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T H E N A M E S OF O L D - E N G L I S H M I N T - T O W N S :ORIGINAL FORM ANDMEANING ANDE P I G R A P H I C A L CORRUPTION—Continued.BYII. T H EALFREDANSCOMBE,F.R.HIST.SOC.NAMES OF OLD-ENGLISH MINT-TOWNSO C C U R IN T H E S A X O N C H R O N I C L E S .CHAPTER45.of Ligera ceastre "917, K." set Ligra ceastre'918, C." Ligora ceaster "942, ft." jet Legra ceastre943, D.IITHEIRTHEIRWHICH(L—Z).Leicester.The peace is broken by Danes —-ere- D ; -ra- B ; -re- C.TheLadyEthelfledagetspossession of the burgLegra-,B ; Ligran-,peacefulD.One of the Five Burghs of the Danes.-era-, B, C ; -ere- D.Siege laid by King Edmund.The syllables -ora, -era, are worn fragments of wara, the gen. pi.of warn.This word has been explained already; v. 26, Canterbury,Part II, vol. ix, pp. 107, 108. Ligora.-then equals Ligwara-ceaster, i.e.,the city of the Lig-waru. For the falling out of w Worcester ( Wiogora-ceaster) Canterbury ( Cant wara burh) and Nidarium (gen. pi. ; Niduarium) may be compared.The distinction between the Old-English forms of Leicester andChester lies in the presence or absence of the letter r.The meaning of # Ligwaru, the Ligfolk, has not yet been determined owing- to the fact that O l d - E n g l i s h scholars have not consultedotheir Welsh fellow-workers.oIn old romance the name for the central

NaesofOld-EnglishMint-townsin theSaxonparts of England south of the Humber and Mersey is " Logres."This is Logre with the addition of the Norman-French 5 of thenominative case. " Logre" in the Arthurian legend equals the WelshLloegr.The people of Lloegr are called " Lloegr-wys," i.e., the Lloegresi, in which es — ens-. Welsh Lloeg- postulates earlier *Lleg-;cf. Welsh coed, coeg, poen, with Latin -cet-um, ccec-us, pcen-a.Now theLatin sound of ae, e, which is represented in Welsh by oe, became iin Old English. Compare Late Latin pena pcena with Old-Englishpin, and also Sequana (the Seine) with Old-English Slgene, and seta andtegula with Old-English side and tile.For these reasons Welsh#Lloeg- postulates older *Leg-, Lec-, Anglian # L i g - . The commencement of the use of the name Lloegr in Welsh to designate Englandwould appear to date from times which were subsequent to the Cymricoccupation of Cambria ; and the r in Lloegr really represents -r- in theworn-down Old-English name. Who the *Leci were is not determinable,but there is a connexion between them and Lecocetum, Bede's " Lic-citfeld," Lichfield.The forms of the name on the coins of the Xlth century areremarkable for the frequency with which H is substituted for G : cf.—CnutHarold I.HarthacnutEdward C.Harold II46." Lincylene " . . ." o n Lincolna"" on Lincollan ".942,1067, D.627, E.LEHRLEHLEHERLEHERLE6RLEDRLEHRELELEHRILincoln.One of the Five Burghs.King William builds a castle.Honorius was consecrated by Paulinus.The derivation and phonological descent of Lincoln from Lindocolonia through Lind-cylene have been explained in Part I of thisessay, vol. viii, pp. 26-28 (14. colnia) and p. 40 (Lindcolnia).Chro

London—Lydford.11The forms inscribed upon the coins reflect both of those cited fromMSS. A and E.AlfredEdwardLIIIIC LLALINDOLNELINDCOLLINDLINCOL.Ethelred II.CnutHarold I.Edward C.LINCOLN47.London."Lundonia" has already been discussed, v. Part I, vol. viii, pp.41-43. The inscriptions on the coins of " Lunden burh" are veryuniform. The leading forms are as follows :—Alfred.AthelstanLondonia in monogram.LVND CIVITTLONDONI CILON EIITX[LO]N3 NEdmundEdgarEdward M.Ethelred II.CnutEdward CHarold II.48." to Hlydanforda "Lydford.997, C, D. The Danes comeHlida-,E.Lyd- Hlyda represents the hypocoristic or pet form of a namecommencing with Hlyd Hludi. Cf. " Hlydanpol," Kemble, Cod.Dipl.,vi, 168.

