Radiation Effects On Electronics 101 - NASA

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Radiation Effects on Electronics101:Simple Concepts and New ChallengesKenneth A. LaBelken.label@nasa.govCo-Manager, NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging(NEPP) ProgramGroup Leader, Radiation Effects and AnalysisGroup (REAG), NASA/GSFCProject Technologist, Living With a Star (LWS)Space Environment Testbeds (SET)

Outline The Space RadiationEnvironmentThe Effects on ElectronicsThe Environment in ActionNASA Approaches toCommercial Electronics– The Mission Mix– Flight Projects– Proactive Research Space Validations of Models andTest ProtocolsFinal ThoughtsAtomic Interactions– Direct IonizationInteraction with Nucleus– Indirect Ionization– Nucleus is ce/anomalies/bigcr.htmlNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,20042

The Space Radiation EnvironmentSTARFISH detonation –Nuclear attacks are not considered in this presentation

Space Environments and RelatedEffectsPlasmaCharging Biasing ofinstrumentreadings Pulsing Powerdrains PhysicaldamageParticleradiationIonizing &Non-IonizingDoseNeutralgas particlesUltraviolet& X-rayDragSurfaceErosionSingleEventEffects Torques Degradation Dataof microcorruption Orbital electronics Noise ondecay DegradationImagesof optical Systemcomponents shutdowns Degradationof solar cells Circuitdamage Degradationof s &orbital debrisImpacts Structuraldamage Decompression Degradationof structuralintegrityafter BarthSpace Radiation EffectsNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,20044

Space Radiation EnvironmentGalactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs)afterNikkei Science, Inc.of Japan, by K. EndoSolar Protons&Heavier IonsTrapped ParticlesProtons, Electrons, Heavy IonsDeep-space missions may also see: neutrons from backgroundor radioisotope thermal generators (RTGs) or other nuclear sourceAtmosphere and terrestrial may see GCR and secondariesNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,20045

Sunspot Cycle:An Indicator of the Solar Cycleafter Lund Observatory300Cycle 19Cycle 20Cycle 21Cycle 22Sunspot Numbers250 Cycle 1820015010050019471997YearsLength Varies from 9 - 13 Years7 Years Solar Maximum, 4 Years Solar MinimumNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,20046

Solar Particle EventsHolloman AFB/SOON Cyclical (Solar Max, Solar Min)– 11-year AVERAGE (9 to 13)– Solar Max is more active time period Two types of events– Gradual (Coronal Mass Ejections –CMEs) Proton rich– Impulsive (Solar Flares) Heavy ion rich Abundances Dependent on RadialDistance from SunParticles are Partially Ionized– Greater Ability to PenetrateMagnetosphere than GCRsNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,20047

Solar Proton Event - October 1989Proton Fluxes - 99% Worst Case Event105Counts/cm2/s/ster/MeV1041031021011001 0 -11 0 -21 0 -31 0 -4200nT0-2 0 01517161918212023222524O c to b e r272629283130214365871091211141315N ovem berGOES Space Environment MonitorNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,20048

Free-Space Particles: GalacticCosmic Rays (GCRs) or HeavyIonsDefinition– A GCR ion is a charged particle(H, He, Fe, etc)– Typically found in free space(galactic cosmic rays or GCRs) Energies range from MeV toGeVs for particles of concernfor SEE Origin is unknown– Important attribute for impacton electronics is how muchenergy is deposited by thisparticle as it passes through asemiconductor material. Thisis known as Linear EnergyTransfer or LET (dE/dX).CREME 96, Solar Minimum, 100 mils (2.54 mm) Al4LET Fluence (#/cm2/day) Z 2 - 92GEOGTOMEOEOSLEO011010210LET (MeV-cm2/mg)TimeCommercial Technology SensitivityNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,20049

Trapped Particles in the Earth’s MagneticField: Proton & Electron IntensitiesAP-8 ModelAE-8 ModelEp 10 MeVEe 1 MeV#/cm2/sec4#/cm2/secA dip3 in the2 earth’s1 dipole moment12causes3 an4asymmetry56in the7 picture8 above:9 10The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA)L-ShellNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200410

