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PREFACEThe Military Law Review is designed to provide a medium forthose interested in the field of military law to share the productof their experience and research with their fellow lawyers. Articles should be of direct concern and import in this area of scholarship, and preference will be given to those articles having lasting value as reference material for the military lawyer.The Military Law Review does not purport to promulgate Department of the Army policy o r to be in any sense directory. Theopinions reflected in each article are those of the author and donot necessarily reflect the views of The Judge Advocate Generalor the Department of the Army.Articles, comments, and notes should be submitted in duplicateto the Editor, Military Law Review, The Judge Advocate General’sSchool, U.S. Army, Charlottesville, Virginia. Footnotes shouldbe set out on pages separate from the text and follow the mannerof citation in the Harvard Blue Book.This Review may be cited as Mil. L. Rev., January 1963 (DAP a m 27-100-19, 1 January 63) (number of page).For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, United StatesGovernment Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., Price: 75(single copy). Subscription price: 2.50 a year; .75 additionalf o r foreign mailing.TAG0 6966B-Jani

Pam 27-100-19PAMPHLETNO. 27-100-19tHEADQUARTERS,D E P A R T M E N T O F T H E ARMYW AS HI N GTON 25, D.C., 1 January 1963MILITARY LAW REVIEWArticles:The Enforcement of Foreign Judgments inAmerican CourtsCap'tain Donald B. Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pretrial Advice of the Staff Judge Advocate or LegalOfficer Under Article 34, Uniform Code ofMilitary JusticeLieutenant Colonel Robert K. WeaverSoviet Socialism and the Conflict of LawsJohn N. Hazard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Military Agreement in United States Lawand PracticeRichard S. Schubert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page1376981Foreign Military Law Notes:A Review of Dutch Military LawMajor Jozef Schuurmans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101Danish Military JurisdictionSoren B. Nyholm - - - 1 1 3Swedish Military JurisdictionBengt Lindeblad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123Comments :Proving Fear As A State of Mind in Homicide Cases(Major Luther C. West) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129The Nature of British Military Law(D. P. O'Connell) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141Analogy Reincarnated: A Note on the Form andSubstance of Soviet Legal Reform(Major Bernard A. Ramundo) - 157AGO 6966Biii

THE ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN JUDGMENTS INAMERICAN COURTSBY CAPTAIN DONALD B. SMITH***I. INTRODUCTIONThis article is a discussion of the efficacy in United Statescourts of money judgments rendered by the courts of foreigncountries and of the relation of prevailing civil rules to the position of the military services regarding unsatisfied foreign moneyjudgments against individual service members. Ancillary to thisdiscussion is an examination of the treatment afforded domestic judgments by foreign courts in view of the reciprocaltreatment afforded foreign judgments by some domestic jurisdictions. The concluding purpose of this article is to illustratethe immediate need for uniformity among domestic courts intheir approach to the enforcement of foreign judgments and explore the means of accomplishing this uniformity.The enforcement of foreign money judgments1 by domesticcourts has become a legal problem of increasing internationalcomplexity, directly affecting the judicial, political and commercial relationships between nations. The impact on the relationsof any two particular nations is, in reality, the sum total of thetreatment afforded one nation’s individual judgment creditorswhen they seek to enforce domestic judgments in the nationalcourts of their foreign judgment debtors. The French citizenbringing action in a court in the United States to enforce a validFrench judgment against an American judgment debtor suffersa n obvious injury if his judgment is not treated as conclusive onthe merits. The attendant expense, loss of time and uncertaintyof outcome in the process of relitigation work a cumulative injustice. When the courts of France retaliate against United* This article was adapted from a thesis presented to The Judge AdvocateGeneral’s School, U.S. Army, Charlottesville, Virginia, while the author was amember of the Tenth Career Course. The opinions and conclusions presentedherein a r e those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views ofThe Judge Advocate General’s School or any other governmental agency.** JAGC, U.S. Army; Office of the Staff Judge Advocate, Fort Jackson,South Carolina; LL.B., 1957, University of Kentucky; Member of theKentucky Bar.1 The term foreign judgment commonly connotes the judgments of sisterstates a s well a s the judgments of foreign countries. As used herein, the termis restricted t o the judgments of foreign countries unless otherwise indicated.AGO 6966B1