12NaesofOld-EnglishMint-towns49." o n Limenemu1?an " . 893, A.Edward Min theSaxonLymne.T h e Danes arrive .LIMENEReference should be made to Mr. Carlyon-Britton's note " Limene,"vol. vi, p. 29, and to the remarks made in Part I of this essay,vol. viii, p. 48.Latin e became z in Old English : cf. Sequana :- Sigene, and theother words mentioned above, No. 45, Leicester.We cannot be sureabout the etymon of Portus Lemanis, however; for, though OldEnglish Limene postulates Lemani '"'Limaeni Limene Limne,we must remember that Pliny calls it " Limnus." This shows that thea was short and that we must avoid comparison with the Latin name ofthe Lake of Geneva, sc. Lemanus. The old form of the name ofLimoges was Lemovices. A Celtic vocable lem is obscure to me.50." t o Mseldune"." set Maeldune".Maldon.913, A, E. K i n g Edward goes.921, A.T h e Danes go, and besiege the burg.991, E.T h e Alderman Brihtno'8 was slain.The Old-English word mcel has two meanings : 1, meal ; 2, image,picture. " Cristes mael" means crucifix, and the name of ChristianMalford reflects part of the name of Maldon. In Domesday Book weget " Melduna." The e here is long and in manuscripts A and B weget ce with the length-mark. These dialectal differences appear on thecoins. In the south-eastern dialect e equals West-Saxon ; cf. PartI I , §3Ethelred IIM/ELDVCnutM/ELDEdward CM/ELDVNMELMELCh

Malmesbury—Northampton.51." binnon Mealdelmesby-1015, E.13Malmesbury.Sigeferth's widow broughtThe name of Malmesbury has been elucidated already in Part I,vol. viii, pp. 43, 44.The breaking ea before Id points to an original maid-, which mustbe regarded as a correption of Maild(ub), though the contaminationwith " Eald (helm) " has a great deal to answer for.On the coins we g e t —CnutMEALMEALEMEALMEALDMEALMMELMEEdward C52." of Hamtune "" to Hamtune "917, A.918, A.1010, E." innan NorShamtune'1064, E.1087, E.Northampton.The Danes break out from Northampton.T h e Danes belonging to Northamptonsubmit to Edward.The Danes come to Northampton andburn it.Morker comes to Northampton.Hugh of Grantmesnil ravages.The meaning of Hamtun is not necessarily the home-town, or-enclosure. The root ham- has many meanings and is both head-wordand deuterotheme in the names of men. Cf. Byrn-ham, Byrn-hom,and Hama. The patronymic Heming may come from Ham- and it isvery likely that the original of Hamtun was *Hamantun. Thecelebrated name Hama, Old Norse Heimir, means a " cricket"; alsothe " womb." Hama means the "skin," a " covering," a " surplice."For tun see No. 81.The prefix nor*8 does not appear in the Chronicles till the reign ofWilliam the Conqueror. The mint is referred to so early a period as

14 NaesofOld-EnglishMint-townsin theSaxonthe reign of Edgar, under whom a coin stamped N.AM is believed tohave been struck here. See Mr. Carlyon-Britton's remarks, vol. ix,pp. 140-143.53." to Nor 5wic ""set NorSwic ".1004, E.1087, E.Norwich.King Swegen and his fleet cameRoger Bigod seizes the castle.F o r nor S and wick s e e N o s . 52 and 35.The inscriptions on the coins show but little variety: NORBPILappears on the coins of Athelstan, Edmund, Ethelred II. ; the O is alsoretained on Edred's, Cnut's, Harold the First's, and Edward the Confessor's coins. NORPIC appears under Athelstan, Edred, Cnut andEdward the Confessor.54." o Snotengaham "" t o Snotingaham"" Snotingaham "" to Snotingaham "868,ft.923, ft.942, ft.1067, D.Nottingham.Ethelred and Alfred go with the WestSaxon army into Mercia.Edward goes.One of the Five Burghs.King William goes —and builds acastle there.Snotingaham means the Home of the Snotingas, i.e., of thechildren of some chief whose name, like Snot-here and Snot-er, wasmade up of the head-word Snot and a deuterotheme. The name occursin Ellis's list B of Domesday tenants. The meaning of " Snot " isat the root of snoter, " wise," "prudent " ; cf. snyttru, "wisdom." Thisword is found in Gothic (snutrs), Old Icelandic (snotr), and Old Saxonand Old High German (snottar).The form " Snotengeham " under Athelstan reflects that in theChronicle, 868, above.This is unique in its fulness.AthelstanCnutHarthacnutEdward C.Harold II.SNOTENCEHAMSNOSNOTSNOTIHSNOTIhCh Oxnaforda "ast Oxnaforda "to Oxneforda "on Oxona forda "on Oxnaforda "into Oxenford ".912, A. 924, C.1009, E.1015, E.1036, E.,.1140, E.15Oxford.King Edward took-, i.e., took possessionof.King Edward's son Alfweard diesThe Danes go.A great gemot held.A great gemot held, after Cnut'sdeath.The Empress Maud broughtThe Oxford pennies of King Alfred have already receivedattention ; v. Mr. Carl yon-Britton's article in vol. ii, p. 21, and anotherby myself in vol. iii.The meaning of the name is rendered unnecessarily obscure by thesuperficial suggestion that it means just the ford used by the oxen whenthey crossed over into Oxfordshire or Berkshire. The forms in theChroniclesare : E.D.E.The supposed identity of this name with the gen. pi. of oxa, an" ox," is formal and resultant and we never get the form in exen oexen.The genitive plural in -ena instead of -a appears particularly infolk-names: cf. Engle : Englena; Mierce:Miercna; Seaxe :Seaxna. Similarly Oxna indicates Oxe as its nominative plural. Nowthe letter " x " presents a difficulty here, just as it does in the wordsdiscussed in Part II, vol. ix, p. x 13, under Escan-ceaster: Exanceaster, namely, axe: asce, "ashes"; fixas: fiscas, "fishes"; axian:ascian, "to ask." Similarly Oxe : Osce the Oscas (o).These wouldbe the descendants of a chief named Osc a deuterotheme. But "osc " isnot West Saxon, but Old Saxon, or Jutish. It was the name of one ofHengist's sons, and Bede gives us the patronymic in umlaut: " Oisca quo reges Cantuariorum solent Oiscingas cognominare"; vol. ii,p. 90. " Oisc " # osci, and the Gothic form is Ausch-is. The West-

