APublished by the Library of MichiganIn ThisIssue:Pletz namedALA LibraryAdvocate 4TrusteesCorner5MahoneyWorkshopFounder Dies6ccessJuly/August 2000 IssueVolume XVI I NO. 1ISSN 1051-0818Bill & Melinda GatesFoundation GrantsBring over 4.8Million to MichiganLibrariesby Carey L. DraegerPublic Information OfficerThe Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation andMichigan State Librarian Christie PearsonBrandau recently announced grants totalingover 4.8 million have been given to 347Computer workstations, such as this one at the Library of Michigan,Michigan public library sites to expandwill offer expanded Internet access, thanks to grants from the Bill &access to computers and the Internet. InMelinda Gates Foundation.addition,11 computer laboratories wereawarded to public libraries for staff and patron training.The grants have been provided by the Gates Library Initiative,a program of the Bill & Melinda GatesFoundation. The program is dedicated to partnering with public libraries to bring access to computers, theInternet, and digital information for patrons in low-income communities throughout the United States andCanada."The Foundation chose public libraries as their first major place to give because they are a familiarcommunity resource, and many citizens already make trips to the library as part of their daily lives," saidState Librarian Brandau."Michigan libraries also have a long history of serving all people and providingdiverse opportunities for lifelong learning."Nationally, a total of four rounds of funding will occur through 2003—the first round went to librariesin 7 states. Michigan and 11 other states make up the second round of funding, which will be implemented1999 through 2001.Four eligibility standards were applied by the Foundation:1 - the library building is within a state that has been accepted for a State Partnership Grant Program;2 - the library building is a public library recognized by the state library agency as a public library;3 - the library building serves an area of greater than 10 percent poverty based on U.S. CensusDepartment data for 1990; and4 - the library building has not previously received a Gates Foundation grant.continued on page 2
Gates Foundationcontinued from page 1The Michigan Electronic Library, or MEL as it is affectionately known, is a Michigan treasure! I first accessed MEL yearsago in Iowa and believed then, as I do now, that it is a productof librarians harnessing the power of the Internet. Although theLibrary of Michigan (LM) funded MEL through an LSTA grantfor a number of years, it was administered by Sue Davidsen andthe University of Michigan.Things have changed for MEL in the last few weeks. Sueaccepted another position outside the University of Michigan,which meant MEL’s administration was in question. Followingdiscussions between U-M and LM, the two organizationsmutually agreed that MEL would transfer to the Library to beadministered in house.What does this change mean for those of us who depend onMEL? It means positive results all around. The Library ofMichigan plans to build on MEL and enhance it. The currentselectors will remain and we may recruit additional selectors inthe future.We’d also like to explore the possibility of convertingMEL files from the current HTML format into a database format, to better facilitate searching the web site. Reference staff atthe Library of Michigan, led by Becky Cawley, will handle MEL’sday-to-day management.We owe Sue Davidsen our thanks as well as those whohelped her when MEL was created. We also appreciate theUniversity of Michigan and MEL selectors for their contributions that earned MEL its reputation as an internationallyknown source of information.Speaking of service,I was inspired by a story I heard recently as I toured libraries in beautiful northern Michigan.As Iviewed the lovely new Crooked Tree District Library in WalloonLake, Director Claudia Cullen described the small crampedfacility they previously occupied. "We didn’t have much in theway of facilities or materials,so we decided to become knownfor our excellent library service," she said. "We did just aboutanything to provide our customers with what they wanted andneeded."What a great attitude! Often the simple act of helping isenough to earn our customers’ respect and gratitude. It isimportant to provide people with a friendly, positive experiencewhen they use our libraries.I look forward to seeing you in my upcoming travels.22"These grants provide