Features Metadata Federal Geographic Data Committee Standards(FGDC)13MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Computing Architecture Issues:Standards for GeoData Transfer Rendered Maps Web Mapping Service (WMS) Vector Features Web Feature Service (WFS) for Read-Only Web Feature Service – Transactional (WFS-T)for Read/Write Raster (Gridded) Data & Imagery Web Coverage Service (WCS) Perspective View Web Terrain Service (WTS) [– bad name!]14MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Client/Server System that divides processing betweenclient (desktop) and server. Client (desktop) requests data, server onlytransmits the result of the request, not theentire file.15MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Components of Client/Server Systems Client, Middleware (optional - the glue) Server.ApplicationPresentationLogicData16MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

The ClientThe Client has three functions: Presents an interface to the user.Formats requests for data.Displays data it receives from theserver.17MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

The Server Provides shared resources, such asdatabases or applications, that can beconnected to multiple clients. It has three functions: receives the structured requests from theclients; processes them; sends the results back to the client;18MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

The Middleware Middleware is software that connects dissimilarapplications and enables them to communicate andexchange data. Middleware sometimes used to translate betweendifferent communication protocols Also used to enhance scalability (many more clients canbe served simultaneously) through load balancing andother smart features WebLogic or TomCat are examples of middleware.19MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Internet GIS Applications in UrbanPlanning Planning information dissemination Comprehensive planning information Zoning information Property and census data Public participation in the planning process Scenario analysis Online feedback Economic Development site selectionMIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes20

Internet GIS Applications inTransportation Real-time advanced traffic informationsystem. Real-time traffic congestion management. Automatic trip planning. Transportation and land use integration. Public participation in transportation planningprocess. Real Time Traffic 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

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Los Angeles – online traffic reportingObservationsFinancing and Corporate Structure Website of local CBS TV/Radio station: data from SmartRoute Systems (formed in 1988) Via Smartraveler Service:http://www.smartraveler.comOwned (since 2000) by Westwood One A national radio content companyUsing Maptuit Corporation web services Specializes in fleet tracking and managementAnd Navteq road data Road basemap data and navigation toolsWith various advertisements using Google services25MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Los Angeles – online traffic reportingObservations (#2) Various client traffic applications built from Core set of data and tools Road map, incident data, routing, advertisingVia realtime chaining of many services To overlay new incidents or congestion icon onbasemapTo display context and time-sensitive ads Complex layering of public/private services Complex partnerships and financing26MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

US EPA: Enviromapper Online mapping website Basic mapping via ArcIMS website choose layers, zoom, identifyOverlay ‘framework’ layers and EPA administrativedata Roads, political boundaries, census data, EPA’s data: AIRS, TRI, Superfund, .27MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

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Accessing Data and GeospatialServices Behind the Scenes Enviromapper is very useful, but ‘read only’ AIRS, TRI data already in Oracle So are Census, USGS, and other datasets Data could be accessed via other protocols and tools If site is built from chained web services Can focus on data services instead of datasets Use OGC’s WMS and WFS protocols forinteroperability Then, many customized client applications couldshare the same data sets without duplication32MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

First, a Simple Example –MIT OrthoTools Orthophotos via plain vanilla web browser MIT Ortho Server (12 years old! 1995-2007) Main page:‘Seamless’ interface: Server-side perl scripts slice and dice orthos to fitsize/scale of view window Requesting only the ortho snippet: 8&x0 237000&y0 902000&action pan&pwidth 400&pheight 300&x 123&y 16933MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

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Accessing MIT OrthoServer from ArcMap MIT OrthoServer as a web service Send URL with parameters Receive PNG, JPG, or Tiff image for desired location Write ArcMap extension ‘dll’ that Adds ortho ‘button’ to ArcMap menu Sends appropriate URL based on ArcMap view Slips returned JPG under ArcMap view window Idea: Preserve only one copy of orthos - on server Throw away local copy Can always retrieve and use when needed36MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

