Advanced Technical Information All 1605 4636 4

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Advanced Technical InformationAll160546364Binder – 4 --- ChassisBrake SquealVehicle Type:AllModel Year:AllInformation:Understanding and addressing brake squeal complaintsDisc brake squeal is the most common brake noise complaint received from customers. This bulletinwill help you understand what disc brake squeal is, and how to address it.Remember that brake squeal is a normal result of different factors acting on the brake system anddoes not constitute a defect.Porsche Brake systems are high performance brake systems engineered to perform on Porsche vehicles. Due to the stresses to which Porsche vehicles are oftentimes subjected, Porsche vehicles sentin for brake service may exhibit exceptional wear at earlier than expected times compared to wearfound typically on other vehicles. All of the conditions described below are the result of normal brakesystem wear and are therefore not warrantable.The Owner’s Manual states: (Driving and Driving Safety section)Brake pads and brake discsWear on the brake pads and brake discs depend to a great extent on the driving style and the conditions of use and therefore cannot be expressed in actual miles on the road. The high-performancebrake system is designed for optimal braking effect at all speeds and temperatures. Certain speeds,braking forces and ambient conditions (such as temperature and humidity) therefore might cause thebrakes to squeal. 2016 Porsche Cars North America, Inc.AfterSalesMar 24, 2016Page 1 of 10

4AllAdvanced Technical Information16054636Component Inspection GuidelinesFluid Fluid replacement is recommended every two years in the workshop manual.o WM 470855 Changing the brake fluid.o There is also a section in the Owner Maintenance booklet dedicated to recording the brakeflushes every 2 years. Moisture in the fluid is heavier than the fluid, and accumulates in the calipers. Moisture affects the viscosity of the fluid and its ability to lubricate. The right rear caliper is the farthest from the reservoir and may be affected more than the othercalipers. This is due to the larger volume of fluid in that circuit and therefore a larger amount of moisture cansettle in that caliper. If squeal is occurring on one wheel in particular, fluid condition is likely to be a part of the problem.Countermeasure: Flushing the fluid is necessary to get rid of the moisture accumulation.Tip: Warming the fluid by driving and braking before flushing it, can help get a more thorough flush ofthe fluid.Brake Pads Glazed surface Dust buildup at edgesCountermeasure: Sanding the pad and chamfering the edges. Wear at contact points with caliper and hardware Correct shims / dampers; look for wear at contact points with pistons and edges of pad.Countermeasure: Lubricating contact points with optimol grease and insuring proper fit ofshims/dampers.Mar 24, 2016Page 2 of 10AfterSales 2016 Porsche Cars North America, Inc.

Advanced Technical Information4All16054636Rotors Glazed surface Lips develop at outer and inner edges of pad contact area Corrosion Contamination by sprays, fluids, road salt, grime, and small particles becoming embedded betweenthe pad and rotor.Countermeasure: Sanding the rotor to create a non-directional finish, remove corrosion andreduce/remove the lip around the edges.Glazed pads and rotors are the fingerprint of the normal, light footed, slow speed brake squeal.Replacement of the pads and rotors with the same pads and rotors that are already on the vehicle, willnot fix the situation. As soon as the new parts are subjected to the same conditions, the squeal willreturn.Deglazing the pads and rotors needs to be done so the noise will be gone for as long as possible.A brake rotor hone can be used to get a non-directional finish on the rotor. 2016 Porsche Cars North America, Inc.AfterSalesMar 24, 2016Page 3 of 10

4All4636Advanced Technical Information1605Calipers Pins – movement between pad and caliperCountermeasure: Lubricating contact points with optimol grease and insuring proper fit of componentswill quiet the contact points. Tension spring – Movement between spring and pads will vary as spring tension varies. The witnessmarks will reflect this. Replacing the spring and hardware will restore proper tension on the pads.Mar 24, 2016Page 4 of 10AfterSales 2016 Porsche Cars North America, Inc.

Advanced Technical Information4All16054636 Caliper pistons – Wear marks from movement of pad against piston. This is an indication of pressuredistribution from the piston to the pad. Brake squeal is affected by pressure distribution. Inspect pistons to see if there are any that may not be returning completely. Moisture in the fluid canhave an effect on this. Exercising the caliper pistons can restore the movement of the piston to normal operation.Exercising Brake Caliper Pistons Remove brake caliper Remove pads and hardware 2016 Porsche Cars North America, Inc.AfterSalesMar 24, 2016Page 5 of 10

4All4636Advanced Technical Information1605 Have the following parts on hand: Caliper paste Optimoly paste (the 100g tube should last through several repairs) New hardware kit New dust seals Clean brake caliper so that there are no contaminants present when the dust seals are removed.Mar 24, 2016Page 6 of 10AfterSales 2016 Porsche Cars North America, Inc.