many opportunities for Michigan’spublic libraries, such as the first public access workstation tothe Internet for some libraries and additional access to digitalinformation for others," said Janet Laverty, the director ofBusiness Services for the Library of Michigan. She oversaw theapplication process for Michigan public libraries. An additional component of the Foundation’s Library Initative is the provision for upgrading Internet connections at local libraries.Some libraries will increase their connection speed by upgrading from dial-up access to direct digital access to the Internet."We are excited to have Michigan libraries involved in whatwe hope will be a significant and worthwhile project," saidTom Mayer, the U.S. Library program manager for the GatesFoundation."We want to thank the Library of Michigan and allthe public libraries in the state for their enthusiasm in theeffort to expand public access to information technologies."A chart of the main and branch libraries that received GatesFoundation monies follows.LibraryAdrian Public LibraryAlbion Public LibraryAlcona County LibraryAllegan Public LibraryAllendale Township LibraryAlma Public LibraryAlpena County LibraryAlvah N. Belding Memorial LibraryAnn Arbor District LibraryNortheast Branch LabAnn Arbor District LibraryAshley District LibraryBacon Memorial District LibraryBad Axe Public LibraryBarryton Public LibraryBay County Library SystemSouth Side Branch LabBay County Library SystemBayliss Public LibraryBeaver Island District LibraryBellaire Public LibraryBellevue Township LibraryBenton Harbor Public LibraryBenzie Shores District LibraryBenzonia Public LibraryBerrien Springs Community LibraryBessemer Public LibraryBetsie Valley District LibraryBeulah Public LibraryBoyne District LibraryBranch District Library SystemBridgeport Public LibraryBrown City Public LibraryBuchanan Public LibraryBullard Sanford Memorial LibraryBurlington Township LibraryBurr Oak Township LibraryCadillac-Wexford County Public LibraryCalumet Public-School LibraryCamden Township LibraryCapital Area District Library Central Library LabCapital Area District LibraryCaro Area District LibraryCarson City Public LibraryCass District LibraryCedar Springs Public LibraryCentral Lake District LibraryChase Township Public LibraryCheboygan Area Public 054.007,054.0016,246.00
Chesaning Public LibraryChippewa River District LibraryColoma Public LibraryColon Township LibraryComstock Township LibraryConstantine Township LibraryCorunna Public LibraryCrawford County LibraryCrooked Tree District LibraryCurtis Township LibraryDe Tour Area School And Public LibraryDeckerville Public LibraryDickinson County LibraryDowagiac Public LibraryEast Lansing Public LibraryEau Claire District LibraryEdna C. Bentley Memorial LibraryElk Township LibraryElsie Public LibraryEscanaba Public LibraryFairgrove District LibraryFalmouth Area LibraryFennville District LibraryFerndale Public LibraryFife Lake Public LibraryFlat River Community LibraryFlint Public LibraryForsyth Township Public LibraryFremont Area District LibraryGarfield Memorial LibraryGenesee District LibraryMontrose Branch LabGenesee District LibraryGladstone Area School & Public LibraryGladwin County LibraryGlen Lake Community LibraryGrace A. Dow Memorial LibraryHackley Public LibraryHall-Fowler Memorial LibraryHamtramck Public LibraryHancock School Public LibraryHarbor Beach Area District LibraryHarrison Community LibraryHart Area Public LibraryHartford Public LibraryHastings Public LibraryHazel Park Memorial LibraryHelena Township Public LibraryHesperia Public LibraryHolly Township LibraryHomer Public LibraryHopkins Public LibraryHoughton Lake Public LibraryHowe Memorial LibraryHudson Public LibraryIdlewild Public LibraryIndian River Area LibraryIosco-Arenac District LibraryIronwood Carnegie LibraryIshpeming Carnegie Public LibraryJackson District LibraryJackson District LibraryCentral LibraryJacquelin E. Opperman Memorial LibraryJordan Valley District LibraryKalamazoo Public LibraryCentral LibraryKalamazoo Public LibraryKalkaska County LibraryKent District LibraryEast Grand Rapids Branch LabKent District LibraryLake Linden-Hubbell Public School LibraryLake Odessa Community LibraryL'Anse Area School-Public LibraryLapeer Public LibraryLeland Township Public LibraryLenawee County LibraryLenox Township LibraryLitchfield District 6816,108.007,873.00Loutit District LibraryLuther Area Public LibraryLyons Village LibraryMackinac Island Public