MILITARY LAW REVIEWStates judgment creditors in their courts by requiring trial denovo of the issues, the injustice becomes reciprocal. Conversely,by giving conclusive effect to the money judgments of foreigncourts the ends of justice a r e served for the individual litigants.Also, a more favorable climate is created f o r the conduct of commercial activity and political understanding between nations.The unprecedented increase in material productivity and tradeamong the free nations makes the problem of recognizing andenforcing foreign money judgments a significant one for the legalprofession generally. The attendant increase in litigation accompanying expanding international business activity heralds a critical need f o r judicial harmony comprehensive to the commercialtransaction conceived in Paris and consummated in New York.Academic interest in the abstract as incentive for the study andunderstanding of foreign law and foreign judicial process is beingsupplanted by the practical needs inherent in keeping the legalprofession abreast of economic trends.In view of the continuing Communist threat of world domination and subjugation it may be safely assumed that large contingents of American armed forces will continue to be based onfriendly foreign soil as a bulwark to the defense of host nationsfor some time to come. Although our service personnel, theirdependents and persons accompanying the forces form the largestgoodwill ambassador corps our country has ever known, it is inevitable that, in the conduct of their daily affairs, civil disputesbetween them and their hosts will arise. The problem of providing forums f o r the settlement of civil disputes between theseoverseas forces and host citizenries has been largely solved as aresult of the treaties and agreements concerning the status of ourforces.2 Frustration of these agreements and the good relationssought to be maintained by them a r e experienced, however, whena litigant has been awarded a judgment which he cannot enforceagainst a n American serviceman who has returned to his nativecountry without having satisfied this legal obligation. In view ofthe relatively minor sums involved in most individual actions, itis not practical f o r the foreign money judgment creditor to retain counsel in the United States to sue on his judgment unless heis assured that it will be treated as conclusive on the merits bya n American court. Otherwise, the expense of relitigation in thevast majority of the cases amounts to more than the amount of2 E.g., Agreement Between the Parties to the North Atlantic Treaty Regarding the Status of Their Forces, June 19, 1951, art. VIII, para. 9 [1953]4 U.S.T. & O.I.A. 1792, T.I.A.S. No. 2846, 199 U.N.T.S. 67.2AGO 6966B

ENFORCEMENT O F FOREIGN JUDGMENTSthe claim involved. I n the aggregate, these unsatisfied moneyjudgments against our service personnel present a public relations problem of the greatest magnitude for the United States.The efficacy of foreign money judgments in United Statescourts is a matter of particular significance to the militarylawyer. The scope of this problem area is illustrated by the experience of the Command Judge Advocate, United States Army,Europe, during the period from January 1959 through September1961. In 1959, approximately 7,600 documents concerning civil actions involving United States Army personnel in Germany were processed through the International Affairs Section of the command.I n 1960 the total number of documents processed rose to approximately 11,500, and for the first three quarters of 1961 the figure these figureshad already approximated 9,800 d o u m e n t s . Thatinvolve only Army personnel and only one foreign country is indicative of the volume of civil actions generated by our worldwide troop commitments.Aside from the impact on our relations with friendly foreigncitizenries resulting from the lack of satisfaction of money judgments rendered against American service personnel, the problemis a dual one for military lawyers. First, individual militaryjudgment creditors seek advice concerning the validity and effectof foreign judgments rendered against them. The militarylawyer must be familiar with the differing rules prevailing in thevarious federal and state jurisdictions in the United States. Theapplication of these rules to a specific factual situation also requires a knowledge of the law of foreign judgments of the count r y in which the judgment was rendered, and the relationship ofthe law of that foreign country with the law of the domesticcourt in which enforcement is sought. Secondly, commandersseek guidance on the proper disposition of complaints againstmembers of their commapds alleged to be evading satisfactionof just foreign money judgments. The military lawyer is thuscalled upon to determine the policy of the military services regarding unsatisfied foreign money judgments against their members, and advise the commander of the administrative and disciplinary courses of action open to him in particular cases.3 Letter From Lieutenant Colonel Edward W. Haughney, Chief, International Affairs Branch, Office of the Judge Advocate, Headquarters, UnitedStates Army, Europe, to the author, October 23, 1961. A substantial numberof these documents involved paternity actions, and while some cases generatedthe processing of more than one document, the majority of the volume ofdocuments do represent individual cases.AGO 6966B3