16NaesofOld-EnglishMint-townsin the SaxonSaxon correspondent is *easc, but that does not occur, and we get /Esc,which eventually yielded Eash- in Esher and Eashing, in Surrey.In the Nomina Hidarum,written c. iooo, we get the impossibleform noxgaga.I have shown elsewhere that this misrepresents*Oxnaga, the rt of the Osce. Next to it, in the list, is Ohtnaga-—-the gaof the Ohte, another Jutish race. The word ga is not West Saxon,but it is Frisian or Jutish, and it represents the Old-Saxon go, OldHigh German gou, a district or country.Hence Oxenaford means the ford of the Oxe, or descendants ofOsc, the son of Hengist.The spellings upon the coins are very irregular—Alfred.OWSNA0R3NAOHSNA0X VRBISOXNAOCOCXENOX 2 EN AOLXENEOXENEOXNEOXENEAthelstanEthelred II.CnutEdward C.Harold II.56." o n P rscore".1053, D." on Perscoran "" of Perscoran ".1056,0.1086, E.Pershore.Odda'sbrotherAlfricburied.Odda dies and is buriedDeath of the abbot.diesandis. -cora, D.This mint has been studied by Mr. Carlyon-Britton ; v. Peresc,vol. vi, p. 35.The meaning of the name is said to be " a portion of land forgrowing pears " ; v. British Place-namesin their HistoricalSetting,by the Rev. Edmund McClure, 1909, p. 298. The Latin SNOT& pirumwas domesticated in Old English as peril, pere, and that, with compensatory lengthening of the first vowel, has become our " pear." ButChron

Peterborotigh—Petherton—Pevensey.17there is a difficulty—the locative " o n Perscoran " cannot come from aform " perscoru " as Mr. McClure supposes.T h e true word is scearu,and that might mean an estate, a portion of land.But in the first placescearu does not make its oblique cases in -an, and in the second thelength-mark over 0 in M S . c forbids us to equate -scearu and -score.T h e only coin of this mint which is known is inscribed :— Edward Conf.57."Burh".656, E."toBurch".963, E.PEREcoCPeterborough.T h e monasteryfor the loveSt. Peter. ItThebodiesSt. KynesurSat Medeshamstede foundedof Christ and honour ofwas afterwards called.ofSt.Kyneburhandbrought.T h e name given by Bede—Medeshamstedi, was considered inPart I, vol. viii, p. 44.Peterborough is included in this essay becauseminting-rights at Stamford were conceded to its abbot by King Edgarin 972 and some coins have been attributed to the Abbey itself.Butthe attribution is now rejected.58.Petherton.T h e old name of the River Parrett was " Pedride " (658, A ), andthe mouth of the Parrett is called " Pedridanmu a" (845, A ). Thismint has been studied by Mr. Carlyon : Britton ; v. vol. vi, p. 34.Edward CON PEDR59." a t Peuenes e a ".1046, F.Pevensey.Earl Godwin and Earl Beorn lay.on Pefenasce Peuenes ea D ; -ot E."into Pefnesea".1066, D.Duke William comes.Pefena is a unique name, but the ending, like that of Hag-ena,Bors-ena and Brec-ena, is certainly Old English.VOL.x.T h e second elementc

