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CHAPTER 7ACCOUNTING FOR SHARE CAPITAL(Share and Share Capital : Nature and types)“A Company is an artificial person created by law, having separate entity with aperpetual succession and a common seal.”Definition given by Prof. HaneyCharacteristics (Features) of a company1.The certificate of incorporation of a company is issued by registrar ofcompanies as per procedure/guidelines given in the Companies Act, 2013.The law considers a company as an artificial legal person.2.A Company is a separate legal entity from its owner (shareholders).3.A company has perpetual existence, not affected by the death, lunancy orinsolvency of its shareholders. It can be wounded up only by the law (Courtor registrar of company.)4.Every company has it own common seal, which act as the official signatureof the company.5.The shares of a company is transferable subject to certain conditions (e.g.some conditions for private company.)6.The company is managed by the ‘Board of Directors’, the directors arerepresentative of the shareholders (owners). So, management and ownershipare separate in company organization.7.The liability of a shareholder is limited upto the nominal price of sharessubscribed by one.Types of Companies(i)Private Company – Section 2 (68) of the Companies Act, 2013 defines “Aprivate Company means a company which has a minimum paid up capital ofRs. 100,000 and which by its Articles of Association –(a)restricts the right to transfer its shares;[Class XII : Accountancy][110]

(b)limits the number of its members to 200 excluding its part or presentemployee members;(c)Prohibits any invitation to public to subscribe for any of its securities.(ii)Public Company – According to section 2 (71) of the Companies Act, 2013a public company means a company which is not a private company and hasa minimum paid up capital of L 500,000 or higher capital as may be prescribeda private company which is a subsidiary of a company not being a privatecompany shall be deemed a public company.(iii)One Person Company – Section 2 (62) of the Companies Act, 2013 states oneperson company is a company which has only one person as a member.Rule 3 of the Companies (In Corporation) Rules, 2014 provides that (i) onlyon Indian citizen resident in India can form one person company (ii) Its paidup capital is not more than 50 lakhs; (iii) Its Average annual turnover shouldnot exceed Rs. 2 crores; (iv) It cannot carry out Non banking financialInvestment activities.Class / Types of Shares : There are two classes of shares1.2.Preference shares : The shares which get preferential right in respect of :(a)Right of dividend(b)Repayment of capital on winding up of the company.Equity shares : The shares which are not preference shares are called equityshares and do not get preference in above respect.Distinction between Equity Share and Preference ShareBasicEquity SharePreference Share1. Refund of CapitalOn Winding up, the equityshare capital is paid after thepreference share capital is paidor equity shareholder receivedresidual amount.On winding up, the preferenceShare capital is paid before theEquity share capital is paid orpreference shareholder havepreference to get refund ofcapital over Equity shareholders.2. Right of DividendDividend is paid on Equityshares after payment ofdividend on preference shares.Dividend is paid on preferenceshare before payment ofdividend on Equity shares.[111][Class XII : Accountancy]

3. Right of DividendNo fixed rate of dividend. It isdecided by board of directorsevery year and varyperiodically.Fixed rate of dividendprescribed on the face ofpreference shares e.g. 9%Preference same in this caserate of dividend is 9%.4. Right to VoteEquity shareholder have theright to vote in meeting ofshareholders and they electdirector for managing thecompany.In normal course of business,preference shareholders do notenjoy the right to vote in themeetings of shareholders. Butthey have it only in specialcircumstances.5. RedemptionEquity share are notredeemable, however, acompany may buy back itsequity shares as conditionprescribed in section 68 of theCompanies Act, 2013Preference share are alwaysredeemable, now a companycannot issue irredeemablepreference shares.Types OR Classes of Preference Shares(a)(b)(c)With Reference to Dividend :(i)Cumulative Preference shares : Cumulative preference shares are thesepreference shares, the holders of which are entitled to receive arrears ofdividend before any dividend is paid on equity shares.(ii)Non-cumulative Preference shares : Non-cumulative preference sharesare those preference share, the holders of which do not have the rightto receive arrear of divided. If no dividend is declared in any year dueto any reason. Such shareholders get nothing, nor they can claim unpaiddividend in any subsequent years.With Reference to Participation(i)Participating preference shares : such shares, in addition to the fixedpreference dividend, carry a right to participate in the surplus profit, ifany, after providing dividend at a stipulated rate to equity shareholders.(ii)Non-Participating preference shares : Such shares get only a fixed rateof dividend every year and do not have a right to participate in thesurplus profit.With Reference to Convertibility(i)Convertible preference shares : are those preference shares whichhave the right/option to be converted into equity shares.[Class XII : Accountancy][112]