SAA and Trapped Protons:Effects of the Asymmetry in the Proton Belts onSRAM Upset Rate at Varying Altitudes on CRUX/APEXH ita c h i 1 M :A ltitu d e :1 2 5 0 k m - 1 3 5 0 k mH ita c h i 1 M :A ltitu d e :6 5 0 k m - 7 5 0 k m9090757545Latitude3015tototototototototo5 .0 E -71 .0 E -65 .0 E -61 .0 E -55 .0 E -51 .0 E -45 .0 E -41 .0 E -35 .0 E -301 .0 E -75 .0 E -71 .0 E -65 .0 E -61 .0 E -55 .0 E -51 .0 E -45 .0 E -41 .0 E -34530Latitude1 .0 E -75 .0 E -71 .0 E -65 .0 E -61 .0 E -55 .0 E -51 .0 E -45 .0 E -41 .0 E -3U p s e ts /B it/D a y60U p s e ts /B it/D a y60-1 5155 .0 E - 71 .0 E - 65 .0 E - 61 .0 E - 55 .0 E - 51 .0 E - 45 .0 E - 41 .0 E - 35 .0 E - 30-1 5-3 0-3 0-4 5-4 5-6 0-6 0-7 5-7 5-9 0-1 8 0 -1 5 0 -1 2 0-9 0-6 0-3 00306090120150-9 0-1 8 0 -1 5 0 -1 2 0180-9 0-6 00306090120150180H ita c h i 1 M :A ltitu d e :2 4 5 0 k m - 2 5 5 0 k mH ita c h i 1 M :A ltitu d e :1 7 5 0 k m - 1 8 5 0 k m90907575U p s e ts /B it/D a y1 .0 E -75 .0 E -71 .0 E -65 .0 E -61 .0 E -55 .0 E -51 .0 E -45 .0 E -41 .0 E -34530150-1 5tototototototototo5 .0 E -71 .0 E -65 .0 E -61 .0 E -55 .0 E -51 .0 E -45 .0 E -41 .0 E -35 .0 E -33015-4 5-6 0-6 0-7 5-7 503060901201501805 .0 E - 71 .0 E - 65 .0 E - 61 .0 E - 55 .0 E - 51 .0 E - 45 .0 E - 41 .0 E - 35 .0 E - 30-3 0-3 0tototototototototo-1 5-4 5-6 01 .0 E - 75 .0 E - 71 .0 E - 65 .0 E - 61 .0 E - 55 .0 E - 51 .0 E - 45 .0 E - 41 .0 E - 345-3 0-9 0U p s e ts /B it/D a y60Latitude60-9 0-1 8 0 -1 5 0 -1 2 0-3 0L o n g itu d eL o n g itu d eLatitudetototototototototo-9 0-1 8 0 -1 5 0 -1 2 0-9 0-6 0-3 0030L o n g itu d eL NEPPo n g it uWebexdePresentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,2004609012015018011

Solar Cycle Effects:Modulator and Source Solar Maximum– Trapped Proton Levels Lower,Electrons Higher– GCR Levels Lower– Neutron Levels in the AtmosphereAre Lower– Solar Events More Frequent &Greater Intensity– Magnetic Storms More Frequent - Can Increase Particle Levels inBelts Solar Minimum– Trapped Protons Higher,Light bulb shaped CMEElectrons Lowercourtesy of SOHO/LASCO C3 Instrument– GCR Levels Higher– Neutron Levels in the AtmosphereAre Higher– Solar Events Are RareNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200412

The EffectsDNA double helixPre and Post IrradiationBiological effects are a key concernfor lunar and Mars missions

Radiation Effects and Spacecraft Critical areas for design in thenatural space radiationenvironment– Long-term effects Total ionizing dose (TID) Displacement damage– Transient or single particle effects(Single event effects or SEE) Soft or hard errors Mission requirements andphilosophies vary to ensuremission performance– What works for a shuttle missionmay not apply to a deep-spacemissionAn Active Pixel Sensor (APS) imagerunder irradiation with heavy ions at TexasA&M University CyclotronNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200414

Cumulative long termionizing damage due toprotons & electrons Effects––––Threshold ShiftsLeakage CurrentTiming ChangesFunctional Failures Unit of interest iskrads(material) Can partially mitigate withshieldingVoltage During Erase FunctionTotal Ionizing Dose (TID)Erase Voltage vs. Total Dose for 128-MbSamsung Flash Memory14121086420Failed to erase0246Total Dose [krad(Si)]810– Low energy protons– ElectronsNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200415

Displacement Damage (DD)Cumulative long term non-ionizingdamage due to protons, electrons, andneutronsEffectsectronics roel applicabletoCMOSmic– Production of defects which results indevice degradation– May be similar to TID effects– Optocouplers, solar cells, CCDs, linearbipolar devices Unit of interest is particle fluence foreach energy mapped to test energyicularly– Non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) is onemeans of discussingShielding has some effect - depends onlocation of devicert Notpa– Reduce significant electron and someproton damageNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200416

Single Event Effects (SEEs) An SEE is caused by a single charged particle as it passesthrough a semiconductor material– Heavy ions Direct ionization– Protons for sensitive devices Nuclear reactions for standard devices Effects on electronics– If the LET of the particle (or reaction) is greater than theamount of energy or critical charge required, an effect may beseen Soft errors such as upsets (SEUs) or transients (SETs), or Hard (destructive) errors such as latchup (SEL), burnout (SEB), orgate rupture (SEGR) Severity of effect is dependent on– type of effect– system criticalityDestructive eventin a COTS 120VDC-DC ConverterNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200417

