T4 Bacteriophage Project: An Introduction To Blender

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T4 Bacteriophage Project: AnIntroduction to BlenderIwan KartikoDept. of Computing, Macquarie University

Hardware Requirements1Supported Operating Systems Windows (2000, XP or Vista), Mac OS X 10.2 and later, Linux 2.2.5 i386, Linux2.3.2 PPC, FreeBSD 6.2 i386, Irix 6.5 mips3, and Solaris 2.8 sparcMinimal specs for Hardware 300 MHz CPU 128 Mb RAM 20 Mb free hard disk Space 1024 x 768 px display with 16 bit colour A three-buttons mouse Open GL graphics card with 16 Mb RAMGood specs for Hardware 2 GHz dual CPU 2 Gb RAM 1920 x 1200 px display with 24 bit colour A three-buttons mouse Open GL graphics card with 128 or 256 Mb RAMProduction specs for Hardware 64 bits, Quad core CPU 8 Gb RAM 2 x 1920 x 1200 px display with 24 bit colour A three-buttons mouse and a tablet Open GL graphics card with 768 Mb RAM, ATI FireGL or NVIDIA Quadro1Taken from ts/ Last accessed in February 2010.3

Software RequirementsPython 2.6.4Website: www.python.orgPython is a popular programming language. We will not do any python programming inthis book. However, Blender requires a copy of Phyton installed to run certain scripts.Blender 2.49bWebsite: r is a free and open-source application that can be used to create 3D models,animations, real-time content, and compositing. The latest version of Blender at thewriting of this manual is 2.49b. The latest development version is 2.50 alpha1, whichis not suitable for production setting. Blender 2.50 is the development branch towardBlender 2.6x and has many changes from Blender 2.49b. However, the method given inthis book can be applied when Blender 2.60 is released.T4 Bacteriophage Project.zipThis file contains Blender files that are used in the production of this manual. TheseBlender files are provided to accompany this manual as worked examples to assist learning. Most importantly, this file contains the sketch file, which is needed in Chapter 3.4

Contents1 Introduction112 Blender2.1 User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2 Setting up Blender for first time use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3 Hotkeys and simple exercises of Blender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3.1 Exercise 1. Orientation in 3D space, selecting and creating object.2.3.2 Exercise 2. Transformations, deleting and creating primitives. . . .2.3.3 Exercise 3. More on transformations and object selection. . . . . .2.3.4 Exercise 4. Object editing, selecting and transformations. . . . . .2.3.5 Exercise 5. More on object editing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1313141616191920213 3D3.13.23.323232536ModellingScene Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Modelling the shape of T4 Bacteriophage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Modelling the background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Rigging394.1 Setting up an Armature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394.2 Setting up Inverse Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495 Shading556 Lighting617 Rendering657.1 Placing the render camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657.2 Evaluating and Finalising Render . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658 Parting Words719 Troubleshooting7510 What next?775


List of Figures2.12.2Blender’s default User Interface with annotations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15User Preferences Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . on Google . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Research on Youtube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The sketch of the scene. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The sketch of T4 object to aid in modelling process. . . . . . . . . . . . .A render of T4 with no armature and plain material. . . . . . . . . . . . .The background, which is made out of a subdivided plane is shown in editmode. The T4 object stands on the background object. . . . . . . . . . .2424343536384.14.2Blender displays the rotational limit of the joints in Pose mode. . . . . . . 53A render of T4 with armature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545. menu in Buttons window with material button enabled. . . . .The head object with no material assigned to it yet. . . . . . . . . . . .The parameters to setup the transparency material, with Shaders menudetached from Mirror Trans and SSS menus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The material setup of the background object. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.16.2Three point light setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62Shading menu in Buttons window with lamp button enabled. . . . . . . . 637.17.27.3Render settings in Buttons window. . . . . . . . . . . . .It is recommended to do a small render at 25% size for aAuthor’s render of T4 object with transparency materiallighting applied in the scene. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.18.2An alternate purpose of T4 project, an advertisement of a jewellery shop. 72Another possibility of T4 project, a poster of a talk. . . . . . . . . . . . . 73. 56. 57. 58. 59. . . . . . . . . . 67quick assessment. 68and three-point. . . . . . . . . . 697

