IMPACT OF THE CRITICAL THINKING COMPONENT IN THE

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IMPACT OF THE CRITICAL THINKING COMPONENT IN THEHEALTH EDUCATION MANAGEMENT OF NURSESbyNG YOON MOOIThesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirementsfor the degree ofMaster of ArtsJune 2008

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my supervisor, Dr. AbdulGhani Kanesan bin Abdullah for guiding and supporting me during the journey ofmy study, from beginning till the end.I would also like to take this opportunity to thank Encik Nordin bin AbdulRasid, my friend and colleague at Universiti Kuala Lumpur Royal College ofMedicine Perak as well as Encik Abu Bakar bin Hashim, the former ChiefExecutive Officer of my college, for allowing me to carry out my study amongstudents of the college as well allowing me to organize the critical thinkingworkshop in the college.I also thank my long suffering family especially my husband, for giving methe encouragement to carry on with- my thesis when I was in depths of despair.last but not the least, I dedicate my thesis to my mother, Madam HarSoon Yon, who despite all difficulties in her life's journey, has managed to behighly successful in her role model as mother and wife. She has been the pillar ofmy motivation to complete this thesis without whom this thesis would not becompleted.

TABLE OF CONTENTSPageACKNOWLEDGEMENTSiiTABLE OF CONTENTSiiiLIST OF TABLESviLIST OF FIGURESviiLIST OF APPENDICESviiiABSTRAKixABSTRACTxiCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION1.0Introduction11.1Background of the Study21.2Problem Statement51.3Aim of the Study111.4Research Questions131.5Hypotheses131.6Significance of the Study141.7Limitations of the Study151.8Definitions of Conceptual Terms151.9Definitions of Operational Terms171.10Scope of the Study1911.11Summary20CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW2.0Introduction222.1General Thinking23-2.2Application of Critical Thinking in Nursing Practice242.3Traits of the Critical Thinker262.4Pitfalls in Critical Thinking282.5Critical Thinking Models292.6Critical Thinking Skills322.6.132Six Core Thinking Skills2.6.2 Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing332.6.3 Elements of Thoughts and the Nursing Process33

2.7Critical Thinking Tools412.8Teaching Critical Thinking Tools in Nursing432.8.1Knowledge and Product Approaches to TeachingCritical Thinking Skills2.8.2 Instructional Design432.8.3 The Systems Approach Model442.8.3(a) Instructional Strategies44452.9Health Education Management482.10Critical Thinking in Health Education Management492.11502.12Conceptual Framework: Impact of the Critical ThinkingComponent in the Health EducationManagement of NursesEthical Considerations2.13Summary5252CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY3.0Introduction543.1Research Design553.2The Research Plan563.3Location of the Study583.4Population593.5The Sample593.6The Quantitative Approach: The Research Instrument603.6.160The Pretest and PosUest3.6.2 Content Validity6413.6.3 The Instructional Strategy663.6.4 Delivery of the Instructional Strategy663.6.5 The Instructional Strategy673.6.6 Audio Visual Aids673.7The Qualitative Approach683.8Pilot Study703.9Data Collection713.10Data Processing and Analysis723.11Summary72CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS4.0Introduction734.1Quantitative Data Findings74

4.1.14.2744.1.2 Categories of Score Achievement764.1.3 The Pre-Experiment Study Results774.1.4 Hypotheses Testing78Qualitative Data Findings804.2.14.3The Control and Experiment GroupsQualitative Data AnalysisSummary92116CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION5.0Introduction5.1Discussion of Findings1185.1.1Impact of the Critical Thinking Module on the PosttestAchievement of the Experiment Group and ControlGroup1195.1.2The Practice of Critical Thinking in the Delivery ofHealth TalksPerceptions of the Patients of the Health Talks1205.1.3125Perceptions of the Student Nurses towards the Practiceof Critical ThinkingImplication of the Research133Real Life Practice of Health Education in Nursing1335.1.45.2.1185.2.11305.2.2 Critical Thinking1355.2.3 Implication to the Nurse Teachers1395.2.4 Implication to the Nursing Curriculum1415.3Suggestions for Future ES153