(ii)(d)Non-convertible preference shares : are those preference shares whichdo not have the right/option to be converted into Equity shares.With Reference to Redemption(i)Redeemable preference shares : are those preference shares the amountof which can be redeemed by the company at the time specified for theirrepayment or earlier.(ii)Irredeemable preference shares : are those preference shares the amountof which cannot be refunded by the company unless the company iswound up. Now a company cannot issue irredeemable preference shares.Some Important Terms used in Accounting for Share CapitalNote 1 : Minimum Subscription (Section 39) – It is the minimum amount statedin the prospectus that must be subscribed by the public before an allotment of anysecurity is made.Prospectus : It is an invitation to public for subscription of shares or debentures.Capital : means amount invested in the business for the purpose of earning revenue.In case of company money is contributed by public and people who contributedmoney are called shareholders.Share Capital : Capital raised by issue of shares is called share capital.Authorised Capital : Also called as Nominal or registered capital. It is the maximumamount of capital a company can issue. It is stated in Memorandum of Association.Issued Capital : This is part of authorized capital which is offered to public forsubscription. It cannot exceed authorized capital.Called Up Capital : It is the amount of nominal value of shares that has been calledup by the company for payment by the subscriber towards the share.Paid Up Capital : It is part of called up capital that the members of company orshareholders have paid.Reserve Capital : It is part of increased capital and/or portion of uncalled sharecapital of an unlimited company which can be called only in case of winding upof the company.Capital Reserve : It is capital profit not available for distribution as dividend. It isrepresented in balance sheet of company as Reserves and Surplus under the headingShareholder’s Funds.Disclosure of Share Capital in Company’s Balance Sheet.[113][Class XII : Accountancy]

Illustration : S T L Global Ltd. was formed with a nominal Share Capital ofL 40,00,000 divided into 4,00,000 shares of L 10 each. The Company offers 1,30,000shares to the public payable L 3 per share on Application, L 3 per share on Allotmentand the balance on First and Final Call. Applications were received for 1,20,000shares. All money payable on allotment was duly received, except on 200 shares heldby Y. First and Final Call was not made by the Company.How would you show the relevant items in the Balance Sheet of STL Global Ltd.?Solution 1Balance Sheet (Extract) of S T L Global Ltd. (Relevant Part only)As atParticularsNotes No.( )Equity and LiabilitiesShareholder’s Funds :(a) Share Capital(1)7,14,000AssetsCurrent Assets :Cash and Cash Equivalents (cash at Bank)7,14,000ParticularsDetails( )(1) Share CapitalAuthorised Capital :4,00,000 shares of L 10 each40,00,000Issued Capital :1,30,3000 shares of L 10 each13,00,000Subscribed but not Fully Paid Capital:1,20,000 shares of L 10 each L 6 per share called-upLess : Calls in Arrears (200 shares L 3)7,20,0006,0007,14,000Illustration 2. On 1st April, 2012, Janta Ltd. was formed with an authorized capitalof 50,00,000 divided into 1,00,000 equity shares of 50 each. The company issuedprospectus inviting application for 90,000 Shares. The issue price was payable asunder:On Applicant: L 15On Allotment: L 20[Class XII : Accountancy][114]

On call: Balance amountThe issue was fully subscribed and the company allotted shares to all he applicants.The company did not make the call during the year.Show the following :(a)Share capital in the Balance Sheet of the company as per revised schedule VI, Part-I of the companies Act, 1956.(b)Also prepare Notes to Account’s for the same.Solution :Balance Sheet of Janta Ltd.As at. (As per schedule iii)ParticularsNote No.AmountCurrent Years1.31,50,000AmountPrevious yearsEquity & Liabilities1. Shareholder’s funds(a) Share CapitalNotes to AccountsParticulars(L)1. Share CapitalAuthorised Capital1,00,000 equity shares of L 50 each50,00,000Issued Capital90,000 equity shares of L 50 each45,00,000Subscribed CapitalSubscribed but not fully paid90,000 shares of L 50 each L 35 called up L31,50,000Issue of SharesShares can be issued in two ways1.for cash2.for consideration other than cash[115][Class XII : Accountancy]