List of Figures8

List of Tables2.2Commonly used shortcuts in Blender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186.1Author’s setting of each light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649

List of Tables10

1 IntroductionThis manual shows how to do 3D modelling, shading, posing, lighting, and rendering inBlender. You should download the publicly available software to your PC, see sectionon page 3, before you begin. The primary goals of this manual is to introduce the basicsof creating high impact 3D images for publications or grant proposals, to students andstaff, by using Blender. Previous experience in 3D modelling, texturing, photography,animation or programming is helpful, but not necessary.Because of the scope and the sheer amount of information that can be provided here,this manual only provides a brief overview of creating a simple 3D image. The authorsuggests going through the manual with a copy of Blender running on your computer. Itis a good idea to read through a section before trying it on Blender. In this way, you willhave a better picture of what you will carry out by the end of a particular section. As youprogress through the chapters, less hotkeys will be mentioned. For example, Section 2.2we read “use [x] key to delete the box,” as you progress, you will read only instruction,such as, “delete the box.”The next chapter begins with a short introduction to Blender User Interface (UI) and thehotkeys. Blender’s UI might seem overwhelming at first due to the number of buttonson the screen and little resemblance with other applications. However, this manualencourages you to memorise some of the shortcut keys to manipulate the scene, insteadof locating all the control buttons one by one. While it is possible to click on the icons toperform actions, as you become proficient in 3D graphics, you’d rather use the shortcutkeys. For example, to translate an object up 10 units you need to select the object,move the mouse to the translate button, click on translate button, move the mouse tothe transformation handle, and pull the transformation 10 units upwards. These actionsmight take more than 10 seconds to complete. When you use the shortcut keys, theseactions can be performed quickly; select object, press [g][z][5], and press enter to confirm.The reminder of the chapters follows with 3D modelling, rigging, shading, lighting andrendering. The last two chapters deals with troubleshooting and additional resources forfurther learning.11

1 Introduction12

2 Blender2.1 User InterfaceBlender’s User Interface (UI, Figure 2.1) that comes with the default setting has twovisible windows: 3D window and Buttons Window. You will often access these twowindows throughout the book. This manual does not cover every components of the UI,only those that are needed for this project. Familiarise yourself with Blender’s UI beforemoving on to the next section.MarkeraDescriptionWhen you click this drop down menu, a fewmodes will be displayed on the screen.Texture Paint mode allows you to createdrawings on the object. Vertex Paintmode allows you to create colour on thevertices, in conjuction of the colour tocreate additonal effect, such as shadows.Sculpt Mode allows you to do a 3Ddigital sculpting on an object. OnlyObject mode and Edit mode will becovered in the manual, the other modes aremore advanced. By default, you will be inObject mode. In Edit mode you canchange the subcomponents of the objects(vertices, edges, faces) to alter the shape ofit. Weight Paint mode is commonly usedto create or fix deformation of 3Dcharacters.13

2 BlenderbThis is a button that changes that wayBlender display the 3D ojects on thescreen, and it will not be mentioned muchthroughout the manual. However, from thegiven screenshots, you should be able to tellwhich mode the author used for themodelling process. Throughout Chapter 3and 4, you are likely to switch betweenSolid and Wireframe display to assess the3D shape of the object.cBlender offers various pivot modes to assistyou in moving around in 3D space and themodelling process. The actual use can befound later in chapter 3. For now, simplyleave it on Median Point.dWithin the Button Window, there are other6 panels: Logic (F4), Script, Shading(F5), Object (F7), Editing (F9) andRender (F10). Please leave the Editingpanel enabled throughout Chapter 3 and 4.The content of the Buttons window willchange depending on your actions orselection in the 3D Window.eBlender offers many types of window, whichwill not be covered in this book. You cansplit more windows in Blender by movingthe mouse cursor to the edge or border of awindow and press MMB, and click onSplit Area. You may explore what is ineach Window type, however, please havethe 3D window and the Buttons windowready for 3D modelling process.2.2 Setting up Blender for first time useIf this is your first time running Blender on your computer, please read on. Otherwise,you may skip this section. When you launch Blender for the first time, by default youwill start with a cube, a lamp and a render camera (not visible by the default zoomlevel), looking from the top view-port as shown on Figure. 2.1). This section shows a14