LIST OF TABLESPage2.1The Nursing Process and Paul's Eight Elements of Thoughts(1993)403.1Research Design563.2Composition of Nursing Students593.3The Items and Weightage of the Pretest613.4Four Categories of Score Achievement643.5Content Validity of Items653.6Difference in Pretest Scores as Marked by 2 Raters714.1Age Range and Entry Academic Qualifications of the Students754.2Categories of Achievement in the Control and ExperimentGroups764.3Descriptive Results of Score Mean for the Pretest774.4t-test Results of Two Groups' Pretest Score Means784.5Means, Standard Deviations and Standard Errors of PostlestScores of the Two Groups794.6Summary of Analysis Covariance Results804.7The Students' Profiles (Age, Qualifications and Experience)82vi

LIST OF FIGURESPage1Impact of the Critical Thinking Component in the HealthEducation Curriculum51

LIST OF APPENDICESPage1Nursing Curriculum, Ministry of Health (1996)1532Document III Detailed Educational Programme (2004)1553Pretest I Posttest (English)1564Pretest I Posttest (Bahasa Malaysia)1835Critical Thinking Module: A Two-Day Workshop2106Interview Guide2117Interview Protocol2148Transcripts2159Letter of Approval310

IMPAK KOMPONEN PEMIKIRAN KRITIS DALAMKURIKULUM PENDIDIKAN KESIHATAN nalpastiimpakkomponenpemikiran kritis dalam kurikulum pendidikan kesihatan kejururawatan bagi pesakityang mempunyai keperluan yang berbeza. Impak ini boleh dilihat dari segi skorpencapaian pelatih kumpulan eksperimen berbanding dengan skor pencapaianpelatih kumpulan kawalan melalui ujian pra dan ujian pasca. Selain itu, kajian inijuga bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti keberkesanan modul pemikiran kritis yangdiberikan kepada kumpulan eksperimen.Data bagi kajian ini telah diperoleh melalui gabungan dua kaedah iaitukaedah kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Bagi kaedah kuantitatif, sejumlah 84 orangjururawat pelatih telah dipilih bagi mewakili kumpulan eksperimen dan kawalan disebuah kolej perubatan swasta di Ipoh, Perak. Kedua-dua kumpulan pelatihtersebut telah didedahkan tentang pendidikan kesihatan dan latihan amali di wadwad seperti yang ditentukan oleh kurikulum kejururawatan. Seterusnya, rawatanidalam bentuk modul pemikiran kritis yang mengandungi aktiviti-aktiviti berkaitdengan kemahiran pemikiran kritis telah didedah kepada kumpulan eksperimensahaja. Pada penghujung sesi tersebut, ujian pasca telah diberikan kepada keduadua kumpulan.Selepas sesi kuantitatif itu, kaedah kualitatif telah digunakan. Dalam sesiini, seramai 5 orang jururawat pelatih telah dipilih dan mereka seterusnya ditemubual sebanyak 2 kali iaitu sesi pertama selepas mengikuti rawatan dan sesi keduaselepas latihan amali yang dijalankan dengan pesakit. Selain daripada itu, temubual juga turut dijalankan dengan pesakit.

Semua data yang diperoleh daripada responden bagi kaedah kuantitatif telahdianalisis dengan menggunakan program Pakej Statistik untuk Sains Sosial (SPSS)versi 13.0. Statistik deskriptif, ujian-t dan ANCOVA digunakan untuk menguji hipotesismanakala data-data yang diperoieh melaiui temubual telah ditranskripsi terlebih dahulusebelum ianya dianalisis dan diinterpretasi mengikut persoalan kajian. Dapatan kajiandari anal isis ujian-t dan ANCOVA menunjukkan bahawa terdapat perbezaan yangsignifikan pad a pencapaian di antara kumpulan eksperimen dan kumpulan kawalan.Dengan kat a lain, dapatan ini menunjukkan bahawa terdapat impak komponenpemikiran kritis dalam kurikulum pendidikan kesihatan kejururawatan yang signifikan.Data yang diperoleh bagi kaedah kualitatif menunjukkan bahawa 5 jururawatpelatih dapat mendemonstrasi kemahiran memikir semasa latihan amali. Pesakit merekapun dapat menyuarakan pandangan dan persepsi masing-masing. Jururawat pelatihjuga berasa pemikiran mereka telah bertambah baik selepas pendedahan pada modulpemikiran kritis.