Radiation Effects on Electronicsand the Space Environment Three portions of the naturalspace environment contribute tothe radiation hazard– Solar particles Protons and heavier ions– SEE, TID, DD– Free-space particles GCR– For earth-orbiting craft, theearth’s magnetic field providessome protection for GCR– SEE– Trapped particles (in the belts)The sun acts as a modulator andsource in the space environment Protons and electrons includingthe South Atlantic Anomaly(SAA)– SEE (Protons)– DD, TID (Protons, Electrons)NEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200418

The Environment in Action“There’s a little black spot on the sun today”

Recent Solar Events –A Few Notes and Implications In Oct-Nov of this year, a series of X-class (X-45!) solar events took place–––––––– High particle fluxes were notedMany spacecraft performed safing maneuversMany systems experienced higher than normal (but correctable) data error ratesSeveral spacecraft had anomalies causing spacecraft safingIncreased noise seen in many instrumentsDrag and heating issues notedInstrument FAILURES occurredTwo known spacecraft FAILURES occurredPower grid systems affected, communication systems affected NEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200420

SOHO LASCO C2 of the Solar EventNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200421

Solar Event Effect - Solar ArrayDegradation on CLUSTER SpacecraftMany other spacecraft tonoted degradation as well.NEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200422

Science Spacecraft Anomalies DuringRecent Solar EventsType of EventSpacecraft/InstrumentNotesSpontaneous Processor ResetsRHESSI3 events; all recoverableCLUSTERSeen on some of 4 spacecraft; recoverableChipSATS/C tumbled and required ground command tocorrectHigh Bit Error RatesGOES 9,10Magnetic Torquers DisabledGOES 9, 10, 12Star Tracker ErrorsMERExcessive event countsMAPStar Tracker Reset occurredRead ErrorsStardustEntered safe mode; recoveredFailure?Midori-2Memory ErrorsGENESIS19 errors on 10/29ManyIncrease in correctable error rates on solidstate recorders noted in many spacecraftNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200423

Science Instrument Anomalies DuringRecent Solar EventsType of EventSpacecraft/InstrumentNotesInstrument FailureGOES-8 XRSUnder investigation as to causeMarsOdyssey/MarieUnder investigation as to cause; powerconsumption increase noted; S/C also had asafehold event – memory errorsNOAA-17/AMSU-A1Lost scanner; under investigationACE, WINDPlasma observations lostGALEX UVDetectorsExcess charge – turned off high voltages;Also Upset noted in instrumentACESolar Proton Detector saturatedIntegralEntered Safe modePOLAR/TIDEInstrument reset spontaneouslyHot PixelsSIRTF/IRACIncrease in hot pixels on IR arrays; Protonheating also notedSafe ModeManyMany instruments were placed in Safe modeprior to or during the solar events forprotectionExcessive Count RatesUpsetNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200424

Selected Other Consequences Orbits affected on several spacecraft Power system failure– Malmo, Sweden High Current in power transmission lines– Wisconsin and New York Communication noise increase FAA issued a radiation dose alert for planesflying over 25,000 ftA NASA-builtradiation monitorthat can aidanomaly resolution,lifetime degradation,protection alerts, etc.NEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200425

NASA Approaches to Electronics:Flight Projects and ProactiveResearchIt doesn’t matter where you goas long as you follow aprogrammatic assurance approach

NASA Missions –A Wide Range of Needs NASA typically has over 200 missions in somestage of development– Range from balloon and short-duration low-earthinvestigations to long-life deep space– Robotic to Human Presence Radiation and reliability needs varycommensuratelyMars Global SurveyorDust Storms in 2001NEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200427

Implications of NASA Mix Prior to the new Presidential “Moon-Mars”vision– 90% of NASA missions required 100 krad(Si)or less for device total ionizing dose (TID)tolerance Single Event Effects (SEEs) were prime driver– Sensor hardness also a limiting factor Many missions could accept risk of anomalies aslong as recoverable over time Lunar footprintCourtesy ofNASA archivesImplications of the new vision are still TBD forradiation and reliability specifics, however,– Nuclear power/propulsion changes radiationissues (TID and displacement damage)– Long-duration missions such as permanentstations on the moon require long-life highreliability for infrastructureNuclear Propulsion Human presence requires conservativeapproaches to reliability– Drives stricter radiation tolerance requirements andfault tolerant architecturesNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200428

NASA Approach to RHA With commercial technology sensitivity to SEUincreasing and limited radiation hardenedofferings, a dual approach to RHA needs to beinstalled– A systems approach at the flight mission level, and– Proactive investigation into new technologiesRockwell/Hawaii 2048x20485µm HgCdTe NGST FPA (ARC)Candidate James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)IR array preparing for rad tests. The ultra-lownoise requirement of JWST is the driver.NEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200429