MILITARY LAW REVIEWThe desire of mankind to establish a just and lasting peacethrough world law emphasizes the need f o r nations to afford agreater measure of respect f o r the judicial orders of other countries. By giving conclusive effect to the valid money judgmentsof foreign countries, domestic courts transcend distrust of otherlegal systems and the cultures they a r e designed to serve. Inview of our international image as a nation seeking justice f o rall nationalities, it is anomalous that courts in the United Stateshave not taken a more progressive approach to the enforcementof judgments of other countries. Since the law of foreign judgments in this country has developed exclusively as judge-madeiaw, the rules of various jurisdictions have become dissimilarand, in many cases, unjust for judgment creditors of particularforeign countries. Political, social and economic trends, coupledwith a demand f o r individual justice, dictate a n immediate needf o r uniformity of treatment of foreign judgments among thevarious jurisdictions of the United States. This need is punctuated by the demand for rejecting judicial discrimination againstvalid judgments rendered by the courts of particular countries ofthe free world. Through treaty arrangements the United Statescan truly meet her obligation as leader of the movement f o rworld peace through law.In examining the efficacy of foreign judgments in United Statescourts, the subject matter of this article will be restricted to inpersonam money judgments. Consideration of installment alimony awards‘ and paternity support judgments5 a r e not included.Foreign judgments in rem and quasi in rem present no enforcement problem f o r courts since the res involved is within the territorial jurisdiction of the court rendering the judgment o r deJudgments involving status, such as marriage, divorce andadoption, if valid where rendered, a r e generally regarded as valideverywhere.’4 Foreign judgments must be reduced to a sum certain to be enforceable inUnited States courts, and installment awards do not satisfy this requirement.Goodrich, Conflict of Laws 0 215 (3d ed. 1949).5 States viewing paternity actions as quasi-criminal do not enforce foreignpaternity support awards on the ground t h a t to do so would be to enforcethe police regulations of another state o r country. Annot., 16 A.L.R.2d 1103-04(1951) ; In r e Neidnig’s Estate, 123 App. Div. 894, 108 N.Y.S. 478 (1908).Support awards by domestic courts based on foreign determinations ofpaternity a r e beyond the scope of this article. F o r the policies of the servicesin this regard, see Army Regs. No. 608-99 (Oct. 29, 1956) ; Air Force Reg.No. 35-70 (Sept. 9, 1958) ; Navy Bupers Instruction (April 11, 1956).6 Mankin v. Chandler & Co., 16 Fed. Cas. 625 (No. 9,030) (C.C.E.D. Va.1823).i Restatement, Conflict of Laws 0 109-18 (1934).4AGO 6966B

ENFORCEMENT O F FOREIGN JUDGMENTS11. HISTORICAL BACKGROUNDThe ancient Roman maxim was res judicata pro veritateaccipitur, or, foreign judgments in personam are given effecteverywhere.8 This maxim was not effective in Western Europe,however, after the decline of the Roman Empire. In the Netherlands, a decree of 1580 provided t h a t judgments of one Dutchjurisdiction would be enforced in all other Dutch jurisdiction . I n France, the Code Michaud of 1629 negated the hesitation ofFrench courts to enforce the judgments of other French courts.1oArticle 120 of that Code provided that such judgments would beenforced without fee, re-examination of the merits, o r hearingthe parties. Article 121, however, provided that judgments offoreign countries would not be so enforced. French parties toforeign judgments were given the right to relitigate the issuesde novo, the foreign judgment notwithstanding. The establishment of this doctrine has influenced the law on the enforcementof foreign judgments all over the world, common law countriesincluded, for three centuries. Although the Napoleonic Code replaced the Code Michaud, it contained no provision of any kindconcerning the effect to be given to foreign judgments.ll Findingno applicable provision in the Code to guide their decision, theFrench Cour de Cassation looked to past French law and found itto be the same as the Code Michaud provisions.12 Both Belgium13and the Netherlands14 followed the French lead and, by early legislation, forbade their courts to give conclusive effect to foreignjudgments except in those cases where treaty would specificallyso provide.The early rule concerning the enforcement of foreign judgments in the courts of Great Britain paralleled the developmentof the law on the continent. In 1778 in Walker v. Witter,15 it washeld that foreign judgments were merely prima facie evidence of8 Nadelmann, Non-Recognition of A m e r i c a n Money J u d g m e n t s Abroad andWhcct To Do A b o u t I t , 42 Iowa L. Rev. 237 (1957).9 Zbid. It is noted, however, t h a t foreign judgments were enforced in Holland as a matter of comity while judgments of other Dutch jurisdictions wereenforced a s a matter of necessity.10 Id. a t 238.11 Id. a t 242.12 Ibid.13 Id. a t 244.1 4 Ibid.15 99 Eng. Rep. 1 (K.B.1778).AGO 6966B5