LibraryMackinaw Area Public LibraryMancelona Township LibraryManistee County LibraryManistique School & Public LibraryMaple Rapids Public LibraryMarcellus Township-Wood Memorial LibraryMason County District LibraryMaud Preston Palenske Memorial LibraryMayville District Public LibraryMcBain Community LibraryMcGregor Public LibraryMcMillan Township LibraryMendon Township LibraryMenominee County LibraryMerrill District LibraryMillington Township LibraryMissaukee District LibraryMitchell Public LibraryMonroe County Library System Dorsch Branch LabMonroe County Library SystemMontmorency County Public LibrariesMoore Public LibraryMorton Township Public LibraryMunising School-Public LibraryMuskegon County LibraryNegaunee Public LibraryNewaygo Carnegie LibraryNorth Adams Community Memorial LibraryNorth Branch Township LibraryNottawa Township LibraryOak Park Public LibraryOgemaw District LibraryOntonagon Township LibraryOsceola Township School Public LibraryOscoda County LibraryOtsego County LibraryParchment Community LibraryPentwater Township LibraryPeter White Public LibraryPittsford Public LibraryPontiac Public LibraryPortage Lake District LibraryPresque Isle District LibraryPublic Libraries Of SaginawPutnam District LibraryRawson Memorial LibraryReading Community LibraryRepublic-Michigamme Public LibraryReynolds Township LibraryRichland Township LibraryRichmond Township LibraryRudyard School-Public LibraryRuth Hughes Memorial District LibraryRyerson Library Foundation (Grand Rapids) LabRyerson Library Foundation ( Grand Rapids)Sandusky District LibrarySanilac District LibrarySeville Township Public LibraryShelby Area District LibraryShiawassee County LibraryShiawassee District LibrarySleeper Public LibrarySodus Township LibrarySouth Haven Memorial LibrarySpies Public LibrarySt. Charles District LibrarySt. Clair County LibraryAgonac-Clay Branch LabSt. Clair County LibrarySt. Ignace Public LibraryStair Public LibrarySturgis Public LibrarySunfield District ,108.0016,108.003
Surrey Township Public Library16,858.00Suttons Bay Area District Library7,054.00Tahquamenon Area Public Library7,054.00Tamarack Public Library7,054.00Taymouth Township Library16,927.00Tekonsha Township Public Library7,873.00Theodore A. Cutler Memorial Library19,657.68Thomas E. Fleschner Memorial Library17,065.00Thompson Home Public Library7,054.00Three Oaks Township Library20,377.00Three Rivers Public Library16,108.00Topinabee Public Library7,804.00Traverse Area District Library9,073.00Van Buren District Library115,213.00Vermontville Township Library17,065.00Vernon District Public Library19,683.00Wakefield Public Library7,804.00Waldron District Library7,942.00Walton Erickson Public Library7,054.00Warren Public LibraryMaybelle Burnette Branch Lab 38,079.65Warren Public Library48,324.00Watervliet District Library18,227.00Wayne Public Library16,108.00West Branch Public Library7,054.00West Iron District Library7,054.00White Cloud Community Library7,054.00White Pigeon Township Library20,718.00White Pine Library16,858.00Willard Public Library16,108.00William H. Aitkin Memorial Library21,108.00Wolverine Community Library8,895.00Ypsilanti District Library36,354.00Library of MichiganTrusteeNamed ExtraordinaryLibrary AdvocateBy Carey L. DraegerPublic Information OfficerLibrary of Michigan Trustee FranPletz was recently named an extraordinary library advocateof the twentieth century by the American LibraryAssociation/Association for Library Trustees and Advocates.Her name will be among the first added to the ALA/ALTANational Advocacy Honor Roll."The purpose of the honor roll is to identify and celebratethose individuals and groups who have actively supported andstrengthened library services at the local, state or national levelsover the last 100 years," wrote ALTA President Patricia Fisher inan April 10,2000, letter to Pletz."Each state in the nation wasasked to choose up to five advocates for the honor roll alongwith the names of up to five posthumous honorees."Advocates will be honored at the first-ever ALA/ALTANational Advocacy Honor Roll Banquet in Chicago on Friday,July 7,2000, during the ALA Annual Convention. During thebanquet, honorees will receive a souvenir program book anda special recognition pin.4Storing and PreservingNewspapersBy Kathleen MenanteauxCollection Management ServicesThose of us who work in libraries feel that our day is notcomplete until we’ve read two major newspapers. Our parentsand grandparents used newspapers at the end of the day towrap