A Systematic Approach to FlightProject Radiation HardnessAssurance (RHA)Size, complexity, and human presence areamong the factors im deciding how RHA is tobe implemented

Sensible Programmatics for Flight RHA:A Two-Pronged Approach for Missions Assign a lead radiation engineer to each spaceflightproject– Treat radiation like other engineering disciplines Parts, thermal,.– Provides a single point of contact for all radiation issues Environment, parts evaluation, testing, Each program follows a systematic approach to RHA– RHA active early in program reduces cost in the long run Issues discovered late in programs can be expensive andstressful– What is the cost of reworking a flight board if a device has RHAissues?NEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200431

Flight Program Radiation HardnessAssurance (RHA) FlowFlight Program RHA Managed via Lead Radiation EngineerEnvironmentDefinitionExternal EnvironmentEnvironment inthe presence ofthe spacecraftSpacecraft orComponentMechanicalModeling –3D ray trace,Monte Carlo,NOVICE, etc.ProjectRequirementsandSpecificationsTechnology HardnessDesign MarginsBox/system LevelDesignEvaluationParts List bration,and PerformancePredictionsMitigationApproachesand DesignReliabilityIteration over project development cycleNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr malyResolutionLessonsLearnedCradle to Grave!32

Radiation and Systems Engineering:A Rational Approach for Space Systems Define the Environment– External to the spacecraft Evaluate the Environment– Internal to the spacecraft Define the Requirements– Define criticality factors Evaluate Design/Components– Existing data/Testing/Performance characteristics “Engineer” with Designers– Parts replacement/Mitigation schemes Iterate Process– Review parts list based on updated knowledgeNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200433

Approach to Insertion of NewElectronicsIBM CMOS 8SF ASIC

Microelectronics: Categories Microelectronics can be split several ways– Digital, analog, mixed signal, other– Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS), Bipolar, etc.– Function (microprocessor, memory, ) There are only two commercial foundries (where they builddevices) in the US dedicated to building radiation hardened digitaldevices– Efforts within DoD to provide alternate means of developing hardeneddevices Hardened-by-design (HBD) Provides path for custom devices, but not necessarily off-the-shelf devices– Commercial devices can have great variance in radiation tolerancefrom device-to-device and even on multiple samples of same device No guarantees!– Analog foundry situation is even worse New technologies have many unknowns– Ultra-high speed, nanotechnologies, microelectromechanical systems(MEMS and the optical versions – MOEMS), A MOEMS in actionNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200435

The Digital Logic TrendsStandard CMOS– Feature sizes are scaling(shrinking) to sub-0.1 micron sizes Faster devices, lower operatingvoltages– Reduced electrical margins withindevices Improved TID tolerance– DD not an issue (except possiblyat nuclear levels) Improved SEL tolerance Increased SEU sensitivity– Technology speed increase drivesthis issue (SETs in logicpropagate)after Reed, 2002DUT #5DUT #32– New dielectrics are being used– Thickness of gate oxide is beingdiminished– Implications (general)1.E-10Device Cross Section (cm ) 1.E-111.E-120204060Angle (Degrees)80100120Effects of protons in SOI with variedangular direction of the particle;Blue line represents expected responsewith “standard” CMOS devices. Unknown effect of othertechnology changes– Increased use of silicon-oninsulator (SOI) substratesNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,200436

SEFI –Single EventFunctionalInterruptMNotionaSE l gU rapTr hen ofds RARelative Event Rates per Bit or DeviceThe New Challenge: Changes in CMOSTechnology and DesignSEU Single Event Upset*Speed kills – SETs drive increase*Electronics manufacturersare concerned with soft errorrates (SER) on the ground andare beginning to insertmeans of reducing SER1994TimeFeature size shrinkage 1 um to 0.1 umNEPP Webex Presentation –Radiation Effects 101 presented by Kenneth A. LaBel– Apr 21,2004SEL –Single EventLatchup200437

Analog/mixed signal Not scaled as aggressively(need higher voltages to getanalog range) SETs (noise propagation thatcan be invasive to operations)– The higher the resolution orspeed, the worse this becomes TID and DD– Commercial device failure notedas low as 1 krad(Si)» Even short durationmissions would haveconcerns without test dataQ18Q4SET Pulse Amplitude, V– Efforts to improve electricalperformance have reducedreliability and signal marginswithin the device– Increased sensitivity toQ5R1,Q6,Q16105Q20-5Q20-10-15Q9,Q

Radiation Effects and Spacecraft Critical areas for design in the natural space radiation environment – Long-term effects Total ionizing dose (TID) Displacement damage – Transient or single particle effects (Single event effects or SEE) Soft or hard errors Mission requirements and philosophies vary to ensure mission .

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