18NaviesofOld-EnglishMint-townsin the Saxonis less clear. The Old-English ea is a " river," but the meaning isobscured for us by dialectal differences. The MS. F is Kentish andin that dialect w and la represent Germanic eu ; cf. article 1512:, eu, eg,ig, insula, Part II, vol. ix, p. 100. We get, in order of time, "Seiseseu," " Seises ei," " Seoles ig," " Sels-ey, " and the Kentish " Peuenesea " is the representative of older " Peuenes eu," and the forerunner ofmodern Pevensey. The South-Saxon pronunciation is " Pemsey."This mint was established by King William and the forms foundon the coins are PEFHESL, PEFMS, and PFNE.60." to Readingum ".871, K.Reading.The Danes come,fram Redingum, E." to Raedingan".1006, Readingon, F. (872).T h e Danes ravage from the sea.This is the locative case of a West-Saxon patronymic Readingas,the sons of a chief whose name was Read a deuterotheme.West-Saxon ea before d is not a breaking, hence we must mark thediphthong long. This denotes Germanic Raud which appears in theDanish names Raud and Gud-raud. The meaning of " read " is " red " ;cf. Gothic rau\s, Old-Norse rau&r, Old-Saxon rod.For the correptionof the long diphthong ea, cf. Old-English dead, deaf, bread, with our" dead," " deaf" and " bread," respectively.On the coins we get ON REDI and ON READIN. The former ofthese reflects the spelling in MS. E, annal 871. The Anglian , latere,does sometimes represent W. S. ea, Germanic au.61." Rudelan ".1063,0.Rhuddlan.This town was burnt by Earl Harold.The name, of course, is Welsh, and Old-Welsh rud, modern rhudd(dd th in "then") means "red." The ending "-lan," modern llan,means "enclosure," "land."This mint was not established till after the Conquest; v. vol. iv,pp. 6 6 - 6 8 .C

Rochester—Romney.62."on Hrofesceastre"" set Hrofeceastre "839, ff.986, E.1023, D.1087, E.1124, E." to Hrofesceastre ""on Hrofeceastre"" of Roueceastre "19Rochester.The Danes commit great slaughter.King Ethelred ravages.MS. C also omits the J. So also 999, E.The relics of Alphege carried.Odo provisions the castle.Ernulf bishop.This name was considered in Part I, vol. viii, pp. 38, 39, underBede's form " Hrofaescaestir."The coins retain the F of the root except in some instances underHarold I.EdgarEthelred II.CnutHarold I.Edward C.Harold II.ROFROFECROFEROCROFEROFI63." Rumenea " .1052, E.Romney.Dungeness said to be to the south of.This ea is the West-Saxon and Mercian reproduction of KentishIt is wrongly supposed to be West-Saxonea *eaha Germ, aha (Latin aqua) " a river." Cf. supra, No. 59." Rum-en " is supposed by some commentators to mean Roman.The Old-English Rum-walh certainly means Rome-welsh, but " Rum "enters into the composition of several names of men and women.Cf. Rymen-hild ( rumin-), Rum-beald, Rum-beorht, Rum-wulf.We get this folk- and land- name in a charter of 697. Therein weread of " Rumining seta," i.e., (the land) of the settlers of Germanic eu, inszila.Ethelred IICnutEdward CHarold I IRVMERVMNRVMEERVMEIC2

20 NaesofOld-English64.552," a;t Searobyrg" to Searebyrig" o n Searbyrig'" of Seresbyrigff.Mint-townsin theSaxonSalisbury.Cynric defeated the Britons at the placecalled.1085, E.1096, E.A witena gemot heldA witena gemot held1123, E.Roger, Bishop of.Seres- twice ; Sceres- twice ; Seares- thrice,all in the same annal." S e a r u " was a personal name, cf. Kemble,1084.T h e West-Saxon word searo, searu,Codex Dipl.,337,means a device.Thebreaking ea indicates that r was followed by w—i.e., that it was *searw fsarw.N o w searu sarwe postulates Sarwe-odunum,[Sorvi-odunum]. I regard this as quite accidental, and believe that there is nomore connexion between " Searu " and " Sorbis " than there is betweenCair " Gloyw " and " Gleawanceaster."Breton Herv .With " Sorvios " compare theIn Brythonic earlier s became h : Latin sal, sen-ex,ser, sits, are r e p r e s e n t e d b y hal, hen, hwyr,a n d hwch,in W e l s h .T h e letter of the possessive does not appear 011 the coins.CnutSERSEREBSERBSERBIR6EgoERBVREdward C65."Sondwic".851, A.Sandwich.Athelstan, King of Kent, defeats the heathenat.Sand- in other MSS.T h e suggestion so oftenmade that wic in this place-name isScandinavian vik, " bay," and not Latin vic-us, " village," is uncritical.T h e heathen did not winter in Kent till 851 and were not heard of inthe South of England till about 785.Because vik means " bay " andthere are numerous " s a n d - v i k s " in Norway it need not follow that wicdoes not mean " v i l l a g e " in Kent and East Anglia.Chr