garbage or garden cuttings or for various other householdtasks. Today many of us recycle newspapers.Although their value as part of our historic record is oftenoverlooked, newspapers carry the history of the day. By the timethey reach our front porch, newspapers have begun to deteriorate. Newsprint is cheap and not particularly long lasting. Theground wood pulp in newsprint is produced by grinding woodinto sawdust that is softened by boiling and then formed intosheets. This produces short fibers and does not remove thelignin,which helps to bind the pulp together. Unfortunately, italso rapidly discolors, oxidizes in light, and creates acids thatdegrade or break down the paper. When producing chemicalwood pulp, more of the lignin is removed and the fibers arelonger. Most newsprint is 65 to 80 percent ground wood withchemical wood pulp added for strength.There are several problems involved in preserving newspapers. Light, especially sunlight, turns the paper brown and brittle. Heat accelerates the breakdown of the cellulose. Too littlemoisture causes brittleness; too much encourages mold. If yourlibrary has stacks of newspapers stored somewhere that are notdisturbed, you may attract insects or mice.Well-constructed, acid-free containers will modify the effectsof the above conditions. It is important that a preservation policy for newspapers state that they be inspected regularly. Largeformat newspapers are also problematic because their bulk andbrittleness make them difficult to transport and handle. Ifnewspapers are bound, they should be stored horizontally andstacked no more than three high on the shelf. Loose issuesshould be unfolded and stored flat in large folders or in anothersuitable container that will not add to their acidity.A foldednewspaper concentrates the acidic reaction at the fold to theenvironment and adds stress to the newsprint.Mylar holders, such as uncoated polyester (Dupont MylarType D), polypropylene or polyethylene, will provide a safeenvironment and physical support.Libraries are encouraged to participate in the United StatesNewspaper Project,a project funded by the NationalEndowment for the Humanities. In this project newspapers arecatalogued in a national database, and preservation microfilming creates a master, a copy negative, and a service copy.Information about the United States Newspaper Project and theMichigan Newspaper Project may be found at the Library ofMichigan web site at http://www.libofmich.lib.mi.us. Click onLibrary News, Events and Projects at the opening home page.Newspaper holdings in Michigan libraries are available at theSPAN database, an AccessMichigan project, at http://span.access michigan.lib.mi.us:9000/. SPAN holdings will be updated andcurrent in August 2000.
Trustees CornerBy Ellen RichardsonLibrary Law SpecialistPrimer on Library PoliciesThe Michigan Constitution grants the governing boards of public libraries the authority and responsibility to adopt regulations for thepublic use of libraries. These regulations are commonly called policies.Policies are necessary whenever the board is faced with competing legitimate interests. The final policy is a balance between the interests. Aclear example of this kind of balance is the typical "hours open" library policy. The board must balance the legitimate demand for more servicehours, or more nighttime or weekend service hours, with the legal demands to operate within the approved library budget. Just as busy lifestylesdemand more hours, budget constraints demand creative allocation of the costs for more personnel, increased utility use, and building security.The final policy of "hours open" strikes a balance that all parties can live with, at least for a time. Changing circumstances lead to policy reviewand reformulation.Changing circumstances include population growth or decline; changing lifestyles; growth or decline of other institutions, such as schools,shopping centers, and recreation areas;fluctuations in funding for the library; new technology; and changes in the laws that affect libraries. As thelibrary board formulates policies to address these items, trustees need to ask four basic questions:1.Does the policy conform to current law? Changes in the law often precipitate policy review. Remember the changes in many publicpolicies with the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act? In Michigan,many public libraries had to review and change theirinvestment policies when the Investment of Surplus