Figure 2.1: Blender’s default User Interface with annotations.2.2 Setting up Blender for first time use15

2 Blenderconfiguration that enables you to orient yourself in 3D space easily.Move your mouse cursor to the border of the 3D window and the top menu bar, untilyour cursor becomes a two-headed arrow, then pull it down to see the user preferencemenu, see Figure. 2.2. Click on ’View and Controls’ button to bring up option forview rotation setting. Enable Turntable, Auto Perspective, Around Active andView Name buttons, as shown in Figure. 2.2). Now Blender is ready to use with thesettings to make your work easier. You may slide the user preference menu back up.Importantly, save your setting with File, Save Default Settings or hit Ctrl U.From now on, whenever you restart Blender you will not have to re-enable these settings.2.3 Hotkeys and simple exercises of BlenderTable. 2.2 shows the list of commonly used hot keys in Blender. At this stage, pleasefamiliarise yourself with the keys listed in table (in given order), before moving on to 3Dmodelling. Please attempt the exercise at the end of this section before proceeding tothe next. This exercise will help you greatly in manipulating objects in Blender. Beforeattempting each exercises, press [Shift][c], followed with [c] key to center the view-portand reset the 3D cursor at the origin (0,0,0). More hotkeys will be provided as neededthroughout the manual. By the end of exercise no.5, you should have a basic idea of howto navigate in the 3D space, object transformations, and editing.2.3.1 Exercise 1. Orientation in 3D space, selecting and creating object.Do not proceed until this exercise is fully mastered.1. Start a new scene by pressing [Ctrl][x] keys.2. Select the box object at the origin with [RMB]. It will be highlighted with pinkcolour.3. Drag [MMB] to dolly around the object vertically, 360 .4. Similarly use [MMB] again to dolly around the object horizontally, 360 .5. Zoom out until you can’t see the box anymore, by using the mouse wheel.6. Press [Numpad.] to focus back on the box. This focuses the view-port on theselected object.7. Use MMB to get into perspective view, where the x-y grid touches the middle partof the screen with z-axis points up.8. Pan the camera so that the box object touches the right side of the monitor, byusing [Shift] and drag MMB.9. Pan the camera so that the box object touches the left side of the screen.10. Pan the camera so that the box object sits in the middle of the screen.16

Figure 2.2: User Preferences Menu2.3 Hotkeys and simple exercises of Blender17

2 BlenderKey / MouseactionFunctionLMB click onview-portSet position of 3D cursor.MMB drag onview-portDolly view-port.Ctrl MMBdragZoom view-port. Rolling the mouse wheel does thesame.Shift MMBdragPan view-port.gTranslate tool. Type [g][x] to constrain movement inx-axis, [g][y] to constrain movement in y-axis, and [g][z]constrain movement in Z axis. For greater accuracy, youmay add the value after specifying the constrain axis.For example, [g][z]-5 [enter], will move the object upalong z-axis 5 units.rRotate tool. It has similar features to othertransformation keys: g, r, and s.sScale tool. It has similar features to othertransformation keys: g, r, and s.TABOn selected Object, toggles between object mode andedit mode.Numpad 7Switch to top view.Numpad 1Switch to front view.Numpad 3Switch to right side view.Numpad.Focuses the current view-port to selected object(s).Space barDisplays a compact menu in 3D window.aToggles select all or none.bRectangle selection.bbRay-cast / Paint selection modeTable 2.2: Commonly used shortcuts in Blender18

