Infrared Detectors And Systems - GBV

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Infrared Detectors and SystemsE. L. DERENIAKUniversity of ArizonaG. D. BOREMANUniversity of Central FloridaA Wiley-Interscience PublicationJOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.New York I Chichester I Brisbane I Toronto I Singapore

ContentsPrefaceNomenclatureChapter 1. Geometrical Optics1.1 Introduction1.2. Electromagnetic Spectrum1.3. Imaging Concepts1.4. Thick Lenses and Lens Combinations1.5. Stops and Pupils1.6. Scanning1.7. Image Quality1.8. Materials ConsiderationsBibliographyProblemsChapter 2. Radiometry2.1.2.2.2.3.2.4.2.5.IntroductionSolid AngleRadiometrie QuantitiesRadianceSource Configurations2.5.1. Point Sources2.5.2. Extended Sources2.6. Blackbody Radiation2.6.1. Blackbody Radiation Theory2.6.2. Stefan-Boltzmann Law2.6.3. Wien Displacement Laws2.6.4. Finite Spectral Regions2.6.5. Exitance Contrast2.7. Emissivity2.7.1. Kirchhofes Law2.8. Radiometrie Measures of Temperature2.8.1. Radiation Temperature2.8.2. Brightness Temperature2.8.3. Color 7778797980

CONTENTSVlllChapter 3. Optical-Detection Processes3.1. Optical-Detector Classification3.2. Photon-Detection Mechanism3.2.1. Photovoltaic Detectors3.2.2. Photoconductors3.2.3. Photoemissive Detectors3.3. Thermal-Detection Mechanisms3.3.1. Bolometers3.3.2. Thermopile Detectors3.3.3. Pyroelectric Detectors3.3.4. Golay Cells3.3.5. Superconductor Detectors3.4. The Photoelectromagnetic DetectorReferencesProblemsChapter 4. Probability and Statistics for Optical efinition of ProbabilityJoint and Conditional ProbabilityContinuous Random Variables and Probability DensityMeans and MomentsMoment-Generating and Characteristic FunctionsRelevant Probability Distributions4.7.1. Binomial Distribution4.7.2. Poisson Distribution4.7.3. Normal (Gaussian) Density Distribution4.7.4. Uniform Distribution4.7.5. Thermal Distributions of Ideal GasesReferenceBibliographyProblemsChapter 5. Noise in Optical Detection5.1. Introduction5.2. Photon Noise: Emission and Interaction Noise5.2.1. Noise Processes in Laser Sources (Poisson)5.2.2. Noise Processes in Thermal Sources (BoseEinstein)5.2.3. Photodetection as Bernoulli Trials5.3. Primary Sources of Detector Noise5.3.1. Johnson Noise5.3.2. Shot Noise5.3.3. Generation-Recombination 6158161166167168173174

CONTENTS5.3.4. Temperature Noise5.3.5. l//(One-over-/) Noise5.3.6. Microphonic Noise5.3.7. Popcorn Noise5.3.8. Total Noise in Photoconductors5.4. Electronic-Interface Noise5.4.1. Quantization Noise5.5. Noise Bandwidth5.6. Detector Response SpeedReferencesBibliographyProblemsChapter 6. Figures of Merit for Optical nsivityNoise Equivalent PowerDetectivityBlackbody/Spectral Figures of Merit RelationshipsPhoton-Noise-Limited Performance6.6.1. Signal-Dependent Noise6.6.2. BLIP Performance6.6.3. D**: D Double Star6.6.4. Actual D* Performance6.7. Johnson-Noise-Limited Performance6.8. Testing Detectors and Describing Their Performance6.8.1. Relative Spectral-Response Tests6.8.2. Low-Background-Flux TestsReferencesBibliographyProblemsChapter 7. Photovoltaic Detectors7.1. Introduction7.2. P-N Photodiode7.2.1. P-N Junction under Bias Conditions7.2.2. Optical Detection7.2.3. Photodiode i-v Curve7.2.4. Photodiode Resistance7.2.5. Electrical Interface to Photodiodes7.2.6. Spurces of Noise7.3. Silicon Photovoltaic Detector7.3.1. PIN Photodiodes7.3.2. Avalanche 9239239241246247250253257264267272283