Funds Act was amended in 1997. Sometimes the answer to this question is notstraightforward because the status of the law in a certain area is still being developed. Just think of the uncertainty surrounding thewhole area of Internet access. Legislators at both the state and federal levels are still examining the issues surrounding this technology.The courts are just beginning to hear cases that challenge various efforts to formulate public policy in this area. Competent legal counsel is a necessary expense when writing policy.2.Is the policy reasonable? Many policies, although legal on the surface, could be successfully challenged if they are unreasonable. Mostlibraries have policies that establish consequences for the non-return of borrowed materials. Restrictions on borrowing additionalmaterials, payment for replacement of lost materials, or fines are typical consequences. It would be reasonable to suspend borrowingprivileges until materials are returned; it would probably be unreasonable to banish offending patrons from the library for the rest oftheir lives.3.Can the policy be enforced in a non-discriminatory manner? Policies must be applied fairly to all patrons. Circulation policies, forexample, should be the same for all; board members or volunteers should not get special treatment. Giggling adolescents should not betreated more harshly than loud-speaking adults.A policy, no matter how reasonable or legal,might be challenged if it is not appliedequally to all.4.Is the enforcement of the policy measurable? It is difficult to enforce a policy fairly if the behavior specified or prohibited by the policy is not quantifiable. Most libraries, for example, have circulation policies that limit the number of items any one patron may borrowat any one time. A library is inviting a challenge if the policy states that the number of items borrowed must be "reasonable" and keptfor a "reasonable period of time." Staff then determine what "reasonable" means on a case-by-case basis. Charges of favoritism or discrimination would soon follow. A good circulation policy would state a definite number of items loaned for a specific period of time.Public library policies are enforceable only if the policies are in writing and adopted formally by the library board during an open meeting.Once adopted by the board, the policies should be promulgated, or made known by posting them in the library, giving copies to patrons, or highlighting in press releases.Public library policy development is not easy. Luckily, few libraries need to start from scratch. It is perfectly acceptable to look at what otherpublic libraries have done to address their policy needs. If you do use another library’s policy as a pattern,make sure that it accurately addressesthe needs of your local situation. Make sure, too, that the policy can pass the test of the four questions listed above.The websites for many public libraries post that library’s policies.A few years ago, a Michigan Library Association committee compiled twopolicy manuals with a variety of policies in effect in public libraries throughout the state. Libraries generously shared their policies and the editorial committee published the best. Most of the library cooperatives have copies of these manuals for their members’ use.5
July4Independence Day, Library of Michigan closed6-13 American Library Association Annual Conference,Chicago, IL26Mahoney Children’s Workshop 2000, Native AmericanCulture, Sterling Heights,LMFAugust23Mahoney Children’s Workshop 2000,Native American Culture, Kalamazoo, LMF26The Abrams Genealogy Series: Cemetery Recordsand Resources,LMKeep a look out for the Beginning Workshop, part IIWhere: Shanty Creek, Bellaire, MichiganCEUs: 3.2When: October 29 - November 4,2000Geared to those who have been working for a while and feel they want more in depth knowledgeof particular topics. Friday and Saturday will have topics of interest to trustees.For more information about the Library of Michigan (LM) or Library of Michigan Foundation events, call517-373-1300, or visit the website at www.libofmich.lib.mi.us; and for more information about the AmericanLibrary Association, call ALA Membership Customer Service at 800-545-2433, press 6, or visit the websiteat www.ala.org.Mahoney Children’sWorkshopFounder DiesBy Sarah Watkins, Executive DirectorLibrary of Michigan FoundationAlice Checkovitz Mahoney, the founder of the Mahoney Children’s Workshop series, died on May 24,2000. Born and