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5MODULEAdvanced MechanicsBrian Shadwick

Science Press 2020First published 2020Science PressUnit 7, 23-31 Bowden StreetAlexandria NSW 2015 AustraliaTel: 61 2 9020 1840 Fax: 61 2 9020 auAll rights reserved. No part of this publicationmay be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recordingor otherwise, without the prior permission ofScience Press. ABN 98 000 073 861

ContentsWords to Watch ivProjectile Motion5.15.11Gravitational Potential Energy Away From Earth’s Surface325.12Total Energy Of an Orbiting Satellite345.13Change In Gravitational Potential Energy36Components and Resolution of Vectors25.2Analysing Projectile Motion 45.3Projectile Motion Problems 65.14Kepler’s Laws Of Planetary Motion 38Objects projected from a horizontal surface65.15Describing an Investigation 40Objects thrown up and landing at same level6Objects landing at a different level 8Circular Motion5.16Characteristics Of Circular Motion 44105.17Forces In Circular Motion 46Accuracy in measurements 105.18Motion In a Horizontal Circle 48Reliability of measurements 125.19Circular Motion On a Banked Track50Motion In Gravitational Fields5.20Sample Problems In Circular Motion525.5Newton’s Law Of Universal Gravitation185.21Total Energy Of a Satellite and Work Done545.6Gravitation Fields 20Factors affecting gravitation field strength225.22Rotational Torque 565.7Gravitational Field Strength 24Answers 585.8Newton, Circular Motion and Orbital Speed26Data Sheet 71Formula Sheet 725.9Types Of Orbits 28Periodic Table 735.10Escape Velocity 305.4Accuracy, Reliability and Validity Validity of experiments 14Science PressMASTERING PHYSICSISBN 978-0-85583-8249NSW Module 5Advanced Mechanicsiii

Words to Watchaccount, account for State reasons for, report on,explain Make something clear or easy to understand.give an account of, narrate a series of events orextract Choose relevant and/or appropriate details.transactions.analyse Interpret data to reach conclusions.annotate Add brief notes to a diagram or graph.apply Put to use in a particular situation.assess Make a judgement about the value ofsomething.calculate Find a numerical answer.clarify Make clear or plain.classify Arrange into classes, groups or categories.comment Give a judgement based on a givenstatement or result of a Estimate, measure or note how things areextrapolate Infer from what is known.hypothesise Suggest an explanation for a group offacts or phenomena.identify Recognise and name.interpret Draw meaning from.investigate Plan, inquire into and draw conclusionsabout.justify Support an argument or conclusion.label Add labels to a diagram.list Give a sequence of names or other brief answers.measure Find a value for a quantity.similar or different.outline Give a brief account or summary.construct Represent or develop in graphical form.plan Use strategies to develop a series of steps orcontrast Show how things are different or opposite.create Originate or bring into existence.deduce Reach a conclusion from given information.define Give the precise meaning of a word, phraseor physical quantity.demonstrate Show by example.derive Manipulate a mathematical relationship(s) togive a new equation or relationship.describe Give a detailed Produce a plan, simulation or model.determine Find the only possible answer.discuss Talk or write about a topic, taking intoaccount different issues or ideas.distinguish Give differences between two or moreprocesses.predict Give an expected result.propose Put forward a plan or suggestion forconsideration or action.recall Present remembered ideas, facts orexperiences.relate Tell or report about happenings, events orcircumstances.represent Use words, images or symbols to Choose in preference to another or others.sequence Arrange in Give the steps in a calculation or derivation.sketch Make a quick, rough drawing of something.different items.solve Work out the answer to a problem.draw Represent by means of pencil lines.state Give a specific name, value or other brief answer.estimate Find an approximate value for an unknownsuggest Put forward an idea for consideration.quantity.summarise Give a brief statement of the main points.evaluate Assess the implications and limitations.synthesise Combine various elements to make aexamine Inquire into.whole.ivNSW Module 5Advanced MechanicsScience PressMASTERING PHYSICSISBN 978-0-85583-8249