IMPACT OF THE CRITICAL THINKING COMPONENT IN THEHEALTH EDUCATION MANAGEMENT OF NURSESABSTRACTThe purpose of this research is to study the impact of the critical thinkingcomponent in the health education curriculum of nurses for patients with differenthealth needs. This impact can be seen when the scores of the student nurses inthe experiment group are compared with those of the control group which isdetermined by pre and post tests given to them. This research is also aimed atestablishing the effectiveness of a critical thinking module that was given to theexperiment group.Data for this research was gathered from 2 approaches, namely; thequantitative and qualitative approaches. For the quantitative approach 84 studentnurses were selected to represent the experiment and control groups in a privatemedical college in Perak. The 2 groups of students had been exposed to healtheducation andclinical training in the wards as determined by the nursingcurriculum. Following that, a treatment in the form of a critical thinking mO,dulewhich consisted of critical thinking - related activities, was only given to theexperiment group. At the end of this session, a post test was given to the twogroups.Following the quantitative session, the qualitative approach was used. Inthis session, 5 student nurses were selected and they were interviewed for 2times, the first session was after the treatment was given and the second sessionwas after clinical training with the patients. Besides these interviews, the patientsconcerned were also interviewed.

All data obtained from the respondents for the quantitative approach wasanalyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 13.0programme. Descriptive statistics, t-test and ANCOVA were used to test the hypothesiswhile data obtained through interviews were transcribed before it was analyzed andinterpreted in accordance to the research questions. Findings from t-test and ANCOVAshowed significant difference in the achievement between the experiment and controlgroups. In other words, these findings showed that there was a significant impact of thecritical thinking component in the health education curriculum of nurses.Qualitative data findings showed that the 5 students demonstrated thinking skillsduring their clinical training. Their patients too voiced individual views and perceptions.The students also felt that their thinking had improved after their induction to the criticalthinking module.

CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION1.0IntroductionPatients and their families have a right to health education in order tomake intelligent, informed decisions about their health. Effective healtheducation is essential for the increasing number of patients and to minimize theeffects of preventable diseases. Shorter hospital .stays, increased demands onthe nurses' time, an increase in the number of the chronically ill and the need togive patients concise and meaningful information in the shortest time possibleemphasize the importance of quality health education ( Ramli A.S. & Taher,S.W. 2008). The general public has become more assertive in seekingknowledge and understanding of their health status and the resources that areavailable. Well designed comprehensive teaching plans that fit in to thepatients' learning needs can reduce health care costs, improve quality of careand help patients gain optimal wellness as well as an increase in independence(Cooper, 2001).The Ministry of Health and the Nursing Board of Malaysia had realizedthe importance of health education and had integrated the teaching of healtheducation into the basic nursing curriculum (Kurikulum Jururawaf 1996).However, the focus of health education in this basic nursing curriculum is onlyin the community health nursing discipline where 14 hours have been allocatedfor the imparting of knowledge on health education (Appendix 1). Healtheducation is only touched upon as part of general nursing interventions in the

other nursing disciplines on a "touch and go" basis. The theory content ofhealth education especially on patient survival skills such as injectiontechniques and diet education is given more focus. Thus, the impact of thehealth education delivered was compromised without due consideration for thepatient in his reality setting.The nursing curril?ulum of a private medical college had been builtupon the nurse training curriculum of the Ministry of Health and the MalaysianNursing Board with certain aspects being updated and modified (Document 3,Detailed Educational Programme, 2004). Among the improvements made wasin the area of health education. However, even with the amendments made tothe curriculum, critical thinking aspects for the students to impart meaningfulhealth education based upon individual patient needs still had not been givenenough focus (Appendix 2).1.1Background of the Study,Today's patients are becoming better consumers of health care. Withinternet access patients are becoming responsible for their own healthmaintenance, modifying their behaviour and managing chronic diseases withcomplex therapeutic regimens (Rankin, Stallings & London, 2005). Patientsdemand to know more about their health conditions and treatment throughhealth education as they know it is their right to participate in decision-makingregarding their own health care.2

