Playground Games For Primary Schools - Health Service Executive

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www.getirelandactive.ieActive PlaygroundsPlayground Games for Primary Schools

By encouraging children to take part inphysical activity and active games we can helpthem develop good habits, which will proveinvaluable throughout their lives.

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsContentsIntroductionSection 1:2General Guidelines3Ways to Adapt Activities for Children with Special Needs6Fundamental Movement Skills9Section 2:Activating the Playground12Section 3:Playground Markings Games16Section 4:Skipping, Hula Hoop & Elastics25Section 5:Catching games32Section 6:Relay games41Section 7:Ball games48Section 8:Fun games59Section 9:Frisbee games66Section 10: Parachute games70Section 11: Clapping and rhyming games74Useful websites79Page 1

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsIntroductionSchools are an important setting that can provide support to improve the health and wellbeing ofchildren and young people. Research has shown that health and education are inextricably linked.The Health Promotion and Improvement Department, HSE, work through the Health Promoting Schoolmodel to support a whole school approach to health and wellbeing. A Health Promoting School isdefined by the World Health Organisation as “a school that constantly strengthens its capacity as ahealthy setting for living, learning and working(1).Being physically active is a core component of good health and well-being. Physical activity andplay is essential for physical, psychological, emotional, and social health and should be seen as partof everyone’s daily lifestyle whether young or old. By encouraging children to take part in physicalactivity and active games we can help them develop good habits, which will prove invaluablethroughout their lives.The National Guidelines on Physical Activity for Ireland recommend that children and young peopleshould be active for at least 60 minutes a day every day(2). The evidence is that four out of five childrenare not sufficiently active for health benefits(3). One of the preliminary key performance indicators forHealthy Ireland the National framework for improved Health and Wellbeing 2013-2025(4) is an increasein the proportion of the population undertaking regular physical activity across each life stage. Tosupport this, the Healthy Ireland National Physical Activity plan(5) aims to Increase the number of peopletaking regular exercise by 50,000 every year for the next ten years.On average, children spend almost half of their day in the school environment so it is important that allopportunities to encourage and promote physical activity during that time are utilised.Many schools are already taking positive action to promote physical activity and physical education.Walking to school, physical education and organising activities during and after school can allcontribute to a child’s daily physical activity. Break-time in the schoolyard is an ideal time for pupils andteachers to incorporate at least 30 minutes of physical activity into their daily lives.The purpose of this resource is to increase play and physical activity during school break times,and increase child participation. This resource provides many ideas for activities and games usingplayground markings and other playground games. It has been written for teachers/supervisors whowish to give children some enjoyable, safe, varied and fun school break-times.The games outlined in this resource are more task focused as opposed to performance focused andare aimed at increasing enjoyment, motivation and adherence in pupil involvement and learning. Thegames are aimed at group and individual participation using playground markings and games. Theycan be simplified or progressed depending on the age and ability of the children. Many of the gamescan be adapted for indoor play, using similar equipment as well as music.Page 2

Section 1General Guidelines forPlanning ActivitiesBefore you start, consider the following:Players age and genderLevel of skillExperienceLevel of abilityChildren with special needsEquipment availableSpace availableNumber of players

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsAsk yourself these questions when selecting a game/activity:What are the rules of the game?How much time is available to play the game?What equipment will I use?How many individuals will play?How many individuals will be in each group/team?How will I organise the individuals?How will I manage the game for example what start/stop signals will I use (whistle, hand signals etc.)Try to group players according to their physical size and age. Aim to keep waiting time to a minimumfor players. Emphasize competition against self when competition seems natural.Use STEP to adapt gamesSpace: The playing space can be increased or decreased to make the game more difficult or easy, forexample, in tag games it is harder to tag players in a larger space. (Indoor/outdoor)Task: The task can be changed, for example, by changing the action to using two hands instead ofone to catch/throw, use the non-dominant hand to bounce the ball.Equipment: Changing its size, shape and texture can modify equipment. For example, using a softeror larger ball can help make a task easier or decreasing the size of the racquet face can make itharder.People: The people can be modified to make the game more inclusive for participants, for example,make teams smaller such as playing 5 a-side soccer instead of the traditional 11 a-side.Page 4