Advanced Technical InformationAll160546364 Remove dust seals from the caliper pistons Extend the pistons against a block of wood to keep them from coming out of the caliper. (It may benecessary to retract and extend the pistons several times to free up the movement) Apply brake caliper paste to the piston and install new dust seals on the pistons Retract the pistons and seat the dust seals Install pads and new hardware Install caliper on vehicle Flush brake fluid Test drive the vehicle.In cases where additional help is needed please file a TLAR and contact your FTM. 2016 Porsche Cars North America, Inc.AfterSalesMar 24, 2016Page 7 of 10

4All4636Advanced Technical Information1605What is Disc Brake Squeal?Disc brake squeal is a noise that is the result of frictioninduced minute vibrations. As the pad travels over the surface of the rotor, minute vibrations are produced, just like arecord player.The noise (squeal) produced by the vibrations are radiated out by the rotor (the rotor is acting like aspeaker).The condition producing the minute vibrations is called a “stick-slip”condition. A common stick-slip noise is a squeaky door hinge. Unlikea squeaky door hinge, we cannot lubricate the contact surfaces tofix the problem.This stick-slip condition is the result of light footed braking. When pads and rotors are seated, or bedded in, material transfer from the pad to the rotor establishes a working coefficient of friction betweenthe two surfaces. Light footed braking abrades this material transfer, and smooths the rotor & padsurfaces. The conditions for stick-slip are now optimized.The squeal that we are familiar with occurs in the transition between stick and slip. Light footed braking at low speed is the optimal time for this to occur. The squeal will not occur if the brake sticksmore or if the brake slips more. We don’t want it to slip though.FrequencyVelocityMar 24, 2016Page 8 of 10AfterSales 2016 Porsche Cars North America, Inc.

Advanced Technical Information4All16054636Some clear indications that a normal brake squeal from the conditions described above are: When the squeal occurs, applying more brake pressure makes it go away. The rotor has a polished mirror like finish on it. The pads have a smooth surface finish, like a glaze.Other Contributing FactorsThere are other factors that contribute to brake squeal as well. All components (even the bolts) havewhat are called “bending and twisting modes”. As force is applied to a component (as it is excited) itwill bend and twist in different ways. The bending and twisting modes change as brake pressurechanges.The amount of bending and twisting is not visible to the naked eye. It is a normal characteristic of allcomponents that can be determined through Frequency Response testing.This is one of the reasons why proper torque on fasteners is critical. Other factors would include thingssuch as component temperature, mass, geometry, insulation, and lubrication. Weather and driving conditions are also major factors. 2016 Porsche Cars North America, Inc.AfterSalesMar 24, 2016Page 9 of 10

4All4636Advanced Technical Information1605Countermeasure LimitationsBrake squeal can fall into a very wide frequency range. The range is divided into three groups.1. Low Range 1 - 3 KHz2. Mid-Range 3 – 6 KHz3. High Range 6 – 20 KHzThe frequency of the noise will determine what countermeasure to use in an effort to quiet thenoise. Some common countermeasures are listed below. Pad Chamfers Various slot configurations in the pad Pad slippers Shims of various types Tuned mass dampers Fixed calipersCountermeasures are limited on a given brake system due to limitations with space andperformance. Testing must be performed to determine if a countermeasure is effective withoutdeteriorating performance.The Society of Automotive Engineers published an engineering text on the subject of brakesqueal. This is a quote from that text.“However, disc brake squeal remains an elusive problem, and there is not yet a method tocompletely suppress it.”(Disc brake squeal: mechanism, analysis, evaluation, and reduction/prevention /[edited by] Frank Chen, Chin An Tan, and Ronald L.Quaglia. SAE)What can we do?1. We can assure the customer that we will perform a test drive to verify the concern.2. We can perform a thorough visual inspection of the brakes to see if any abnormalities exist andrepair them.DealershipDistributionRoutingService Manager Shop ForemanService TechnicianAsst. ManagerService TechnicalWarranty Admin.Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG is the owner of numerous trademarks, both registered and unregistered, including without limitation the Porsche Crest , Porsche , Boxster , Carrera , Cayenne ,Cayman , Macan , Panamera , Speedster , Spyder , 918 Spyder , Tiptronic , VarioCam , PCM , PDK , 911 , RS , 4S , FOUR, UNCOMPROMISED , and the model numbers andthedistinctive shapes of the Porsche automobiles such as, the federally registered 911 and Boxster automobiles. The third party trademarks contained herein are the properties of their respective owners.Porsche Cars North America, Inc. believes the specifications to be correct at the time of printing. Specifications, performance standards, standard equipment, options, and otherelements shown aresubject to change without notice. Some options may be unavailable when a car is built. Some vehicles may be shown with non-U.S. equipment. The information contained herein is for internal authorizedPorsche dealer use only and cannot be copied or distributed. Porsche recommends seat belt usage and observance of traffic laws at all times.Mar 24, 2016Page 10 of 10AfterSales 2016 Porsche Cars North America, Inc.

Disc brake squeal is a noise that is the result of friction The condition producing the minute vibrations is called a “stick-slip” . Frank Chen, Chin An Tan, and Ronald L.Quaglia. SAE) Mar 24, 2016 Page 10of 10. Created Date: 20160323110624-05'00' .

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