CONTENTS7.4. Germanium Photodiodes7.4.1. Construction of Ge Photodiode7.4.2. Operating Characteristics of Ge Photodiodes7.4.3. Figures of Merit7.5. InSb Photodiode7.5.1. Physical Properties7.5.2. InSb Detector Fabrication7.5.3. Operational Characteristics of InSb7.6. GaAs Photodiodes7.6.1. GaAsP7.6.2. InGaAs7.7. HgCdTe7.7.1. Quantum Efficiency for HgCdTe7.7.2. Control of the Mixing Ratio in Hg, CdJTe7.7.3. RA Product7.7.4. l//Noise7.7.5. Manufacturability7.7.6. Summary of Hg Cd TeReferencesBibliographyProblemsChapter 8. Photoconductive Detectors8.1. Introduction8.2. General Analysis of Photoconductors8.2.1. Photoconductive Gain8.2.2. Quantum Efficiency8.2.3. Temporal Response8.2.4. Noise Processes in Photoconductors8.2.5. D* and NEP Relations8.3. Mercury Cadmium Telluride Photoconductors8.3.1. Responsivity8.3.2. NEP and D*8.3.3. Operational Constraints8.3.4. Summary8.4. SPRITE Detectors8.4.1. Theory of Operation8.4.2. Detector Description8.5. Extrinsic Photoconductors8.5.1. Response Time8.5.2. Responsivity and Noise8.5.3. Cooling Requirements to Achieve BLIP8.5.4. Operational Constraints of 42342343346348352354355356357358364366369370371372

CONTENTS8.6. Impurity Band Conduction8.7. Lead Salts8.7.1. Lead Sulfide8.7.2. Fabrication8.7.3. Lead-Salt Detection Mechanism8.7.4. Flash Effects/Precautions8.7.5. Noise Processes in Lead-Salt Detectors8.7.6. Performance Characteristics8.7.7. Preamplifier ConfigurationReferencesBibliographyProblemsChapter 9. Thermal al Performance of Thermal DetectorsSpectral-Response DeterminationResponsivity Analysis for Thermal DetectorsBolometers9.5.1. Thermistor Bolometer9.5.2. Cryogenic Bolometer9.5.3. Immersion Optics9.6. Pyroelectric Detectors9.6.1. Poling9.6.2. Theory of Operation9.6.3. Figures of Merit9.7. Detector Temperature ConstraintsReferencesBibliographyProblemsChapter 10. Schottky-Barrier Photodiodes10.1. Introduction10.2. Fabrication of PtSi10.3. Internal Photoemission10.3.1. Photoexcitation10.3.2. Transport10.3.3. Emission10.4. Theoretical Performance10.4.1. Quantum Efficiency and Responsivity10.4.2. Fowler Plot10.4.3. Fermi Sphere10.4.4. Quantum Yield C,10.5. Dark 39440441442442442443443444444447450

XllCONTENTS10.6. SummaryReferencesProblemsChapter 11. Bandgap-Engineered Photodetectors: MultipleQuantum Wells and Superlattices11.1. Introduction11.2. Multiple-Quantum-Well Photodetectors11.2.1. GaAs/GaAlAs11.3. Superlattice Optical Detectors11.3.1. Lattice-Matched Superlattice11.3.2. Strained-Layer Superlattice11.4. Applications11.5. Future OutlookReferencesBibliographyProblemsChapter 12. Infrared Search Systems12.1. Introduction12.2. Scan Formats12.2.1. Single-Detector Scan Formats12.2.2. Multiple-Detector Scan Formats12.2.3. Parallel Scan12.2.4. Serial Scan with Time Delay and Integration12.2.5. Staring Systems12.3. Range Equation12.3.1. Optics12.3.2. Target12.3.3. Detector12.3.4. Signal Processing12.3.5. A Search System (non-BLIP) PreliminaryDesign12.3.6. Range Equation for Search Systems: BLIPReferencesBibliographyProblemsChapter 13. Modulation Transfer OTF, MTF, and PTFCalculation of Optical-Subsystem 03505505505507509

XlllCONTENTS13.5. Calculation of Electronic-Subsystem MTF13.6. DetectorMTF13.7. MTF Measurements13.7.1 Overview13.7.2 Impulse Response13.7.3 Line Response13.7.4 Edge Response13.7.5 Sine-Wave Response13.7.6 Bar-Target Response13.7.7 Random-Target ResponseReferencesBibliographyProblemsChapter 14. Thermal-Imager Systems14.1. Introduction14.2. NETD Derivation14.3. Measurement and Use of NETD14.4. Johnson Criteria14.5. Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference14.6. Measurement of MRTD14.7. Analytical Model for 538538Appendix A: Blackbody Integrals for Photon Exitance andRadiant Exitance540Appendix B: Basic Program for Integrating Planck Equation548Appendix C: RMS Evaluation550Appendix D: 10% to 90% Rise Time Related to Time Constant551Index553

11.3. Superlattice Optical Detectors 470 11.3.1. Lattice-Matched Superlattice 471 11.3.2. Strained-Layer Superlattice 472 11.4. Applications 481 11.5. Future Outlook 482 References 482 Bibliography 484 Problems 485 Chapter 12. Infrared Search Systems 486 12.1. Introduction 486 12.2. Scan Formats 487 12.2.1. Single-Detector Scan Formats 487 12.2.2.

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