Projectile MotionScience PressMASTERING PHYSICSISBN 978-0-85583-8249NSW Module 5Advanced Mechanics1

5.1 Components and Resolution Of VectorsAnalyse the motion of projectiles by resolving the motion into horizontal and vertical components, makingthe following assumptions: a constant vertical acceleration due to gravity and zero air resistance.Components and resolution of vectorsThe components of a vector are the vectors we add together to get that vector. For example, the vectorshown below (in red) has many pairs of components (shown in various blues) and one pair at right angles (black).Components AComponents CVectorComponents BComponents D(at 90 these are the mostuseful for analysing vectors)Components EWhen we refer to the components of a vector we specifically refer to the two vectors at 90 to each other, onehorizontal and the other vertical, which would need to be added together to give that vector. In the diagramabove, these would be components D, drawn in black.When we resolve a vector into its components, then we are finding these two vectors at right angles.Mathematically:Horizontal component vector cos θVertical component vector sin θAnalysis of projectiles 2Horizontal and vertical components of projectile motion are independent of each other.Horizontal motion of a moving object is not subject to gravitational forces, and therefore experiencesno acceleration.Vertical motion of an object near the surface of the Earth is affected by the downward force of gravitywhich gives it an acceleration of 9.8 ms 2.NSW Module 5Advanced MechanicsScience PressMASTERING PHYSICSISBN 978-0-85583-8249

SampleQuestions1.If the plane has a horizontal speed of 180 m s 1,what is:(a) It flight speed?(b) Its vertical speed?2.If the horizontal component of the tension inthe leash held by the girl is 20 N what is:(a) The tension in the leash?(b) The vertical component of this tension?3.If the vertical component of the tension in theleash is 18 N, find:(a) The tension in the leash.(b) The horizontal component on thetension.4.If the missile in the photograph is moving at2500 m s 1, what are the components of itsvelocity?Science PressMASTERING PHYSICSISBN 978-0-85583-8249NSW Module 5Advanced Mechanics3

5.2 Analysing Projectile MotionApply the modelling of projectile motion to quantitatively derive the relationships between the following variables:initial velocity, launch angle, maximum height, time of flight, final velocity, launch height and horizontal range.Analysing projectile motionA projectile is any object thrownor shot into the air at any angle.Trajectory of a projectile VX VX VYVXVY Only gravitational force acts on aprojectile.The horizontal velocity of aprojectile is constant.The vertical velocity of a projectileis accelerated – increasing ifmoving downwards, decreasing ifmoving upwards.The combination of these twovelocities results in the objectfollowing a parabolic path.VXVertical velocity isuniformly acceleratedHorizontal velocityis constantVYProjectile motion and Newton’s equations of motionEquation used in straight line motion v u at v u 2ass ut 1 at2 4222NSW Module 5Advanced MechanicsHorizontal component of motion ux u cos θ vx ux (ax 0) Vertical component of motion uy u sin θ vy uy aytv u vy2 uy2 2ay y x uxt y uyt 1 ayt22x2x2Science PressMASTERING PHYSICSISBN 978-0-85583-8249

Sample1.QuestionsA ball of weight W rollsacross a horizontalsurface and over theedge E, falling to thefloor as shown in thediagram.PE Which graph best showsthe upward force actingon the ball as it movesfrom P to Q?Q(A) Force(B) ForceWWPEQ WEQ W(D) Force(C) ForceWWPE W2.PQPEQ WA projectile is fired from the top of a cliff with speed v at an angle θ above the horizontal.Air resistance is negligible. What is the horizontal component of the projectile’s velocity after time t?(A) v cos θ(B) v cos θ – gt(C) v sin θ – gt(D) v sin θ3.The diagram shows the pathsof two projectiles, X and Y,which rise to the same height.Which of the following isidentical for both projectilesX and Y?(A) Initial horizontal velocities.(B) Initial vertical velocities.(C) Initial velocities.(D) Horizontal displacements.Science PressMASTERING PHYSICSISBN 978-0-85583-8249XYNSW Module 5Advanced Mechanics5