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsSafety TipsIt is important to make play fun, enjoyable and as safe as possible to encourage continuousinvolvement, so your school should have some safety guidelines put in place. The following are somesuggestions:Make sure space is big enough for the activities you wish to carry out, for example, for basketballthe out of bounds line is not right at the wall.Make sure surfaces are suitable for the activities, for example, in the soccer field that there are nobumpy areas.Ensure regular maintenance of equipment and take out of action immediately any piece ofequipment that is faulty and report it to the principal/supervisor.Before beginning activities make sure they are explained clearly and that the rules are emphasised.With new activities begin at a low level and progress when necessary.Do not allow children to use equipment inappropriately, use them only for their purposes, forexample, using skipping ropes inappropriately can be dangerous.Be aware of what the children are doing and stop the activity immediately if there is any gamegoing on that could cause an accident.Make sure children are dressed suitably for the activity, i.e. long loose clothing when on climbingequipment can be dangerous.If one area is very popular, then consider a “rota” system to give equal access and opportunity toall pupils.Page 5

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsWays to Adapt Activities for Childrenwith Special NeedsBeing physically active is as important for children with special needs as it is for any child. Almost allgames or activities can be modified to allow children with special needs to participate. The following aresome considerations for possible adaptations/modifications for inclusion of children special needs inactivities.What method of communication will you use?Consider how the child communicates (verbal, sign language, pointing to pictures).Verbal cues, demonstrations, physical assistance can be used (if permission is given).Also consider what starting/stopping signals (for example, hand, whistle, coloured cards) you will use.Can you vary the level of difficulty?Change the organisation of activity, the way the information is presented, duration, length of activities.What type of support does the child require?MoralTechnicalPhysical assistanceCan you vary the number of players?For example, vary the class format & size, play games such as two-on-two basketball.Can you vary the field of play?Make the area wider/narrower as needed; shorten distance for children with movement problems.Page 6

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsWays to adapt activitiesBelow are some suggestions on how to adapt activities for children with disabilities.Children with limited strength:Lower targets.Reduce weight/size of striking implements, balls.Reduce distance/playing field.Allow student to sit or lie down while playing.Use deflated balls or suspended balls.Decrease activity time/increase rest.Reduce speed of game/increase distance for students without disabilities.Children with limited balance:Lower centre of gravity.Keep as much of the body in contact with the surface as possible.Widen base of support.Increase width of beams to be walked.Extend arms for balance.Use carpeted rather than slick surfaces.Teach student how to fall.Provide a bar/chair to assist with stability.Page 7

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsChildren with limited co-ordination and accuracy:For catching and striking use larger, lighter, soft balls.Decrease distance ball is thrown and reduce speed.For throwing activities, use smaller balls.In striking and kicking use a stationery ball before trying a moving a ball.Increase the surface of the striking implement (decreasing as a sign of progression).Increase size of target. (decreasing as a sign of progression).In bowling-type games use lighter, less stable pins.Optimise safety.Some ideas for adaptations:Provide clear demonstrations for children to follow.Wheelchair users can move in different ways, for example, zigzag, both arms pushing, one arm ata time, and turning in a circle.Work with a buddy, one picking up, one putting in box, then change.Place object on higher level if floor pick up is too difficult, for example, chair or a box.Use flash cards for hearing impaired children.Allow more space between markers.Use brighter markers or link some markers with a tactile trail for visually impaired children.Bean bags or koosh balls may give some children more success in balancing.A slower moving ball or balloon/balloon ball gives more reaction time.Use a lighter throwing object, for example, koosh ball.Modify rules of the game.Ensure practices are inclusive and allow time for repetition.Page 8