2.3 Hotkeys and simple exercises of Blender11. Switch to right orthogonal view with [Numpad 3] key.12. Switch to front orthogonal view with [Numpad 1] key.13. Back to top orthogonal view with [Numpad 7] key.14. Deselect the box object by pressing [a] key. You should end up with a view that issimilar to what you started out with.2.3.2 Exercise 2. Transformations, deleting and creating primitives.Do this exercise slowly at first and increase the speed gradually. Do not proceed untilthis exercise is fully mastered.1. Start a new scene by pressing [Ctrl][x] keys.2. Use [MMB] to get into perspective view, where the x-y grid touches the middlepart of the screen with z-axis points up.3. Select the box with [RMB].4. Press [x] to delete the box.5. Create a monkey primitive object by pressing [space bar] key, select add, mesh,and click monkey.6. Rotate the monkey to face you by, pressing [r][x]90, and [enter] key.7. Make the monkey half the size by pressing [s]0.5 and press [enter] key.8. Deselect the object by pressing [a] key. Now the monkey should be in the origin(0,0,0) and looks at you.2.3.3 Exercise 3. More on transformations and object selection.Do this exercise slowly at first and increase the speed gradually. Do not proceed untilthis exercise is fully mastered.1. Start a new scene.2. Delete the box, the lamp, and the default render camera.3. Use MMB to get into perspective view, where the x-y grid touches the middle partof the screen.4. Create 2 monkey primitives.5. Space them apart 5 units (from their centers).6. Transform one monkey to be 2 times bigger along z-axis than the other.7. Rotate both monkeys to face you.8. Use rectangular selection [b] key to select both monkeys on the view-port. Alternatively, LMB on monkey and [shift] select the other.19

2 Blender9. Move them 1 unit along z-axis.10. Deselect them by pressing [a] key. Both monkeys should be 1 unit higher than theprevious position.2.3.4 Exercise 4. Object editing, selecting and transformations.1. Start a new scene.2. Select all objects by pressing [a] key, then delete them.3. Use MMB to get into perspective view, where the x-y grid over the distance approximately touches the middle part of the screen.4. Create a monkey primitive object.5. Rotate the monkey object to face you.6. Use MMB to get into perspective view, where the x-y grid touches the middlepart of the screen.7. Get a good close look at the nose.8. Press [Tab] key to get into the edit mode. Now, in edit mode you can change theappearance by modifying the vertices, edges or polygons.9. Now we want to make the nose bigger by modifying the polygons. Press [Ctrl][Tab]key. This displays the selection-mode. Currently, we are in vertices selection mode.Select option number 3, faces.10. All faces are selected by default on new object. Clear all selection by pressing [a]key.11. Select 4 polygons at the tip of the nose.12. Scale them twice the size and move them -1 unit along y-axis. The monkey’s noseshould be bigger, longer and points toward the screen. Use [s] key for scaling, and[g] key for translation. Take note here that all transformations keys ([g],[r], and[s]) are applicable also in the edit mode.13. Deselect everything, by using [a] key.14. Select everything by using box selection key, [b] key, draw a rectangle to cover theentire monkey.15. Deselect everything.16. Select all polygons on the monkey by using [b][b] key. This is the paint selectionmode. The circle on the screen shows the radius of selection, and use LMB to startpainting/selecting faces on the monkey. If the radius of selection too small, youmay increase it by using the mouse wheel. Keep on paint-selecting until all thefaces are selected.17. Deselect everything.20

2.3 Hotkeys and simple exercises of Blender18. Press [Tab] key to leave edit mode. Do not create a new object in edit mode, thatnew object will be part of the object that you are currently editing. Always leaveedit mode when you are done with editing.2.3.5 Exercise 5. More on object editing.1. Start a new scene.2. Select all objects by pressing [a] key, then delete them.3. Use MMB to get into perspective view, where the x-y grid touches the middle partof the screen.4. Create a monkey primitive object.5. Rotate the monkey object to face you. Select the monkey if it is not alreadyselected.6. Delete the other half of the monkey. Firstly, you must be in the edit mode, andselect all the faces on the other half and press [x] to delete. To select the faces, youmay use, [b] or [b]-[b], it is up to you, as long as you can do it fast.7. Make the ear of the other half by 1/2 the size. Correct placement is not importantat this stage. Make sure that it is smaller then the original size. It is up to you ifyou want perform the editing on the vertices, edges or faces. By now you shouldhave a half-monkey on the screen.21