Terms of Issue of SharesShares can be issued in two ways.1.Issue of shares at Par2.Issue of shares at PremiumIssue of shares against Lump sum payment : When whole amount due on sharesis payable in one instalment. The journal entries will be as follow:Illustration 3 : Vaibhav Ltd. issued 1,00,000 shares of L 10 each at per. The wholeamount was payable with application. Pass the necessary journal entries in the booksof company.SolutionJournalDateParticularsLF.Debit (L)Bank A/cDr.To Share Application and allotment A/c(Being the application money received on1,00,000 shares at L 10 per share)10,00,000Share Application and Allotment A/c10,00,000To Share Capital A/c(Being the share allotted and transfer ofapplication money on 1,00,000 shares toshare capital account)Dr.Credit (L)10,00,00010,00,000Shares Payable in Instalments1.First instalment paid along with application is called as applications money.2.Second instalment paid on allotment is called as allotment money.3.Subsequent instalment paid are called as call money calls can be more thanone and called First call, second call or as the case may beIssue of Shares for Cash at Par : This means shares are issued at face valueJournal entries.For ApplicationmoneyBank AccountDr. (No. of Application XTo Share Application A/cApplication amount per share)On acceptance ofApplicationsShare Application A/cTo Share Capital A/c[Class XII : Accountancy][116]Dr. (No. of Share allotted Xapplication amount called on cash)

For allotmentmoney dueShare Allotment A/cDr. (No. of Shares allotted X amountTo Share Allotment A/ccalled on allotment for each shareOn receipt ofallotment moneyBank AccountTo Share Allotment A/cDr. (No. of allotment share X Amountreceived on allotment for each share)or actual amount received)For call money dueShare Call A/cTo share Capital A/cDr. (No. of shares allotted X amountcalled on each call share)On receipt of CallsmoneyBank A/cTo share Call A/c(No. of application allotted XAmount received on each share)Illustration 4 : X Ltd. invited application for 10,000 shares of the value ofL 10 each. The amount is payable as L 2 on application and L 5 on allotment andbalance on First and Final Call. The whole of the above issue was applied and cashduly received. Give Journal entries for the above transaction.JournalDateParticularsLF.Bank A/cTo Share Application A/c(Being the application money received on10,000 shares at L 2 per share)Dr.Debit (L)Credit (L)20,00020,000Share Application A/cvDr.To Share Capital A/c(Being the transfer of application money on10,000 shares to share capital account).20,000Share Allotment A/cTo Share Capital A/c(Being the amount due on 10,000 sharesat L 5 per share)50,000Dr.20,00050,000Bank A/cDr.To Share Allotment A/c(Being the receipt of L 5 on 10,000 shares)50,000Share first & final call A/cTo Share Capital A/c(Being the amount due on 10,000 sharesat L 3 per share)30,000Dr.Bank A/cDr.To share first & final call A/c(Being the receipt of L 3 on 10,000 shares)50,00030,00030,00030,000Note : For each entry narration is compulsory[117][Class XII : Accountancy]

Issues of Shares At Premium : It is issue of share at more than face value.This premium can be utilized for : (Section 52)1.Issue of fully paid bonus shares to the shareholders.2.Write off preliminary expenses of the company.3.Writing off securities issue expenses commission paid discount on issue ofsecurities.4.For providing the premium payable on redemption of Redeemable preferenceshares or debentures of the company.5.For Buy back of its own shares as per Section 68.Journal Entries for accounting of securities premium, the securities premium maybe collected by the company with application money / Allotment money / First call/FinalCall depend upon the terms of issue of shares. If questions is silent regarding the securitiespremium amount due, it is assumed that securities premium money is due with theallotment money. Following are the various situation of securities premium received withapplication, allotment and call.1. For ApplicationmoneyBank AccountDr. (No. of Application XTo Share Application A/cApplication

[Class XII : Accountancy] [110] CHAPTER 7 ACCOUNTING FOR SHARE CAPIT AL (Share and Share Capital : Nature and types) “A Company is an artificial person created by law, having separate entity with a

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