Shaftesbury—Southampton—Southwark.21T h e name on the coins is uniform.Ethelred IIEdward CSANSASANDP66." to Scaeftesbyrig" ." on Sceaftesbyrig " .980, E.982, C.Shaftesbury.King Edward buriedHerelufu dies." Sceaft" is the head-word in some such name as Sceaft-mund,Sceaft-wulf or Sceaft-here. A t 980 E ce is the Anglian representativeof West-Saxon ea. /E, EA, and E appear on the coins. T h e lastindicates Kentish influence. In that dialect e represents West-Saxonea after palatal c, sc and g.Ethelred IICnutsCEFTSHEA/EsCFTEssCEFTESBSLEAFSCEFTESEdward CHarold II67." SnShamtun""set Hamtune".980, C.837, ASouthampton.ravaged by the Danes.Wulf-heard defeats the Danes.T h e meaning of the name is not, perhaps, so obvious as it seems ;cf. 52,Northampton.T h e inscriptions on the coins are uniform, except on one of Edgar'swhich yields HANTVN.68A." to SnSgeweorke".1023, D." to Su]?geweorce ".1052, D.Southwark.The body of St. Alphege broughtwater.Earl Godwin and his sons come.T h e word " ge-weorc " means a (military) work.breaking of e into eo before r consonant.byIt presents theOur word represents the

22NaesofOld-Englishlate West-Saxon formare:—Mint-townsin theSaxonChThe principal variants on the coinswore.Ethelred II.CnutsVBDESVDCLHarthacnutEdward C.SVOQERSVODSV-DESVDPsVDEf SVODHarold II.68." S t a n e w i g " .1137, E.Stanwick.Abbot Martin of Peterborough recovered.The Old-English "wig" means "war," "contest" and wouldappear to be erroneous here. It might be suggested that it stands for" weg," "way " and the first element in the name supports this view.Under King Ethelred II. we get s T A N V .In the index to the place-names we are considering " Southwick "has displaced Stanwick.69. Stafford." Stafford "9x3, C.Ethelfleda fortifies.Staf-, D." Stseffordscir ".1016, D.Edmund Ironside marches into.The word is made up of staf, a stick or staff, and ford.Theconnexion is not apparent. Under Edward the Confessor we getON ST/EFORDE.70." t o Steanforda "" Stanford "" Stanford " .922, A.942, A.936, E.Stamford.K i n g Edward came with his army.One of the Five Burghs.King Edgar granted a moneyer in Stamfordto the minster that was called Medeshamstede ; " an myneter in."The name of Stamford is supposed to mean Stone-ford. But stancannot be represented by stean, as in 922 A, and it is obvious that the

Sudbury—Tamworth—Taunton.writer of ft did not recognise stan in the place-name.stean stanu is indicated.23A MercianNo occurrence of 0 appears and the length-mark is absent.The inscriptions on the coins are very uniform, ranging, as theydo, from sTA to STANFORD. The stem-vowel is always a on the coins.71." on S u d b m "798, FSudbury.Bishop Alfhun diesThis is a twelfth-century form.The meaning can only be " atthe south burgh."Ethelred IIEdward CsV-DBYcoVPBVG72." aet Tamewor]?ige "" to Tamaweor ige "922, ft.913, C." aet

burn it. 1064, E. Morke comes to Northampton. r 1087, E. Hug Grantmesnih ol ravagef . s The meanin Hamtug ofn is not necessaril the home-towny or ,-enclosure. The root ham-ha meanings manys and is both head-word and deuterotheme in th mene name. Cf. Byrn-hams of Byrn-hom, , and Hama. The patronymi Hemingc ma comy e fro Hamm - and it is very likel thayt the origina Hamtun *Hamantun wal ofs .

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