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsFundamental Movement skills:Building Blocks for Lifelong ActivityRegular physical activity is an essential element of a healthy lifestyle – for both children and adults.We know that active children are far more likely to grow to become active adults than children whoare not routinely active. In order for this to occur, children first need to be taught the fundamentalsof movement and need to be supported to develop a positive attitude to physical activity in a funenvironment.A framework known as LISPA - Lifelong Involvement in Sport and Physical Activity – explains that anindividual’s involvement in activity progresses through a series of phases(6). The first phases of theseare vitally important, as they are the foundations for the development of physical literacy. Similar tolearning numeracy and literacy in the classroom Physical literacy is what gives a child the tools theyneed to take part in a range of everyday activities, games and sport. It is during the years 0-8 that theyare most likely to occur. The important first phases are 1. Active Start 2.FUNdamentals, and 3. Learnto Play & Practice.Active Start*FUNdamentalsProviding opportunitiesto be activeLearn FundamentalMovement SkillsPromote movementand communicationDevelop social skillsassociated with playUnlimited unstructuredactivity and active playEnjoyment of PhysicalActivityFrequent short burstsof activityLearning to Play& PracticeLearn overall sportsskills throughmulti-sport approachLearn specificmovement skillsRefining existing skillsPromote enjoyment andachievementPHYSICAL LITERACYPage 9

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsFundamental Movement Skills (FMS)Developing basic movement skills is as important for a child’s health and ability to do everyday tasksnow and as they get older, as it is for their performance in sport.The sequence in which children learn these skills is similar. While there can be gender differences insome activities, for example boys tend to develop the overarm throwing skill quicker than girls, bothgirls and boys need to be given opportunities to develop all skills.The first 8 years is the best time for a child to develop these skills.FMS are generally grouped into 3 categories:1. Locomotor (movement)2. Body Control (stability)3. Object Control (manipulative).Locomotor(Movement) skillsBody control(Stability) skillsObject control(Manipulative) skillsWalkingBalancing on one footCatchingRunningWalking on a line or a beamOverhand throwJumping (for distance, forheight, one leg to another)ClimbingUnderhand throwRolling (forward roll, log roll)Punt kicking (kicking ballfrom hands)HoppingLeapingSkippingSwingingSide steppingDodgingGallopingClimbingCrawlingPage 10TwistingTurningRotatingStriking with an implementTwo handed strikingStoppingHand dribbling (repeatedlybouncing a ball with onehand)BendingFoot dribblingStretchingKickingLandingChest passing

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsConsiderations Incorporating Fundamental Movement Skills into DailyActivitiesThe best time for children to learn fundamental movement skill is in the first 8 years but the youngerthey are the more likely they are to reach a good level of competency.The number one focus of fundamental movement skill is always fun and enjoyment.Children do not pick up fundamental movement skill naturally as part of their normal growth anddevelopment.Children do not learn fundamental movement skill at the same rate.The sequence in which they learn fundamental movement skill is similar for most children.It takes between 240 and 600 minutes of instruction time to become proficient in one fundamentalmovement skill.When choosing what skills and how many skills to focus on in any one year, consider the age andstage of development of the child, and the school plan for P.E.The focus of your teaching should be on one or two components of the target skill, e.g. high kneelift in running.There can be gender differences in some activities, for example, boys tend to develop the over armthrowing skill quicker than girls.For object control development it is important that the objects are an appropriate size/weight.A stock of a variety of sized balls is essential and balloon games are a great, inexpensive way todevelop object control also.Page 11

Section 2Activating the PlaygroundPlayground RulesConsult with children to create rules so that the playground is a safe and happy place for all to use.TimetableConsider creating a timetable in order to give all classes a chance to use the different facilities, yardzones and equipment available.