raisedin Maspath, New York, Mahoney graduated from New York University in 1938 with a bachelor of arts degree. She continuedher education at Columbia University, where she obtained a master of library science degree in 1944.After graduation, Mahoney was a librarian at the Aquillar Branch of the New York Public Library. Later she became a specialist in children’s literature for the Lincoln School, an experimental school founded by John Dewey and run by the TeachersCollege of Columbia University. Among her students were Plato Chan, Christina Chan and Nelson Rockefeller. On September16,1946, she married Raymond Mahoney at Mission Dolores, San Francisco, and moved to Michigan.Because of her love of children and libraries, Mahoney established the Mahoney Memorial Fund with the Library ofMichigan Foundation to honor the memories of her son Patrick and her husband, Ray Mahoney. The Library of Michiganemployed Ray as a division director in what is now Public Services in 1968,where he worked for several years.Mahoney’s generosity is responsible for the Mahoney Children’s Workshop series,which focuses on how to better servechildren in libraries. The 2000 series begins on July 23 and will focus on Native American culture. The Mahoney Children’sWorkshop Series began in 1999. The inaugural theme of the series was "Grow With Reading" and concentrated on children’slibrary services using children’s gardens to build reading skills,journal writing and family literacy.Mahoney is survived by her sister, Stefanie C.Wladaver; brother-in-law, Donald Wladaver; grandnephew, Dan; and nieceDr. Susan Wladaver-Morgan. Contributions may be made in memory of Alice Mahoney to the Library of Michigan Foundationto benefit the Mahoney Memorial Fund.6
The Genesee District Library opened the Robert T. Bolo,Jr. Business Center, a 2,000-square-foot addition, at theGrand Blanc McFarlen branch. The center offers computers with Internet access, business reference books,financialnewsletters, specializedonline databases andnewspapers.A businesslibrarian, Sharon VanNorwick, is available tohelp patrons with business-related concerns.The library also usesthe center to teachclasses in basic computer skills, how to usethe Internet and Microsoft FrontPage. Bolo, for whomthe center is named, was a member of the GrandBlanc District Library Commission for 19years. After he died in 1999, donations weremade in his memory to help fund the center.Additional funding came from the librarycommission.he Library of Michigan hosted 77library employees (right) fromacross Michigan for an intensive 6-day workshop about present andfuture library innovations on May 2126,2000. The workshop was held atNorth Central Michigan College in historic Petoskey. Participants learnedabout selection and cataloging materials, reference, library law, children’sservices, public relations and administration. Noted authors Kathy Jo Warginand Ed Wargin joined the group on Tuesdayfor a book signing; on Thursday,Christopher Knight discussed the relationships between authors and libraries during aspecial author’s evening at Stafford’s BayView Inn. The event was organized andmanaged by Bryon Sitler, multitype libraryspecialist at the Library of Michigan.TThe William H. Aitkin MemorialLibrary in Croswell held a grandopening and ribbon cutting forits new addition on June 17,2000. The 3,000square-foot addition doubled the size of thelibrary and includes a technology room andexpanded work, collections and reading areas.The 600,000 project also included renovationsto the children’s section, including expansion ofthe young adult area. The project was fundedwith a 100,000 grant from the HerrickFoundation, community fundraising anddonations.heBarrytonPublicLibrary held an openhouse on May 13,2000, to celebrate itssixtieth anniversaryand the growth oftechnology at itslibrary. Thanks to a Basic LibraryTechnology Grant through the LibraryServices and Technology Act from theInstitute of Museum and LibraryServices that was administered by theLibrary of Michigan, the BarrytonPublic Library was able to create twonew computer stations and purchase aprinter for use by its patrons. From leftto right, Library Director Tammy Knott,Library Aide Adrienne Knott andAssistant Librarian Tiffany Smith showoff the cake served at the open house.T7