2 Blender22

3 3D Modelling3.1 Scene PreparationIt has never been a good idea to plunge ourselves into a 3D software without knowingthe object we are creating. Although scene preparation could take more time than themodelling process, this step is very crucial in terms of production time. The followingare some of the important questions that we must consider carefully: What is the object? How will the object appear in the scene?– How close will it be from the camera?– What is the background for the object? How will the image appear on publication?– What is the layout; landscape or portrait?– What is the size; A4 or A0?– 100% accurate model, or a simplified model?An initial research on the subject matter is important to get the idea of the shapeand appearance of the object. Google (Figure 3.1) and YouTube (Figure 3.2) are goodresources to search for example images. Familiarising yourself with the shape is veryimportant before sketching and 3D modelling process. As familiarity increases, the 3Dmodelling process becomes easier. We will not be making a 100% physically accuratemodel, since that would be difficult at this stage. We will create a simplified model.I’ll leave the creation of a 100% physically accurate model for your own exercise afterwalking through this manual.In this project, we have defined the object to be T4 Bacteriophage. For simplicity, I’veprovided a sketch as shown in Figure 3.3 of how the scene would appear in a landscapeformat. In this manual, two objects will be created, the virus itself and a simple background object. However, depending on your familiarity with Blender at the end of thismanual, you may improve the overall design of the scene. I would normally do sketcheson paper. In this case I used Inkscape (www.inkscape.org) instead. Study the sketchesas shown in Figure 3.3 and 3.4. In the scene that we are creating, the T4 will be shown asif it lands on flat plane. In Figure 3.4, I’ve identified the basic shapes that make up theshape of T4. You will use this figure as an aid to create the T4 object. The head part isan icosahedral shape. The tail resembles a cylinder shape. We will use only one 6-sided23

3 3D ModellingFigure 3.1: Research on GoogleFigure 3.2: Research on Youtube24

3.2 Modelling the shape of T4 Bacteriophagecylinder for the tail part, since all need to be the same objects. We will do extrusionalong the tail part to create the whiskers and the fibre tails.3.2 Modelling the shape of T4 BacteriophagePlease read through this section entirely before attempting it on Blender. If you are newto Blender, do not attempt this part without completing section 2.3. Throughout thissection, even it is not explicitly mentioned, you will switch between perspective view (bydragging MMB around) and front orthogonal view (by pressing Numpad1 key) manytimes in assessing the shape that you are creating.Stepno.Screen-shotsDescriptions1Delete the default box inthe scene.2Switch to front orthogonalview by pressingNumpad1 key and loadthe background image tohelp you in the modellingprocess by clicking View,Background images (apanel will appear on your3D window), Usebackground images andload the backgroundimage “sketch.png” that isprovided with this manual(T4 Bacteriophage Project.zip).Change the Blend valueto 0. Let the Backgroundimage panel floats on yourscreen for now.25

3 3D n the backgroundimage of the T4 object, sothat the bottom part of itsits at the origin.4Create an icosahedron bypressing, [Space Bar],Add, Mesh, Icosphere,set the subdivision to 1.Move it to the designatedplace as marked by thebackground image.5Create a 6 sided cylinder,by pressing [Space bar],Add, Mesh, Cylinder,enable Caps and set thenumber of vertices to 6.Scale and position thiscylinder to the designatedplace according to thesketch. Rotate thecylinder -15 degrees alongz-axis.