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsGames Equipment BoxHave a Games Equipment Box available for the students to use.Equipment such as skipping ropes, balls, beanbags, hoops etc. can be included in the equipmentbox.Designate specific areas in the playground for activities using equipment.Laminate descriptions of activities that can be played using the various pieces of equipment (seeplayground games card box below).Assign different pairs each week that will be responsible for distributing and collecting theequipment.Have a rota of who will use the equipment each day.Ask parents to bring in any games or pieces of equipment that are no longer used at home thatmay be useful in the school.Playground Games Card BoxThis should include:Cards on which different playground games are described.Cards produced by pupils which describe games they have developed themselves.Ideas to facilitate the use of playground game cards include:Organise regular competitions for the best game developed by a pupil.Promote games that require no teacher direction and no special equipment.Designate a certain break-time each week for any games and/or activities that require teachersupervision.Place laminated copies of the cards on classroom windows with the games description facingoutwards to allow more than one group at a time to use a card.Active Playtimes on Specific DaysSpecific days can be selected to focus on being more active and to encourage the use of theplayground markings. Over time, this should reinforce pupil interest and stimulate further participation.Plans (for example, the activities, when and where etc.) must be formulated and agreed by all staff.Encouraging activity at break times requires some preliminary setting up but the effort will be wellworth the rewards. Some supervision may be needed at lunch times and lunchtime supervisors areideal to do this.Page 13

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsFriendship stopA Friendship stop is a designated area of the playground where children can go when they have losttheir friends or have no one to play with. Other students are encouraged to regularly stop by and pickup the children that have no one to play with. In schools that have Lunch Time Pals part of their job canbe to include children from the Friendship stop in the various activities happening in the playground.Lunch Time Pals (LTP’s)The school could set up Lunch Time Pals (LTPs)This involves a number of 5th and 6th class students organising fun activities for break time forother students to participate in.Each LTP is given separate controlled activities to implement, for example, parachute games,obstacle courses, skipping etc.The LTP’s in charge should wear a bib/hat to distinguish them so everyone knows who is in chargefor that session.Lunchtime Pals are Cool!Here in Scoil Aisèirí Chríost Farranreewe are very proud of our ‘Lunchtime PalsProgramme’, which has been running fora number of years and has been a hugesuccess. Every lunch time a group ofLunchtime Pals (LTP’s) from 5th and 6thclasses set up exciting, enjoyable activitiesin the yard which the children from 1st to6th can participate in and enjoy.Each LTP is assigned to a particular game.These activities are controlled and do notinvolve running so they are safe for everyone.Activities include skipping, tag ball, basketballshooting, circle game, parachute, obstaclerace, etc. Our LTP’s are instantly recognizableby their characteristic red hats.The LTP’s have a very important job as theyoversee the games, organise the equipmentand ensure that any child who is on her owncan go to the ‘Friendship Stop’ to meet otherfriends to play with, and they will also helpto include them in a game. A fortnightly rotaallows each LTP to take charge of a differentactivity regularly.Page 14The aim of the Lunchtime Palsis to ensure that:No bullying can take place in the yardElimination of boredomThat the children interact togetherco-operativelyThat no children feel isolatedBehavioural improvementThat the children are active andparticipating in activities they enjoyFriendships are fostered.Our school recognises andpromotes the value of healthy,active lunch times every dayfor our students!Maireád Coakley, Health Promoting SchoolsCoordinator, Scoil Aisèirí Chríost Farranree, Cork.

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsZoningIn the majority of schools there is more than one yard or field to play on. To make these playingareas more efficient and safe zoning the playground is a good idea. Zoning the playground allowsdifferent activities to occur at the same time. The playground does not have to be very big once thespace is managed different activities can take place.The playground could be zoned into three sections and identified using different colours. Red – Formal Activities: These activities would be invasion games like football, basketball, andsoccer etc. These games are usually based on set rules. Green – Informal Activities: These would be activities that the children wish to play and createthemselves. The playground markings would be in this area where the children can use themindividually or with a group. The need for equipment in this zone may be very little. Yellow – Quiet Zone: In this zone there could be seating, a garden, an area to write with chalketc. These activities are less physically active but give children an opportunity to have somequite time to themselves or to sit and talk with friends.Modifying GamesIt is important to realise and remember that even though children may be the same age, they developvery differently. They may vary in physical size, ability, mentally etc, so it is important that we canmodify play to suit everyone. Modifying games can be easily done and will result in play being more funand involve everyone. Games can be modified by,changing the size of the playing area.having mixed ability teams to make them more balancedchanging the pace of the activity, so instead of running, skip etc.practicing skills without equipment or changing the size of equipment first, for example, use alarger ball to make an activity easier.increasing or reducing the amount of time practicing an activity.changing the number of participants on teams, for example, 5 a side soccer.Page 15