Contributing Writers:Kathleen Menateaux,Ellen Richardson, Sarah WatkinsSenator Shirley JohnsonRepresentative Kwame KilpatrickRepresentative Mary Ann Middaugh*Representative Bruce PattersonRepresentative Andrew RaczkowskiSenator John J.H.Sc hwarz,M.D.*Representative Mark Schauer*Representative Judith Scranton*Senator Kenneth SikkemaSenator Virgil Clark Smith*denotes membership with Legislative CouncilAgencies as an alternateLegislative CouncilRepresentative Charles R. Perricone, ChairSenator Dan L. DeGrow, Alternate ChairRepresentative Patricia BirkholzSenator John D. Cherry, Jr.Senator Joanne G. EmmonsSenator Robert L. Emerson*Senator Beverly Hammerstrom*Representative Michael HanleyLibrary of Michigan Board of TrusteesThomas J. Moore, Chair; David L. Tate,Vice Chair;Christie Pearson Brandau, State Librarian; MaureenDerenzy; Denise A. Forro; Bonnie A.Ga sperini; BettinaGraber; Thomas Kelly, State Representative (DWayne); Linda McFadden; Dianne M. Odrobina,Legislative Council Administrator; Lois S. Pawlusiak;Frances H. Pletz; John J. H.Schwarz,M.D., StateSenator (R-Battle Creek); Alma Wheeler Smith, StateSenator (D-Salem Township); Gerald Van Woerkom,State LibrarianChristie Pearson BrandauDeputy State LibrarianVacantPublic Information OfficerCarey L. DraegerGraphic Design /LayoutMarnie M. EldenWould you liketo receive Access ?Return this form to:Library of MichiganBusiness ServicesAttn: Jami GetzenP.O. Box 30007Lansing, MI 48909(R-Muskegon); Elizabeth A.Weaver, Chief Justice,Supreme CourtLibrary of Michi
2 - the library building is a public library recognized by the state library agency as a public library; 3 - the library building serves an area of greater than 10 percent poverty based on U.S.Census . Falmouth Area Library 5,242.00 Fennville District Library 16,108.00 Ferndale Public Library 16,108.00 Fife Lake Public Library 7,054.00 Flat .
Independent Personal Pronouns Personal Pronouns in Hebrew Person, Gender, Number Singular Person, Gender, Number Plural 3ms (he, it) א ִוה 3mp (they) Sֵה ,הַָּ֫ ֵה 3fs (she, it) א O ה 3fp (they) Uֵה , הַָּ֫ ֵה 2ms (you) הָּ תַא2mp (you all) Sֶּ תַא 2fs (you) ְ תַא 2fp (you
yes; m DEB 180 123 57 by the Linear Pair Postulate. So, by defi nition, a pair of corresponding angles are congruent, which means that ⃖AC ⃗ ⃖DF ⃗ by the Corresponding Angles Converse. 22. yes; m BEF 180 37 143 by the Linear Pa
sharpen your reading comprehension Do the Level A practice exer cises and score your results Review the answers and explanations for all Level A questions When you have mastered Level A exercises, progress to Levels B and C It’s Your Path to a Higher Test Score Choose Barron’s Method for Success on the SAT’s Critical Reading Sections ISBN-13: 978-0-7641-3381-7 EAN 14.99 Canada 21.99 .
the topic of artificial intelligence (AI) in English law. AI, once a notion confined to science fiction novels, movies and research papers, is now making a tremendous impact on society. Whether we are aware of it or not, AI already pervades much of our world, from its use in banking and finance to electronic disclosure in large scale litigation. The application of AI to English law raises many .
what to consider before nominating a potential director onto a board and should not be considered as a checklist in deciding whether to accept a potential candidate or not. From a potential director’s perspective, the paper aims to guide the individual on what to consider about a company prior to accepting an appointment. Terminology used in the paper Whilst the terms “company” and .
this blueprint paves the way for change for the children’s social care system, acknowledging the complexity and inherently risky nature of the work. While questions on how this will work in practice will need to be decided by individual LAs, this blueprint provides a starting point. Signifi cant benefi ts can be gained through LAs and the profession generally embracing the proposed model .
business-related human rights abuses when they do occur, the State duty to protect can be rendered weak or even meaningless. Access to effective remedy has both procedural and substantive aspects. The remedies provided by the grievance mechanisms discussed in this section may take a range of substantive forms the aim of which, generally speaking, will be to counteract or make good any human .
This study considers the regional impacts due to climate change that can be expected by 2050 if current trends continue. The range of impacts presented in this study are based on projections of climate change using three climate models and two emissions scenarios drawn from those used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A