3.2 Modelling the shape of T4 BacteriophageStepno.Screen-shotsDescriptions6The cylinder does nothave sufficient number ofsurfaces to work on. Wemust subdivide thecylinder along the lengthof the cylinder. While the6-sided cylinder is stillselected, enter edit modeby pressing [Tab] key.Switch to edge selectionmode by pressing,[Ctrl][Tab], 2.7By now, all edges of thecylinder are selected,press [a] key to deselectthem all. Now, select onlythe vertical edges of thecylinder and press [w],click Subdivide Multi,set number of subdivisionto 3.8Now you have 3 new setsof edges on the cylinder.Move the new set of edgeson top, to the top of thetail sheath, just below thewhiskers.27

3 3D ModellingStepno.28Screen-shotsDescriptions9Move the new set of edgesat bottom, to the bottomof the tail sheath, justbelow the tail fibres.Lastly, the new set ofedges in the middle,downwards, slightly abovethe tail fibre. We will doextrusion on these newlycreated faces to create thewhiskers and the tailfibres.10Let us now make theplates (or the disc shape).The first one is for thewhiskers, and the otherone below is for the tailfibres. Now, select the6 faces on the top of thecylinder.11Now, we want to expandit along xy-plane. Press[e] key for extrusion menuand choose Region.12If you move the mouse,the extrusion do notappear correct, this isfine.

3.2 Modelling the shape of T4 kly press [Esc] thenscale the newly createdfaces (which you can’tsee) along xy-plane, bypressing [s][x], input 2.5,[enter], followed with,[s][y], input 2.5, [enter].14You should havesomething similar to theimage shown on the left.15Do the same procedurefor the bottom part of thecylinder. You should endup with a dumb-bellshape as shown on theleft.29

3 3D ModellingStepno.161730Screen-shotsDescriptionsLet us make the whiskersby using 2 extrusions.Select the 6 faces of thetop dumb-bell, and doextrusions on individualfaces, press [e], and clickindividual faces.Extrude this one about1/3 length of thewhiskers. Switch thepivot mode toIndividual Centers.Now press [s] to scale thefaces individually.If the faces are not scalingin respect of their owncenters, it is because youdo not have the pivotingmode asIndividual Centres.Do another extrusionuntil it reaches the fulllength of the whiskers.Scale down the faces atthe tip too.

3.2 Modelling the shape of T4 BacteriophageStepno.Screen-shotsDescriptions18Your model shouldresemble the image shownon the left.19Do the same procedure ofcreating whiskers in orderto create the fibre tails.20The first extrusion shouldbe just short, not morethan the ball joint asshown on the backgroundimage.21The subsequent extrusionshould reach only at theball joint marked on thesketch.31

3 3D ModellingStepno.32Screen-shotsDescriptions22Now create 3 extrusionsat the joint for a betterbending effect.23Extrude the faces fromthe joint all the way tothe length of the fibretails.24Scale down the tip of thefibre tails. If your scalingis messy, it is because youdo not have the pivotingmode asIndividual Centres.25At this stage you shouldhave your object similarto image shown on theleft.

3.2 Modelling the shape of T4 BacteriophageStepno.Screen-shotsDescriptions26Is it not entirelycomplete, we still need tocreate that teeth-lookingobject at the bottom ofthe cylinder.27Select 6 faces at thebottom of the cylinder asshown on the left. Switchthe pivot mode toIndividual Centres, ifyou happened to switchedinto different pivotingmode .28Press [e] to extrusion, andselect individual faces.Extrude them down, andscale them down.Remember, if the facesare not scaling in respectof their own centers, it isbecause you don’t havethe pivoting mode asIndividual Centres.29At this stage, you shouldhave created the T4object as shown.Save your work frequently. This is the end of the 3D modelling phase. The T4 modelis at its default pose. So why did the author specify the default pose as such? Why33

3 3D ModellingFigure 3.3: The sketch of the scene.34

Figure 3.4: The sketch of T4 object to aid in modelling process.3.2 Modelling the shape of T4 Bacteriophage35