5.3 Projectile Motion ProblemsSolve problems, create models and make quantitative predictions by applying theequations of motion relationships for uniformly accelerated and constant rectilinear motion.Objects projected from a horizontal surfaceuxSpecial considerations vx uxInitial horizontal velocity uxInitial vertical velocity 0θ 0 vΔyvyΔx rangeObjects thrown up and landing at same levelSpecial considerationsuMax heightuy u sin θфθ ux u cos θux u cos θuy u sin θTotal vertical displacement 0Vertical velocity at top of flight 0Time to rise time to fallTime to rise half time of flightSpeed at launch speed at landingAngle θ angle ϕTwo halves of flight are symmetricalMaximum height occurs whenvertical velocity 0Acceleration after launch g( 9.8 m s 2 on Earth’s surface)Δx range6NSW Module 5Advanced MechanicsScience PressMASTERING PHYSICSISBN 978-0-85583-8249

Sample1. tennis player, standing on the baseline, hits atennis ball 1.5 m above the ground horizontallyat 24 m s 1. If the tennis court is 23.77 m long:(a) What will be its time of flight?(b) Will the ball land inside the court at theother end?(c) What will be its velocity when it hits theground?A ball fired from a projectile gun at ground leveljust cleared 1.5 m high bar. The ball’s horizontalvelocity was 9.0 m s 1.(a) What was the ball’s time of flight?(b) How far out in front of the bar was the ballfired?(c) What was its vertical launch velocity?(d) At what angle was it fired?An archer, standing on a raised platform, firesan arrow horizontally at 40 m s 1 at a heightof 17.5 m above the ground at a tree which is65 m away from her.(a) What will be its time of flight?(b) Where will it hit the tree?(c) What is its velocity as it hits the tree?A ball is launched at a velocity of 20 m s 1 at anangle of 25 to the horizontal.(a) What was the ball’s time of flight?(b) What will be its maximum height abovethe launch position?(c) What was its range?A ball is launched at 40 m s 1 at an angle of 60 to the horizontal. What was its:(a) Vertical launch velocity?(b) Horizontal launch velocity?(c) Time of flight?(d) Range?A 250 g toy truck moves off the edge of a tablethat is 1.25 m high and hits the floor 0.6 m outfrom the edge of the table.(a) How long does it take to fall?(b) At what speed did it leave the table?(c) With what velocity did the truck hit thefloor?Science PressMASTERING PHYSICSISBN 978-0-85583-82497.A ball thrown horizontally out from the top of acliff at 40 m s 1 hits the ground 5 s later.(a) What is the height of the cliff?(b) What is the range of the ball?(c) With what velocity does it hit the ground?8.A ball kicked from ground level at an angle of60 lands at the same level 10 s later.(a) What is its initial horizontal velocity?(b) What is its initial vertical velocity?(c) What was its initial velocity?(d) What was the ball’s range?(e) What was its maximum height?9.A projectile is fired at 70 m s 1 at an angle of53 to the ground. What is its:(a) Time of flight?(b) Range?(c) Maximum height above the ground?10. Police discover a car at the bottom of a 72 mcliff, 22 m out from the base of the cliff.(a) How long did this car take to fall?(b) At what speed did it go over the edge ofthe cliff?(c) With what velocity did the car hit theground at the bottom of the cliff?11. A gun is fired horizontally toward a target 120 maway. It is aimed directly at the centre of thetarget. The bullet muzzle velocity is 200 m s 1.(a) What is its time of flight?(b) How far below the centre of the target willthe bullet hit?12. A hawk in level flight 135 m above the groundaccidentally drops the fish it caught. If thehawk’s horizontal speed is 20.0 m s 1:(a) How long did the fish take to fall?(b) How far ahead of where it was droppedwill the fish hit the water?13. In an experiment, two balls are rolled off abenchtop which is 1.25 m from the floor. Ball X,2 kg, leaves the edge at 0.6 m s 1. Ball Y, mass3 kg, leaves the edge at 0.8 m s 1.(a) Which ball hits the floor first?(b) How far apart do the balls hit the floor?NSW Module 5Advanced Mechanics7