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Next: add in ArcWeb Services ESRI offers many proprietary web services Must be registered for ArcWeb Services from ESRI:Sign up for trial evaluation In ArcMap (or ArcExplorer) click ‘Add Data’ select GIS Servers, thenArcIMS servers, then log in Select FEMA Flood service from the menu 38MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

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Using ArcWeb Services Requires user registration with ESRI Accessible from clients that use ArcIMS protocols(ESRI’s flavor of XML AXL) Free ArcExplorer 9.1can access ArcWeb services Save from ArcExplorer into arcexplorer flood1.axl Saved file is AXL text file At 9.1 ArcGIS has WMS connector built-in Can turn sublayers on/off, but no legend color ortransparency control No WFS support40MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Saved AXL FileUsing ArcExplorer to access FEMA Flood web services ?xml version "1.0" encoding "UTF-8"? ARCXML version "1.1" CONFIG ENVIRONMENT LOCALE country "CA" language "en" variant "" / UIFONT color "0,0,0" name "SansSerif" size "12" style "regular" / SCREEN dpi "96" / /ENVIRONMENT MAP PROPERTIES ENVELOPE minx "-71.24827637959767" miny "42.25863121969604" maxx "-70.98993634926948" maxy "42.45238624244218"name "Initial Extent" / MAPUNITS units "decimal degrees" / /PROPERTIES WORKSPACES IMAGESERVERWORKSPACE name "mapper ws-0" url rimap.Esrimap"service "FEMA Flood" / /WORKSPACES LAYER type "image" name "FEMA Flood" visible "true" id "0" DATASET name "FEMA Flood" type "image" workspace "mapper ws-0" / /LAYER /MAP /CONFIG /ARCXML 41MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Generalizing this Web Service Idea Make service interoperable using OpenGeospatial Consortium (OGC) standardsStandard URL request parameters Standard XML response (using GML) WMS and WFS protocols We will examine several current examples MassGIS Google mashups Middleware tools to tweak and chain services42MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

MassGIS – Web Service Example ‘End User’ websites Home page for MassGIS: layers and download info:‘Oliver’ online mapping java application: Web Services underneath: Winner of 2005 URISA ESIG awardAccess via WMS and WFS ookbooks ArcMap and ArcExplorer example (in exercise)Example URL requesting WMS image (street n.jsp?dpi 120&request GetMap&layers MHD Roads&styles Class&srs EPSG:26986&bbox 233500,900000,236500,902500&width 640&height 480&format image/png&service wms43MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

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Boston Globe Article:Mashup of Election Campaign Contributions Website on paign finance/page2.html?p1 email to a friend Live Google ‘mashup’ webpage (for Back Bay): map.html?from top&zip 02116&z 13 View source and look for: api&v 2.60&key AB.Rest is javascript to interact with Google maps and overlay/identifyentries in local election contribution database maintained byconsultant (Faneuil Media, Inc.)Note: you can ‘pan’ the map or click on dots for further info Google mashup protocols are proprietary but open Google earth protocols use ‘KML’ – a variation of OGC’s GML49MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

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Web Service Chaining using Open SourceTools and Middleware for Customization Effort by MIT Urban Information Systems group (withlocal partners and with Brookings support) Goals: Deliver maps/analyzes onto desktop Utilize Google, Excel, client-side capabilities Allow user-customizable editing to Accumulate and use ‘local knowledge’ Share interpretations of ‘official’ data Prototype use open source tools and openstandards for web service interoperability Linux, Apache, PHP, Postgres/postgis, MapServer OGC protocols and AJAX clients52MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Intelligent Middleware for Understanding NeighborhoodMarketsA collaborative effort by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Metropolitan Area PlanningCouncil, Boston’s Department of Neighborhood Development, and The Boston Foundation withsupport from the Urban Markets Initiative of The Brookings Institution.Police Dept.Data SetsAssessing Dept.Data SetsHealthDept.Data SetsHousingDept.Data SetsRead-only, ‘Official’ datarepositoriesProcessingNormalize, trim, merge, transform,overlay, cookie-cut, extrapolate, qualify, Intelligent dataintermediariesHousing portalServiceServiceEnvironmental portal53MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Examples from MIT ‘Middleware’ Project Community Development Corporation webpageshowing owned properties Spreadsheet showing ‘top-10’ landowners – beforeand after standardizing owner names Middleware management tools for editing/publishingReports, Maps, and ‘Facades’ ArcMap GIS session with Local shapefilesRoads via WMS layer from MassGISDSNI properties via WMS layer from MIT middleware54MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

