Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsKEY CONCEPT – Section 1DNA was identified as the genetic material through aseries of experiments.Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsHershey and Chase confirm that DNA is the geneticmaterial. Hershey and Chase studied viruses that infect bacteria, orbacteriophages.– They tagged viral DNAwith radioactivephosphorus.– They tagged viralproteins with radioactivesulfur.Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsChapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsGriffith finds a ‘transforming principle.’Avery identified DNA as the transforming principle. Griffith experimented with the bacteria that causepneumonia. He used two forms: the S form (deadly) and the R form (notdeadly). A transforming material passed from dead S bacteria to liveR bacteria, making them deadly. Avery isolated and purified Griffith’s transformingprinciple. Avery performed three tests on the transformingprinciple.– Qualitative tests showed DNA was present.– Chemical tests showedthe chemical makeupmatched that of DNA.– Enzyme tests showedonly DNA-degradingenzymes stoppedtransformation.Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsKEY CONCEPT – Section 2DNA structure is the same in all organisms.Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsDNA is composed of four types of nucleotides. DNA is made up of a long chain of nucleotides. Each nucleotide has three parts.– a phosphate group– a deoxyribose sugar– a nitrogen-containing basephosphate groupnitrogen-containingbase Tagged DNA was found inside the bacteria; taggedproteins were not.deoxyribose (sugar)1
Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsChapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins The nitrogen containing bases are the only difference inthe four nucleotides.Watson and Crick determined the three-dimensionalstructure of DNA by building models. They realized that DNA isa double helix that ismade up of a sugarphosphate backbone onthe outside with bases onthe inside.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins The base-pairing rules showhow nucleotides always pairup in DNA.– A pairs with T– C pairs with G Because a pyrimidine(single ring) pairs with apurine (double ring), thehelix has a uniform width.GA Watson and Crick’s discovery built on the work of RosalindFranklin and Erwin Chargaff.– Franklin’s x-ray images suggested that DNA was adouble helix of even width.– Chargaff’s rules stated that A T and C G.Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsNucleotides always pair in the same way.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins The backbone is connected by covalent bonds. The bases are connected by hydrogen bonds.Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsKEY CONCEPT – Section 3DNA replication copies the genetic information of acell.CThydrogen bondcovalent bond2
Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsChapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsReplication copies the genetic information.Proteins carry out the process of replication. A single strand of DNA serves as a template for a newstrand. The rules of base pairing directreplication. DNA is replicated during theS (synthesis) stage of thecell cycle. Each body cell gets acomplete set ofidentical DNA. DNA serves only as a template. Enzymes and other proteins do the actual work ofreplication.– Enzymes unzip the double helix.– Free-floating nucleotides form hydrogen bondswith the template strand.nucleotideChapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins– DNA polymerase enzymes bond the nucleotidestogether to form the double helix.– Polymerase enzymes form covalent bonds betweennucleotides in the new strand.new strandnucleotideThe DNA molecule unzipsin both directions.DNA polymeraseChapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins Two new molecules of DNA are formed, each with anoriginal strand and a newly formed strand. DNA replication is semiconservative.original strandChapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsReplication is fast and accurate. DNA replication starts at many points in eukaryoticchromosomes.Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsKEY CONCEPT – Section 4Transcription converts a gene into a single-strandedRNA molecule.new strandTwo molecules of DNAThere are many origins of replication in eukaryotic chromosomes. DNA polymerases can find and correct errors.3
Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsRNA carries DNA’s instructions. The central dogmastates thatinformation flows inone direction fromDNA to RNA toproteins.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins RNA differs from DNA in three major ways.The central dogma includes three processes.– Replication– Transcriptionreplication– Translation RNA is a link betweenDNA and proteins.– RNA has a ribose sugar.– RNA has uracil instead of thymine.– RNA is a single-stranded structure.transcriptiontranslationChapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsTranscription makes three types of RNA. Transcription copies DNA to make a strand of RNA.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins Transcription is catalyzed by RNA polymerase.– RNA polymerase and other proteins form atranscription complex.– The transcription complex recognizes the start ofa gene and unwinds a segment of it.start siteChapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins– Nucleotides pair with one strand of the DNA.– RNA polymerase bonds the nucleotides together.– The DNA helix winds again as the gene is transcribed.DNAtranscription complexRNA polymerasemoves along the DNAnucleotides4
Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins– The RNA strand detaches from the DNA once the geneis transcribed.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins Transcription makes three types of RNA.– Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the message that willbe translated to form a protein.– Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) forms part of ribosomes whereproteins are made.– Transfer RNA (tRNA) brings amino acids from thecytoplasm to a ribosome.RNAChapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsKEY CONCEPT – Section 5Translation converts an mRNA message into apolypeptide, or protein.Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsAmino acids are coded by mRNA base sequences. Translation converts mRNA messages into polypeptides. A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides that codes foran amino acid.codon formethionine (Met)codon forleucine (Leu)Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsThe transcription process is similar to replication. Transcription and replication both involve complexenzymes and complementary base pairing. The two processes have different end results.– Replication copiesall the DNA;transcription copiesonegenegrowing RNA strandsa gene.– Replication makesone copy;DNAtranscription canmake many copies.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins The genetic code matches each codon to its amino acid orfunction.The genetic code matches each RNA codon with its amino acid or function.– three stopcodons– one startcodon,codes formethionine5
Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins A change in the order in which codons are read changesthe resulting protein.Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsAmino acids are linked to become a protein. An anticodon is a set of three nucleotides that iscomplementary to an mRNA codon. An anticodon is carried by a tRNA.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins Ribosomes consist of two subunits.– The large subunit has three binding sites for tRNA.– The small subunit binds to mRNA. Regardless of the organism, codons code for the sameamino acid.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins For translation to begin, tRNA binds to a start codon andsignals the ribosome to assemble.– A complementary tRNA molecule binds to the exposedcodon, bringing its amino acid close to the first aminoacid.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins– The ribosome helps form a polypeptide bond betweenthe amino acids.– The ribosome pulls the mRNA strand the length of onecodon.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins– The now empty tRNA molecule exits the ribosome.– A complementary tRNA molecule binds to the nextexposed codon.– Once the stop codon is reached, the ribosomereleases the protein and disassembles.6
Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsKEY CONCEPT – Section 6Gene expression is carefully regulated in bothprokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsEukaryotes regulate gene expression at many points. Different sets of genes are expressed in different typesof cells. Transcription is controlled by regulatory DNAsequences and protein transcription factors.Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsProkaryotic cells turn genes on and off by controllingtranscription. A promotor is a DNA segment that allows a gene to betranscribed. An operator is a part of DNA that turns a gene “on” or ”off.” An operon includes a promoter, an operator, and one ormore structural genes that code for all the proteins neededto do a job.– Operons are most common in prokaryotes.– The lac operon was one of the first examples of generegulation to be discovered.– The lac operon has three genes that code for enzymesthat break down lactose.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins Transcription is controlled by regulatory DNA sequencesand protein transcription factors.– Most eukaryotes have a TATA box promoter.– Enhancers and silencers speed up or slow down the rateof transcription.– Each gene has a unique combination of regulatorysequences.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins The lac operon acts like a switch.– The lac operon is “off” when lactose is not present.– The lac operon is “on” when lactose is present.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins RNA processing is also an important part of gene regulationin eukaryotes. mRNA processing includes three major steps.7
Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins mRNA processing includes three major steps.– Introns are removed and exons are spliced together.– A cap is added.– A tail is added.Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsKEY CONCEPT – Section 7Mutations are changes in DNA that may or may notaffect phenotype.Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsSome mutations affect a single gene, while others affectan entire chromosome. A mutation is a change in an organism’s DNA. Many kinds of mutations can occur, especially duringreplication. A point mutation substitutes one nucleotide for another.mutatedbaseChapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins Many kinds of mutations can occur, especially duringreplication.– A frameshift mutation inserts or deletes a nucleotide inthe DNA sequence.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins Chromosomal mutations affect many genes. Chromosomal mutations may occur during crossing over– Chromosomal mutations affect many genes.– Gene duplication results from unequal crossing over.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins Translocation results from the exchange of DNA segmentsbetween nonhomologous chromosomes.8
Chapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsMutations may or may not affect phenotype. Chromosomal mutations tend to have a big effect. Some gene mutations change phenotype.– A mutation may cause a premature stop codon.– A mutation may change protein shape or the active site.– A mutation may change gene regulation.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins Some gene mutations do not affect phenotype.– A mutation may be silent.– A mutation may occur in a noncoding region.– A mutation may not affect protein folding or the activesite.Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins Mutations in body cells do not affect offspring. Mutations in sex cells can be harmful or beneficial tooffspring. Natural selection often removes mutant alleles from apopulation when they are less adaptive.blockageno blockageChapter 8 – From DNA to ProteinsMutations can be caused by several factors. Replication errors can causemutations. Mutagens, such as UV ray andchemicals, can cause mutations. Some cancer drugs usemutagenic properties to killcancer cells.9
polypeptide, or protein. Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins Translation converts mRNA messages into polypeptides. A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides that codes for an amino acid. codon for methionine (Met) codon for leucine (Leu) Chapter 8 – From DNA to Proteins The genetic code matches each codon to its amino acid or function. –three stop codons –one start codon .
Part One: Heir of Ash Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 Chapter 24 Chapter 25 Chapter 26 Chapter 27 Chapter 28 Chapter 29 Chapter 30 .
TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD. Contents Dedication Epigraph Part One Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Part Two Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18. Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 Chapter 24 Chapter 25 Chapter 26
into 1153 DNA-binding proteins and 1119 nonbinding pro-teins. PDB14189 was taken as the training set and PDB2272 as the test set. The dataset is detailed in Table 1 below. Among them, positive represents DNA-binding proteins, while negative represents non-DNA-binding proteins. 2.2. Protein Representation. The representation of proteins is
1 UNIT 3 Chapter 12 From DNA to Proteins Chapter 12: From DNA to Proteins I. Identifying DNA as the Genetic Material (8.1) A. Griffith finds a “transforming principle” 1. Griffith experimented with the bacteria that cause pneumonia. Pneumococcus bac
Chapter 13 Lecture Notes: DNA Function I. Transcription (General info) A. Transcription is the synthesis of RNA using DNA as a template. B. Early evidence suggesting an RNA intermediate between DNA and proteins 1. DNA was in the nucleus but proteins were made in the cytoplasm 2. R
Apr 11, 2017 · Chapter 13 –Moving Proteins into Membranes and Organelles 13.1 Targeting Proteins To and Across the ER Membrane 13.2 Insertion of Membrane Proteins into the ER 13.3 Protein Modifications, Folding, and Quality Control in the ER 13.4 Targeting of Proteins to Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 13.5 Targeting of Peroxisomal Proteins
DEDICATION PART ONE Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 PART TWO Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19 Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Chapter 23 .
Literary Theory and Schools of Criticism Introduction A very basic way of thinking about literary theory is that these ideas act as different lenses critics use to view and talk about art, literature, and even culture. These different lenses allow critics to consider works of art based on certain assumptions within that school of theory. The different lenses also allow critics to focus on .