Health education is an integral part of quality health care. It is necessaryto address all the patients' health needs including their need to know aboutspecific disease conditions and their management in hospital or at home.Health education is also the means where nurses help patients improve andmaintain health by using a wide range of teaching strategies to achieve thegoals of changing health behaviours, attitudes and social circumstances (Ewles& Simnett, 1999).Generally nurses too seek to deliver holistic care for their patients.However, where the delivery of health education in nursing practice isconcerned, much needs to be improved. The general notion nurses have is thatif they have done their job of informing their patients and their families aboutthe essentials of staying alive and away from hospital, they have carried outhealth education successfully (Rankin & Stallings, 1990). There is usually nofollow-up on the effectiveness of the health education given. Its impact is onlyknown when the patient is readmitted for the same complaint or when his or herdisease condition has deteriorated and complications have set in.This scenario is evident in a study carried out by Norwahida Ruzlan,Hairne Yanti Abdul Halim and Nurulaidah Ali (2006) on 30 hypertensivepatients and their awareness pertaining to their medication taking. Findingsindicated that although health education had been carried out, it had notachieved an effective level among their respondents. 26.7% respondents hadnot followed medical instructions and that a high percentage of respondents did3

not know about the side effects of the medications they were taking. Studyfindings also indicated that even though all were told about their diseaseconditions, the importance of medication taking was perceived only by 16.7% ofthe respondents. It could be assumed then that even though health educationwas given as a matter of routine, the emphasis on its importance did not seemto get communicated to the respondents (Norwahida Ruzlan, Hairne YantiAbdul Halim & Nurulaidah Ali, 2006). In another study on the knowledge ofmothers pertaining to breast feeding, similar findings were obtained. It wasfound that although 86.7% of the thirty respondents were given healtheducation, 20% of them did not know when to initiate breast feeding and 30%did not know about breast care should problems arise in that area. Generally,the study findings had indicated that knowledge on breast feeding was notsatisfactory (Aisah Rodiah Mohd. Zahid, Nik Nurani Nik Muhammad Kamil &Norasmat Abdul Samad, 2006).Further evidence was shown where the teaching of health education1was concerned. 37 nursing students of a private medical college wereassessed on the giving of health talks on the diet intake for a patient withchronic renal failure, by trained staff nurses from a government hospitalfunctioning as external examiners for the students' final semester clinicalexamination. Only 24% students passed that task. Among the performanceweaknesses identified was that the content of the health talk the students gavewas not specific to the patient's disease condition (Keputusan OSeE,Semester 4, 2006). Though there could be other causative factors for this4

situation, it indicated that the students may not be able to think critically if theywere to face that kind of nursing situation in the ward setting.In a survey on home care carried out by Leong Sau Liang (2005) it wasfound that respondents and their families were not given adequate or clearinformation which they could understand pertaining to their after - care at home.It was also found that they generally preferred health education to be given tothem by the nurses in their own home settings rather than in the hospital setup.It appears that the way how health education is being communicated tothe patients and their families, the level of patient understanding and otherindividual socio-cultural factors could have influenced the impact of the healtheducation delivered. All these factors should have been considered critically,looking into its overall implications.1.2Problem StatementConsidering the above factors related to the current health educationmanagement, it indicated that much need to be carried out to improve thequality of health e9ucation management. To begin with, before the nurse cancarry out effective nursing functions including health education delivery, shehas to be equipped and trained with the appropriate knowledge, behavioursand attitudes in order to promote health, help prevent diseases and care forthe sick through nursing education (Document 3,Programme, 2004).5Detailed Educational

In the nursing curriculum, health education is only allocated 14 hours inwhich the nurse teacher has to explain, describe and discuss the differentaspects of health education. Students are given minimal time to prepare andpresent health talks as group activities. Standard disease specific formats onhealth education are discussed and students are expected to follow thoseformats during their health education delivery in the clinical setting. Thestudents are not taught how to assess and think critically to deliver health talkstailor-made for patients with different needs. Besides this, there is also thecritical lack of experienced and trained nurse educators. From my observationas a nursing personnel, this situation was aggravated by a drain of experiencedand trained nurses to the more lucrative oversea markets ( S.L. Chua, 2004).Fresh nursing graduates who lacked clinical experience were employed to fillup nurse educator vacancies. They transferred nursing knowledge onlyaccording to the curriculum but they lacked the clinical experience they shouldhave. Once student nurses had completed their theory component, they wereexpected to know how to transfer theory into practice by delivering it effectivelyto their patients and their fa1milies as each situation arose. However, this did notappear to be the case as evidenced in some of the studies carried out(Norwahida Ruzlan et. aI., 2006; Aisah Rodiah Mohd. Zahid et. aI., 2006).Student nurses are expected to be able to co-relate nursing theory tonursing practice in the clinical set-up. Bandura (1989) had proposed thatindividuals learn from observing and imitating a model's behaviour. Therefore,the student nurses would have learnt their clinical nursing skills through6