Objects landing at a different levelNote that for all projectiles, maximumrange is achieved when launch angle 45 .Special considerationsNote also that the angle of projectileswith complementary launch angles willbe the same. Vertical displacement difference in heightbetween the two levelsIf target lower (as shown), then vertical displacementis negative (assume upward direction positive)If target higher, vertical displacement positiveVertical velocity at top of flight 0Time to rise does not equal time to fallTime to rise is not half time of flightSpeed at launch does not equal speed at landingAngle of launch does not equal angle of landingTwo halves of flight are not symmetricalMaximum height occurs when vertical velocity 0Taking initial vertical velocity upwards as positive,acceleration is negativeRange depends only on the horizontal componentof the launch velocityMaximum height depends only on the verticalcomponent of the launch velocity(vy)top 0Height abovelaunch positionΔyMaximum altitudeΔx range8NSW Module 5Advanced MechanicsScience PressMASTERING PHYSICSISBN 978-0-85583-8249

Sample1.2.QuestionsA cannonball is fired from ground level and hitsthe wall of a castle 700 m away at a height of146 m above the ground. It hits the wall when itis at its maximum altitude. Find:(a) Its time of flight.(b) Its initial horizontal velocity.(c) Its initial vertical velocity.(d) Its angle of inclination at launch.(e) Its launch velocity.(f) Its velocity as it hits the castle wall.A boy runs straight off the end of a 12 m divingboard with a speed of 2.2 m s 1.(a) How long before he hits the water?(b) How far out from the end of the board willhe hit the water?(c) What will be his velocity when he hits thewater?3.A cannonball is fired at 35 to the ground fromthe top of a 60 m cliff at 25 m s 1.(a) What was its time of flight?(b) Where will it hit the ground?(c) At what velocity does it hit the ground?(d) What will be its maximum height abovethe launch position?4.A cannon is fired upwards at 150 m s 1 at 45 .(a) What is its maximum height?(b) What is its time of flight?(c) What is its range?(d) Where is it 9 seconds after firing?(e) What is its velocity 9 s after firing?5.6.A ball is thrown up from the top of a 64 m highbuilding with an initial speed of 16 m s 1 at anangle of 10 from the vertical.(a) What is its maximum height?(b) What is its time of flight?(c) What is its range?(d) What will be its velocity on hitting the ground?A projectile is fired into the air at 50 above thehorizontal. It hits a target 900 m away on top ofa 250 m high cliff 13 s later.(a) What is its initial horizontal velocity?(b) What was its initial velocity?(c) What is its maximum height?Science PressMASTERING PHYSICSISBN 978-0-85583-82497.A projectile is fired into the air from the edgeof a 125 m high cliff at an angle of 36.9 abovethe horizontal. It hits a target 455 m away fromthe base of the cliff 9.76 s later.(a) What is its initial horizontal velocity?(b) What is its initial vertical velocity?(c) What is its initial velocity?(d) What is its maximum height?8.A projectile is fired into the air from the edge ofa 400 m high cliff at an angle of 65 above thehorizontal. It hits a target 2 km away from thebase of the cliff 31 s later.(a) What is its initial horizontal velocity?(b) What is its initial vertical velocity?(c) What is its launch speed?(d) Find its maximum height.9.A ball is kicked at 35 to the ground. It is‘headed’ by a player 57.2 m away at a height of1.8 m above the ground 2.79 s later.(a) What was the ball’s initial velocity?(b) What is its horizontal speed when it hitsthe second player’s head?(c) What is its vertical speed when it hits thesecond player’s head?(d) What is its velocity when it hits theplayer’s head?10. A discus thrower releases the discus at a heightof 1.2 m above the ground at 29.2 m s 1 at anangle of 45 . It lands after travelling 87.9 m.(a) What is it time of flight?(b) Find its maximum height above theground.(c) Find its velocity on hitting the ground.11. A projectile is fired into the air at 40 above thehorizontal. It hits a cliff 400 m above the launchpoint and 800 m away at the peak of its flight.(a) Find its initial vertical velocity.(b) Find its initial horizontal velocity.(c) Find its launch velocity.(d) How long does it take to reach thebuilding?(e) Find its velocity as it passes over thebuilding.NSW Module 5Advanced Mechanics9