3 3D ModellingFigure 3.5: A render of T4 with no armature and plain material.not all fibre tails up or down, or even bent? The reason was that the modelling processand rigging would be simpler and visually nicer. Rigging is a term to signify a processof setting up an armature, which contains bonesto pose or animate a 3D object. In thenext section, we will prepare an armature, which enables us to pose the T4 object asshown in Figure Modelling the backgroundModelling the background or the 3D environment is as crucial as the main object itself.Normally, stage or world design is separated from character design. Many books on themarket treat these two subjects separately. However, the background of the T4 objectis simple enough to be included in this chapter. Why do we need a background? Tocreate and support the atmosphere of the storyline, which the director has in mind. Forexample, to show off the piloting agility of the main hero, the director would pick adifficult terrain to portray the scene, such as; narrow canyons or underground caves.36

3.3 Modelling the backgroundIn this project, we want to accentuate the 3D presentation of T4 object. For this reason,we will use a dark-coloured background. This background will receive lights and shadows,which will enhance the depth of the image (otherwise it will look plain and boring).To create the background object as shown in Figure 3.6, follow these steps:1. Create a plane2. Position the plane to touch the fibre tails of the T4 object3. Switch to Edit mode4. Switch to Edges selection mode5. Select the edges where the bending will occur6. Press [w] key to bring up the special menu7. Choose Subdivide Multi, and set the number of subdivision to 68. Translate one edge at a time to obtain the backdrop shape9. Switch to Object modeOnce you have the background in your scene, click [smooth] button in Buttons window.Bear in mind, this button DOES NOT smoothen out objects, it only change how thelights will act on that object. By enabling this button, this object will appear smoother.You should be able to make this easily after completing the previous section.37

3 3D ModellingFigure 3.6: The background, which is made out of a subdivided plane is shown in edit mode. The T4 object stands on thebackground object.38

4 RiggingRigging is the process of setting up bones for posing or animating objects. Think of itas bones and muscles in your body. Bones are 3D objects that deform other objects. Inthis chapter we will learn how to create an Inverse Kinematic (IK) setup. Why IK andnot using Forward Kinematic (FK)? If you have a robot arm with 8 joints, with FK, youhave to rotate the joints one-by-one to get the robot’s hand to reach a point in space.With IK systems, you put the robot’s hand where it would be in a space, then all jointswill be automa

Blender 2.6x and has many changes from Blender 2.49b. However, the method given in this book can be applied when Blender 2.60 is released. T4_Bacteriophage_Project.zip This file contains Blender files that are used in the production of this manual. These Blender files are provided to acco

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classic Hershey-Chase experiment (Hershey and Chase, 1952; Echols, 2001) that established nucleic acid to be the carrier of the genetic blueprint was performed using bacteriophage T2. The biology of bacteriophage l provided a fertile ground for the development of the understanding

1 1 Exploiting bacteriophage proteomes: the hidden biotechnological 2 potential 3 4. Sílvio B. Santos, Ana Rita Costa, Carla Carvalho#, Franklin L. Nóbrega#, Joana Azeredo*. 5. 6. Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057,

T1 bacteriophage T4 bacteriophage Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Influenza A Virus (H1N1) (formerly called swine flu) Product Specifications: (Typical Values) Active Ingredients: Alkyl (60% C14, 30% C16, 5% C12, 5% C18) dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride 13 .

Hershey-Chase Bacteriophage Experiment (1953) DNA is the genetic material in bacteriophage T2 was published in 1952 by Alfred Hershey (1969 Nobel Prize winner) and Martha Chase. Their results had a major impact

1952, Hershey and Chase studied T2 virus infecting Escherichia coli – Bacteriophage or phage – Phage coat made entirely of protein Bacteriophage – A virus that infects bacteria – Viruses are composed of protein and DNA (or RNA) – Viruses are capable of forcing host cell

12. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase choose to use bacteriophage for their experiment. Explain why they choose this for their experiment, and provide a brief description of a bacteriophage. 13. Edwin Chargaff contributed to the discovery of DNA structure by noting that the amount of adenine i

C. Hershey and Chase confirm that DNA is the genetic material 1. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase provided conclusive evidence that _ was the genetic material in 1952 2. Studied _ that infect bacteria (bacteriophage) a. Bacteriophage is simple- protein _ surrounding DNA _