MILITARY LAW REVIEWdebt and thus examinable on the merits when sought to be enforced in British courts.The effect of this British rule on early case law in the UnitedStates was appreciable. The Walker case was even cited as authority in early American decisions to avoid granting conclusiveeffect to the judgments of sister states, the full faith and creditclause of the Constitution notwithstanding.IGAlthough a new action on the judgment of a sister state withinthe United States must be brought to enforce the judgment in alocal court, the law surrounding the recognition and enforcementof sister state money judgments is now well settled. Article IV,Section 1 of the United States Constitution provides :Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts,records, and Judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congressmay by general laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records,and Proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.Congress has extended the full faith and credit clause to statesand territories respectively." Judicially, the problem of whateffect a state should grant to the judgments of sister states hasalso been laid to rest.I8 It has been suggested that Congress hasthe power, under the full faith and credit clause, to provide f o rThere hasthe direct enforcement of judgments of sister t a t e s . ' been no such legislation, however, and the common law rule ofbringing an action in the second state on the judgment renderedin the first still prevails.*OThe full faith and credit clause, however, does not extend tothe judgments of foreign countries.No such right, privilege, or immunity, however, is conferred by the Constitution or by any statute of the United States in respect to the judgments of foreign states or nations.21.The law concerning the efficacy of foreign judgments in thethe United States has developed by judicial decision. The absence of federal treaty and statute provisions on the subjects havepermitted the various states to take different approaches in determining the effect of foreign judgments. The law is still developing along these lines.16Hitchcock v. Aicken, 1 Cai. R. 460 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. 1803); Bartlet v.Knight, 1 Mass. 401 (1805).17 28 U.S.C. 0 1738 (1958).18 Mills v. Duryee, 11 U.S. (7 Cranch) 481 (1813).19 Cook, The Powers of Congress Under the Full Faith and Credit Clause,28 Yale L. J. 430 (1919).20 Yntema,The Enforcement of Foreign Money Judgments in AngloAmerican Law, 33 Mich. L. Rev. 1129 (1935).2 1 Aetna Life Insurance Co. v. Tremblay, 223 U.S. 185, 190 (1912).6AGO 6966B

ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN JUDGMENTS111. AMERICAN LAW O F FOREIGN JUDGMENTSA. T H E C O N F L I C T I N G V I E W SThe law of foreign judgments in the United States is split between those authorities embracing the Supreme Court doctrineof reciprocity and those adhering to the rule of conclusive effect.Although the trend is toward conclusive effect for valid foreignmoney judgments, the doctrine of reciprocity is still of sufficientvitality to cloud the expectations of the foreign judgment holderin those cases where it is necessary f o r him to bring a n action ina court in the United States to enforce his judgment.United States courts applying the reciprocity doctrine affordthe in personam judgments of a foreign jurisdiction exactly thesame effect that is afforded American judgments in the courts ofthat foreign jurisdiction. If the court in which the action to enforce the judgment is brought follows the doctrine of reciprocity,retrial of the issues is permissible notwithstanding a showing ofjurisdiction over the person and subject matter and without thenecessity of the defendant averring fraud o r any other defenseto the original action.Thus, the Parisian merchant suing in a court in the UnitedStates to enforce his French judgment against a n Americanjudgment debtor will be forced to relitigate the entire case sinceFrench courts permit a trial de novo of United States judgments.On the other hand, since British courts give conclusive effect toUnited States money judgments, domestic courts practicing reciprocity give conclusive effect to valid British money judgments.Since in particular cases, the merit and validity of the Frenchjudgment might f a r outweigh the relative merit of the Britishjudgment, the rule of reciprocity may well be a doctrine of reprisal inuring to the obvious injustice of the individual judgmentholder.On the other hand, those courts following the rule of conclusiveeffect do not base the conclusiveness of foreign judgments on thenationality of the court rendering the judgment. Instead, validmoney judgments of foreign countries are treated as conclusiveand final, subject only to the recognized defenses which are available against the judgments of the courts of sister states.B. R E C I P R O C I T Y J U R I S D I C T I O N SI n 1895 the Supreme Court established the reciprocity doctrineAGO 6966B7