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A WMS call to themiddleware servicesyields a thematic mapof the properties ownedby Boston’s top-10landownersThe equest GetMap&layers testjf000459MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

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Workshop Sections Introduction Section 1 -- What is Internet GIS? Section 2 -- Internet GIS: state of practice Section 3 -- Future development of Internet GIS Section 4 -- Function comparisons of current Internet GISprograms Section 5 -- Internet GIS applications Section 6 – Issues in the Development of Internet GIS61MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Section 6Issues in the Development ofInternet GIS62MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Section ObjectiveFamiliar with issues involved in thedevelopment of Internet GIS, includingperformance, data access, security, interoperability, etc. 63MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Performance Server performance Speed of the server Multi-threaded functionality Scalability Client performance Local computer power Thin or thick client? Network performance Increase the speed of Internet connection Stream data to the client in an intelligent fashion64MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Interoperability Technical issues what standards are needed for spatial data representationand for application programming interfaces for spatial dataprocessing? Semantic issues what metadata, domain-specific vocabulary, etc. are neededfor data to be appropriately interpreted? Institutional issues what agreements, trust, skills, reorganization, etc. is neededfor organizations to coordinate effectively in the generationand use of spatial information.65MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Interoperability (II) Online references concerning interoperability Technical issues: ORM – OGC Reference Model( orm) Research issues: A summary report of theNCGIA’s specialist meeting on “Interoperabilityof terop toc.html,and the University Consortium on GIS (UCGIS)white paper on interoperability research rch priorities/paper5.html66MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Cost Recovery Should the Internet GIS user be charged? How much? Everyone the same or depending on use? Under what conditions? Does “fair use” imply freedom to “mash up”? Shoud and will governments continue toinvest in expensive data acquisition whenadvertising-sponsored data are “free”67MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Other Issues Data Sharing- will you allow downloads of yourInternet GIS data? Data security- are you protecting your data?Firewalls, DMZs (demilitarized zone). Updates- how difficult is it to update your data? Isyour data getting static, even though it is in aninteractive Internet environment? How much support can you count on from your ITdepartment? Internet GIS requires a lot of IT support.68MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

Summary and Conclusions Internet GIS will make it easier for data sharing and disseminationwithin and among organizations. Internet GIS will help facilitate planning integration and publicinvolvement. Internet GIS will continue to evolve. Four directions: Distributed GIS Components;Web Services;Open and Standards-based;Open Source Software.Watch the commercial companies like Google andMicrosoft; they may lead the way. But watch them closely, less they lock you into proprietarydead-ends 69MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

References Zhong-Ren Peng and Ming-Hsiang Tsou, InternetGIS: Distributed Geographic Information Services forthe Internet and Wireless Networks, John Wiley &Sons, March uctCd-0471359238.html) Longley, Goodchild, Maguire and Rhind, GeographicInformation Systems and Science, 2001. ISBN: 0471-89275-0. (available Cd-0471892750.html) Plewe, Brandon, 1997, GIS Online: InformationRetrieval, Mapping, and the Internet, OnWord Press(available at 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes

MIT 11.188/11.520 Web Service Notes 1 Internet GIS and Geospatial Web Services Introduction Section 1 -- What is Internet GIS? Section 2 -- Internet GIS: state of practice Section 3 -- Future development of Internet GIS Section 4 -- Function comparisons of current Internet GIS programs Section 5 -- Internet GIS applications Section 6 – I

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