Section 3Playground MarkingsGames

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsHopscotchTraditional HopscotchEquipment needed: A hopscotch diagram or chalk if necessary; an object, forexample, a bean bag for a markerNumber of participants: 1 Activity level: ModerateMovement skills: Balance on one foot, jumping, hoppingHow to play:The 1st player throws a marker into box number 1.The player then hops on one foot to the end of the court, hopping over the squarethat contains the marker. This same player, once in the last box, turns and hopsback again. They must stop at the second box, balance on one leg and pick upthe marker from the first box and hop out.If this player is successful in their first turn, he would then proceed to throwingthe marker inside box 2 and so forth. Players should take turns to avoid toomuch standing around, always starting where they left off, until someone hassuccessfully navigated all the spaces.A player forfeits a turn and must return to the back of the line whenever any of thefollowing fouls have been committed: (1) failure to throw the marker fully insidethe intended box; (2) stepping on a line; (3) hopping into a box that contains themarker; (4) using hands to support oneself while picking up a marker.The first player to complete the course successfully wins the game.Page 17

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsHopscotchHopscotchSearch AroundStatuesEquipment needed: 3 hopscotch diagramsor chalk if necessary; three baskets,containing 10 different items, for example,beanbags, small balls, rings, sticks etc.Equipment needed: A hopscotchdiagram; chalk if necessary; small objects,for example, a bean bags, number cardsNumber of participants: 2 Activity level: ModerateMovement skills: Balance on one foot,jumping, hoppingHow to play:Two or three small teams can play this atany onetime. Each team has there ownhopscotch area.An additional pupil acts as a ‘caller’. Thecaller writes a list of numbers down from 1to 10, with a readily available item besideeach one.Three baskets should be placed a setdistance away from each hopscotch area,from which each item must be collected.Each team starts on number 1 of theirhopscotch area. The ‘caller’ calls out thefirst item on the list. Each team has tocollect and place it on number 1. Once ithas been placed, a member of the teamcan ask the ‘caller’ for the next item to beplaced on number 2.The procedure is followed until eachnumbered square contains an item. Thefirst team to collect all 10 items is thewinner.Progressions:The ‘caller’ could also call out actions, forexample, hop on right leg only, left leg only.Page 18Number of participants: 2 Activity level: ModerateMovement skills: Balance on one foot,jumping, hoppingHow to play:Two or three teams can play this gameat any one time. An additional pupil actsas the caller. Each team has there ownhopscotch area, and starts onnumber 1.This game is played as regularhopscotch. The trick of this game iswhen the ‘caller’ calls out ‘statues’ theplayer(s) must freeze on the spot fora couple of seconds until the ‘caller’shouts out ‘hopscotch’ again. If a playermoves, he/she has to start again. Thefirst team that finishes is the winningteam.Progressions:The ‘caller’ calls out a number from a card.The player must put the beanbag on thatnumber, as played in regular hopscotch.

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsActivity CircuitEquipment needed: Activity circuit markings, ball, hoops and conesNumber of participants: 1 Activity level: ModerateMovement skills: Balance, jumping, hopping, skipping, runningPlayers: 1 How to play:Encourage the children to follow the trail ofinstructions around the circuit. For example:Stepping Stones: The children shouldmove from one step to the next, walkingon tip-toes or jumping with both feet.Jumping lines: When the childrenreach the jumping lines they shouldtry and jump as far as they can tothe base line. The Children should beencouraged to improve on their jumpingdistance each time.Skip/foot prints: The children skipalong the prints. Ask the children toimagine they are skipping with a rope,circling their arms each time they skip.Slalom: When the children reachthe slalom course they should jumpalternately from side to side in themiddle of the line. Persuade the childrento pretend they are skiing, keeping bothfeet together and knees bent.Progressions:Balance Beam: The children walkalong the balance beam with one footin front of the other, trying not to walkoutside of the beam. Squiggly line/running line: Encourage the childrento run along the line as quickly as theycan. Teachers could suggest runningwith arms outstretched like a plane, orpretend that the line is a tight rope andpractice balancing skills.Balance Beam: Children should trywalking backwards, on their tip toes orhopping on one foot.Hop/ frog prints: The children jumpwith both feet together along the prints.Hopping along the frog prints on onefoot and back on the other is anotherway to play.Slalom: Suggest completing the circuitin pairs or 3’s. Try bouncing a ball orbalancing a beanbag around the circuit.The teacher could try placing obstacles(beanbag, items that are difficult tomove) around the course. The childrenavoid the obstacles by jumping overthem or running around them.Hop/ frog prints: If the circuit hasdifferent animal prints encourage thechildren to keep there feet on the prints(not jumping) and move like animals,making the sounds of the animals if theywish.Page 19