MILITARY LAW REVIEWin the United States in the companion cases of Hilton v. Guyotz2and Ritchie v. M c M l E e n .In Hilton, a French judgment creditor sued in a federal court to enforce a French money judgmentagainst a n American judgment debtor. Defendant contended thatthe trial court should examine the merits of the case since aFrench court would retry the issues before granting enforcementof a United States judgment. The trial court refused to examinethe merits of the case and gave conclusive effect to the Frenchjudgment. In a five to four decision, the Court held that sinceFrance did not extend conclusive effect to the judgments of UnitedStates courts, such effect would be refused the judgments ofFrench courts. The Court said:The reasonable, if not the necessary conclusion appears to us to be t h a tjudgments rendered in France, or in any other foreign country by thelaws of which our own judgments a r e reviewable upon the merits, a r enot entitled to full faith and conclusive effect when sued upon in thiscountry, but a r e prima facie evidence only of the plaintiff's claim.?-'In expounding the reciprocity 9octrine, the Court also said:I n holding such a judgment, f o r want of reciprocity, not to be conclusiveevidence of the merits of the claim, we do not proceed upon any theory ofretaliation upon one person by reason of injustice done to another; butupon the broad ground that international law is founded upon mutualityand reciprocity, and that by the principles of international law recognized in most civilized nations, and by the comity of our own country,which i t is our judicial duty to know and to declare, the judgment is notentitled to be considered conclusive.*7I n the dissent, Chief Justice Fuller felt it improper to deviatefrom the general rule on the sole ground that the French courtsrefused to grant conclusive effect to United States judgments.He said:The application of the doctrine of res judicata does not rest in discretion;and i t is f o r the government, and not f o r its courts, to adopt the principleof retorsion, if deemed under any circumstances desirable or necessary.2GThis statement highlights the major legal objection to the reciprocity doctrine. In a system of government based on the separation of executive, legislative and judicial powers, it is anomalous for the courts to disregard well established rules of law infavor of founding a decision on a political expedient.22159 U.S.113 (1895). The elaborate dicta of this case is an exhaustivestudy of the law of several of the European countries on the enforcement offoreign judgments and a statement of several basic rules still prevailing inthe United States.23 159 U.S. 235 (1895).2' 159 US. a t 227.2 5 Id. a t 228.26 I d . a t 234.8AGO 6966B

ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN JUDGMENTSIn Ritchie v. McMullen,27the Court held that a Canadian judgment should have been given conclusive effect in the lower court,on the basis that English law prevailed in Canada, and Englishlaw afforded conclusive effect to United States judgments. Thereciprocity doctrine announced in the Hilton and Ritchie cases isthe only Supreme Court pronouncement on the efficacy of foreignjudgments.28I n those state jurisdictions where the question has been considered, eleven states do not grant conclusive effect to foreignjudgments. These jurisdictions are composed of those states adhering to the reciprocity doctrine of the Hilton case and thosestates embracing a principle of unlimited judicial review of foreign judgments., considered theI n Traders Trust Co. v. D a v i d s n Minnestotaefficacy of foreign judgments and adopted the reciprocity doctrine by declaring :Effect is given to foreign judgments as a matter of comity and reciprocity,and i t has become the rule to give no other or greater effect to the judgment of a foreign CUUI’: t h a n the country or state whose court renderedi t gives to a like judgment of our courts.30The reciprocity doctrine has also been adopted by Florida3’and Texas3*Maryland applies the reciprocity rule by virtue of NorthernAluminum Go. v. Law,33wherein it was held :T h a t is, we give full faith and credit to judgments of foreign countrieswhen a like recognition is given by the courts of such countries to thejudgments of our courts.34Prior to the admission of Alaska into the Union, a federaldistrict court sitting in the territory gave conclusive effect to aCandian judgment on the basis of reciprocity, declaring, on thesame basis, that a French judgment would not be accorded sucheffect.35 Since the issue has not been reviewed subsequent to27 Note 23 supra.28The rule of reciprocity is restricted to t h e case in which a foreignerrecovers in his court and seeks to enforce the judgment against a n Americanin a court in the United States. A judgment between two citizens of the samecountry is treated as conclusive everywhere and one invoking the jurisdictionof a foreign court is bound by its judgment. A citizen’s judgment against aforeigner in the foreigner’s court is also treated as conclusive.29 146 Minn. 224,178 N.W. 735 (1920).30 Id. a t 227, 178 N.W. a t 736.31 Ogden v. Ogden, 159 Fla. 604, 33 So.2d 870 (1948).32 Banco Minero v. Ross, 106 Tex. 522, 138 S.W. 224 (1911).33 157 Md. 641, 147 Atl. 715 (1929).34 Id. a t 646, 147 Atl. a t 717.35 Alaska Commercial Co. v. Debney, 144 Fed. 1 (9th Cir. 1906).AGO 6966B9