observing role models in their nurse teachers and trained staff nurses in theclinical settings. For example, they learn and remember how to carry out ahealth talk by observing their teacher demonstrating one in the clinical skilllaboratory. When required as during a practical posting in the ward, the studentnurse is expected to be able to demonstrate a similar nursing activity throughher observations and practice sessions when learning nursing theory. However,not all nurse teachers and trained staff nurses are exemplary role modelsresulting in the student nurses "catching" the wrong behaviour or attitudes.This is undesirable and can affect the quality of nursing care as student nursesgenerally do not question or think critically the appropriateness of an action inspecific situations. This makes one ponder as to the degree of critical thinkingdevelopment that these trained staff had had undergone. If the nursingcurriculum had not placed enough focus on developing thinking skills in nursingpractice in general and health education management in specific, then the. weakness seemed to be in this aspect.To develop the student nurse's cognitive thinking further, Reeves(1996)agreed with Vygotsky's postulations that learning depends upon the individualconstructing his or her own understanding of the new information through socialinteractions in the context of his or her culture which in this case was the nursingculture. He also suggested that students learn even better with help from otherssuch as their teachers and peers. But in today's nursing scenario, the lack ofexperienced and well trained nurse clinicians to help guide student nurses inhealth education management and clinical practice is worrying and may have7

accentuated the lack of critical thinking skills cultivation among student nurses.Besides the teaching - learning process, other vicarious aspects couldbe contributory to the ineffectiveness of health education outcomes. If thehealth education carried out is ineffective, one would have to reconsider thewayit isbeingcommunicatedto thepatients.Barriers to effectivecommunication could have occurred between sender .and recipient taking intoconsideration the messages conveyed as well as the communication channelsused (Kozier, Erb, Berman & Snyder, 2004). Other aspects include patientunderstanding of the health education content which could be due to ferentsocio-culturalbackgrounds. Moreover, most nurses tend to teach too much within a shortperiod of time resulting in their patients being overwhelmed with informationprior to discharge from hospital. Since nurses are usually hard pressed for timeto give proper health education, they tend to concentrate only on survival skillssuch as injection techniques, dietary requirements and signs and symptoms ofdisease recurrences. The patient's reality problems,reinforcement andevaluation of learning goals are often overlooked.From my personal experience as a nurse for the past 34 years and withthe findings of some local studies (Norwahida Ruzlan et.al., 2006; AisahRodiah Mohd. Zahid et.al., 2006), it may be assumed that nurses' attitudestowards patient education especially on home care remain lacking. Studentnurses usually practice health education on a trial and error basis as well as8

learning from their seniors. This could be due to the fact that not enoughemphasis is focused on this important aspect of care in the nurse trainingcurriculum (Kurikulum Jururawat, 1996). During nurse training, this subject isjust dealt with on a superficial level, expecting the students to perform weliwhen they qualify to be trained staff nurses later on. This could have resulted ina negative impact on the nurse towards the imparting of effective healtheducation to his or her patients. Coupled with a lackadaisical attitude, it couldalso have resulted in the nurse not managing health education for her patientas according to his or her needs but instead merely carrying out routinemedical instructions sufficient only for patient survival and health maintenance.Special emphasis on certain aspects of health care may not be stressed uponresulting in their patients not placing enough importance on these aspects ofcare. An example is the study on medication awareness whereby the emphasiswas lost on the patients even though health education had been given(Norwahida Ruzlan et.al., 2006). Patient needs may be overlooked as thehealth education content conveyed may be what the nurse wants to tell herpatient but may not be what the patient wants to know given the reality of his orher situation. For example, the specific diet requirements for patients withdiabetes mellitus to take certain foods. From the socio-economic aspect wherediabetic patients of low economic standing are concerned, the priority would befor them to fill their stomachs resulting in their diets containing morecarbohydrate than other classes of nutrients. Diet counseling and modificationmay be more appropriate under the circumstances. This awareness of patientneeds could only be discovered if the health educator has thought critically and9