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsCompassCompassCompass RelayCompass TigEquipment needed: Chalk, non-slip mat,watch and a ballEquipment needed: NoneNumber of participants: 4 Activity level: ModerateMovement skills: Running, turning, withprogressions: hand dribbling, skipping andhoppingHow to play:All eight points of the compass are usedin the relay. Each player completes therelay individually.A starting point is agreed just outsideone of the outer points. A mark isplaced in the centre of the compasswith chalk or a non-slip mat.One player starts at the starting pointon the other players count. He/shemust run to the centre of the compassand out to each of the points.The trick is that you must return to thecentre before you head for each point.The others players may use a watchor count themselves how long it takeseach player to complete the game. Thefastest player wins.Progressions:Bouncing a ball, skipping, hopping etc canbe suggested instead of running.Please be advised that some compassmarkings may be too small to play thefollowing games on.Page 20Number of participants: 6 Activity level: ModerateMovement skills: Running, turning,dodgingHow to play:One child volunteers to be the‘navigator’. The navigator stands in thecentre of the compass and calls outdifferent compass points.The children must run for that point onthe compass, without being caught bythe navigator.The navigator can only move from thecentre to catch the other players oncea compass point has been shouted.When a player is caught, they becomethe new navigator and the gamecontinues.Progressions:The game may be played in the same wayas a clock tig i.e. a player is standing oneach of the compass points. The navigatorshouts out two compass points. Thechildren standing on those two points mustswap places without being caught. Anyplayer caught, becomes the new navigator.

Active Playgrounds - Playground Games for Primary SchoolsCompassCompass BallEquipment needed: 8-10 beanbags orsmall ballsNumber of participants: 9 (ideally)Activity level: LowToe the lineEquipment needed: NoneNumber of participants: 9 Activity level: ModerateMovement skills: Running, withprogressions: skipping, hopping, leaping,side stepping, galloping, jumping, crawling.Movement skills: Throwing and catchingHow to play:How to play:Players stand one on each of thecompass points. A soft ball or beanbagis given to one of the players standingon one of the outer points i.e. north,south, east or west.Each player on the outer points shouldstand still. The players on the innerpoints should move in a clockwisedirection. The ball or beanbag isthrown to the inner points, caught bythe nearest player and passed out tothe outer players. The players shouldall change position if the beanbag isdropped.Progressions:To make the game more demanding,introduce more balls or beanbags. Tryrotating the players on the outer points andkeeping the inner points still.Divide the children into equal groups.Each group is a compass point.The compass point becomes thegroup’s base. The children should moveall around the compass, changingdirection and altering pace.The group leader calls ‘Toe the Line’ andthe c

Section 3: Playground Markings Games 16 Section 4: Skipping, Hula Hoop & Elastics 25 Section 5: Catching games 32 Section 6: Relay games 41 Section 7: Ball games 48 Section 8: Fun games 59 Section 9: Frisbee games 66 Section 10: Parachute games 70 Section 11: Clapping and rhyming games 74 Useful websites 79

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Fedrico Chesani Introduction to Description Logic(s) Some considerations A Description Language DL Extending DL Description Logics Description Logics and SW A simple logic: DL Concept-forming operators Sentences Semantics Entailment Sentences d 1: d 2 Concept d 1 is equivalent to concept d 2, i.e. the individuals that satisfy d 1 are precisely those that satisfy d 2 Example: PhDStudent .