MILITARY LAW REVIEWAlaskan statehood, the decision is still precedent in that jurisdiction.In Levicky v. L e v i k y it, was indicated that New Jersey wouldgive conclusive effect to foreign judgments. The case, however,involved a foreign decree regarding status. Although the language of the case was broad enough to include foreign moneyjudgments, citation of the Hilton case as precedent by the courtis sufficient to indicate reciprocity to be the rule f o r money judgments of foreign countries in New Jersey in spite of the distinction not having been drawn.In Wyoming, dictum in Union Securities Co. v . Adams?;alludedto the judgments of foreign countries and declared the reciprocity doctrine to be the rule in that state. The same situation prevails in Ohio,J8where the court, although determining the effectof a foreign adoption decree, cited the reciprocity rule enunciatedin the Hilton case to be applicable to in personam judgments.the court announced thatIn Tremblay v. A e t n a L i f e Ira. CO.,? the doctrine of unlimited judicial review was the rule in Maine.Oregon-'O and Montana" have not judicially determined the effect of foreign judgments in their courts. Statutes in both states,however, declare foreign judgments to be presumptive evidenceof a right a s between parties. The employment of the presumptive evidence terminology in the statutes as distinguished fromthat of conclusive evidence indicates a legislative intent to establish the doctrine of unlimited judicial review.No reported case has been found where a foreign judgmentwas reduced to a domestic judgment in a state following the doctrine of conclusive effect and then that domestic judgment suedupon in a reciprocity state for enforcement. The full faith andcredit clause of the Constitution and Congressional mandate4'for full recognition and enforcement of sister state judgmentswould seemingly require, however, that the domestic judgmentbe treated as conclusive.C. C O N C L U S I V E ' E F F E C T J U R I S D I C T I O N SProfessor Goodrich theorizes that since torts and contractsfounded on foreign operative facts a r e entertained in domestic36 49 N.J. Super. 562, 140 A.2d 534 (Super. Ct. Ch. 1958).3733 Wyo. 45, 236 Pac. 513 (1925).38 In re Vanderborght, 57 Ohio L. Abs. 143, 91 N.E.2d 47 (Ct. C.P. 1950).39 97 Me. 547, 55 Atl. 509 (1903).40Ore. Rev. Stat. 0 43.190 (1959).41Mont. Rev. Codes 0 93-1001-27 (1947).4228 U.S.C. 0 1738 (1958).10A G O 6966B

ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGN JUDGMENTSsuits, a fortiori, there should be full recognition of the foreignjudgment in which the rights and obligations of the parties havebeen definitely settled in a manner easily capable of proof throughcourtAnother persuasive theory advanced in supportof giving conclusive effect t o valid foreign money judgments isthat such judgments are the formal pronouncements of foreignsovereigns which demand recognition and enforcement underprinciples of international law.44Those jurisdictions granting conclusive effect to foreign moneyjudgments either expressly reject the reciprocity doctrine or elseignore it. The effect to be given a foreign judgment is an evidentiary matter and the states are not bound by the rules ofevidence in use in the federal

MILITARY LAW REVIEW Articles THE ENFORCEMENT OF FOREIGS JUDGMEKTS . Uniform Code of Military Justice . and Practice Richard S. Schubert . 81 Foreign Military Law Notes: A Review of Dutch Military Law Danish Military Jurisdiction Swedish Military Jurisdiction Major Jozef Schuurmans . 101 Soren B. Nyholm .

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