has considered factors such as socio-economic background and valuesinfluencing the patient's health behaviour.Other factors could also have played contributory roles to ineffectivehealth education management such as the tight time schedule of nurses andthe nurses' own values but it cannot be denied either that generally, there is acruci.al need for nurses to think critically through all aspects of nursing practice.Therefore, I chose to carry out this study specific to the critical thinkingcomponent and its impact on the health education curriculum of nurses asotherwise a broader enquiry would be beyond the scope of this paper.It is assumed that the nurse, having undergone the required three yearsin training, has acquired the necessary basic nursing knowledge and clinicalnursing skills for nursing practice as forwarded in Vygotsky's theory of learning(Schunk, 2000). However, the nurse may not have acquired the higher orderthinking skills as expected during the learning process. He or she may still be,able to function as a good practical nurse and has no difficulty in followinginstructions. However, he or she may experience difficulty when critical thinkingskills are called for in problem solving.Since student nurses are future staff nurses, I chose to establish thepresence of critical thinking among stUdent nurses which they should havepossessed and utilized when managing health education for their patients.hoped to be able to generalize the findings of my study on student nurses of a10

local private medical college to those of other nursing colleges so as to indicatea need to review the teaching of the subject as it was crucial to develop thecritical thinking ability of nurse students which would help them not only whenmanaging health education but also in other aspects of nursing care.1.3Aim of the StudyAs the nursing curriculum is extensive, I feel that the emphasis given tothe area of critical thinking is inadequate as student nurses tend to carry outrote-learning in order to pass nursing examinations which would result in goodpassing rates but may compromise on the quality of nursing care rendered bythese nurses. In this study, I focused only in the area of health educationmanagement as I felt that among the many subjects taught in the nursingcurriculum, effective health education exerted a great impact on patient care.This study aimed to establish the presence of critical thinking of studentnurses when managing health education for their patients with different needs. Iexamine,d the impact of a critical thinking module which consisted of activitiespertaining to critical thinking skills through an analysis of the student's ownclinical experience. I interviewed the students after the treatment had beengiven and after observing them conducting healfh educational activities in theform of health talks. Their patients too were interviewed in order to get theirperspectives of those talks delivered by the student nurses concerned.11

I carried out a pretest on all year 2 student nurses of a private medicalcollege. A critical thinking module was delivered to a group of these studentnurses who constituted the experiment group, after which a postlest wascarried out on all the year 2 student nurses to establish the impact of the criticalthinking module on those student nurses in the experiment group. I believethat every student do carry out some kind of thinking in whatever they do. It isonly that their thinking may not have crystallized and is unstructured whichresult in their presenting health education talks in a haphazard manner. I alsointroduced the critical thinking module which helped to crystallize the thinkingamong these student nurses.To establish the effectiveness of this instructional strategy in nursingpractice, I interviewed 5 student nurses with the top 5 highest marks from thepretest scores to obtain their views on the critical thinking module that I had.developed. These student nurses were observed when carrying out a healtheducation activity by giving health talks to their patients. A post activityinterview was carried out on the same students to get their opinions regardingthe application of their critical thinking ability when carrying out the health talks.To provide a more in-depth view, their patients were interviewed to get theirviews and opinions regarding the health talks carried out by the student nursesconcerned.12

1.4Research QuestionsThe research question in this study was to establish the impact of thecritical thinking module in health education management. I carried out a quasiexperiment for the purpose of my study. Basing on my problem statement, Iobtained answers to the following questions;i.Was there an impact of the critical thinking module on theachievement of the posttest scores between the experiment andthe control groups?ii.How was critical thinking practiced in the delivery of health talksafter having attended the critical thinking module?iii.What were the perceptions of the recipients of the criticai thinkingmodule through healt

2.2 Application of Critical Thinking in Nursing Practice 2.3 Traits of the Critical Thinker 2.4 Pitfalls in Critical Thinking 2.5 Critical Thinking Models 2.6 Critical Thinking Skills 2.6.1 Six Core Thinking Skills 2.6.2 Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing 2.6.3 Elements of Thoughts and the N

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