Answers5. and Resolution Of Vectors(a)(b)(a)(b)(a)(b)(a)(b)Flight speed 202.2 m s (measuring θ as 27 )Vertical speed 91.8 m s 1Tension 24.4 N (measuring θ as 35 )Vertical component 14.0 NTension 29.2 N (measuring θ as 38 )Horizontal component 23.0 NVertical component 1135 m s 1(measuring θ as 27 )Horizontal component 2227.5 m s 15.2Analysing Projectile Motion1.C2.A3.B5.3Projectile Motion Problems 1Objects projected from a horizontal surfaceObjects thrown up and landing at same levelNote: Your answers may differ slightly due to rounding offerrors.1.(a) 0.55 s(b) Yes – it will be 10.5 m inside the back line(c) 24.6 m s 1 at 12.7 down from horizontal2.(a) 1.11 s(b) 5.0 m(c) 5.42 m s 1(d) 31.1 up from horizontal3.(a) 1.625 s (note that it hits the tree before itreaches the ground, so 1.9 s is incorrect)(b) 12.94 m below its release point (4.56 m abovethe ground)(c) 43.05 m s 1 at 21.7 down from horizontal4.(a) 1.72 s(b) 3.64 m(c) 31.2 m5.(a) 34.6 m s 1(b) 20 m s 1(c) 7.1 s(d) 141.2 m6.(a) 0.51 s(b) 1.19 m s 1(c) 5.1 m s 1 at 14 to the vertical7.(a) 122.5 m(b) 200 m(c) 63.25 m s 1 at 50.8 down from horizontal58NSW Module 5Advanced Mechanics8. m s 1(b)49 m s 1(c)56.58 m s 1 at 60 up from horizontal(d)283 m(e)122.5 m(a)11.4 s(b)480.6 m(c)159.5 m(a)3.83 s(b)5.74 m s 1(c)38 m s 1 at 81.3 down from horizontal(a)0.6 s(b)1.76 m(a)5.25 s(b)105 m(a)They will both hit the floor at the same time(0.505 s)(b)Ball Y lands 0.1 m further out than ball X(0.4 m compared to 0.3 m)Objects landing at a different level1. s(b)128.2 m s 1(c)53.5 m s 1(d)22.7 up from horizontal(e)138.9 m s 1 at 22.7 up from horizontal(f)128.2 m s 1 horizontally (it is at the top of its flight)(a)1.56 s(b)3.43 m(c)15.4 m s 1 at 8.2 to the vertical(a)5.25 s(b)107.6 m out from the base of the cliff(c)42.5 m s 1 at 28.9 to the vertical(d)10.5 m(a)574 m(b)21.65 s(c)2295.9 m(d)557.7 m above the ground and 954 m outhorizontally from the launch point(e)107.5 m s 1 at 9.5 up from the horizontal(a)12.7 m(b)5.56 s(c)15.44 m(d)38.9 m s 1 down at 4.1 to the vertical(a)69.2 m s 1(b)107.7 m s 1(c)347.3 mScience PressMASTERING PHYSICSISBN 978-0-85583-8249

Components and resolution of vectors The components of a vector are the vectors we add together to get that vector. For example, the vector shown below (in red) has many pairs of components (shown in various blues) and one pair at right angles (black). Components A Components C Components B Vector Components D (at 90 these are the most

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