PARTNERSImportant Media / importantmedia.orgImportant Media is a progressive media network. It is theparent network of CleanTechnica, the producer of this report.EV Obsession /evobsession.comEV Obsession is a leading EV-focused blog that specializes inoriginal EV sales reports, EV reviews, EV guides, and EV op-eds.Tesla Shuttle /tesla-shuttle.euTesla Shuttle is a city-to-city electric shuttle startup in Europe.It offers transport that is more convenient, more comfortable,cheaper, and quicker than flying, taking the train, or drivingyourself along certain routes.The BeamThe Beam is a tri-annual printed publication covering the energytransition and the race to a zero-carbon economy. It featuresinterviews with global cleantech leaders, insightful op-eds, andbeautiful imagery.CONTRIBUTORSReader Survey Participants, eMotorWerks,GreenLots, EV Match, Charge Point
TABLE OF CONTENTSExecutive Summary04Methodology and Disclaimers05Chapter 1 – Plug-in Vehicles Adoption06Plug-in Vehicle Sales Increasing Rapidly07Plug-in Vehicle Charging Speeds09Chapter 2 – EVSE Innovations11EVSE Price Reductions14EVSE as IoT-Enabled Smart Appliances16Grid-Scale Demand Response Capability18Smart Home Technologies21Chapter 3 – Residential Charging22Brands & Types of EV Charging Stations27EV Charging & Solar28Chapter 4 – Renting Out Privately Owned EVSE30Chapter 5 – Public Charging32Tesla’s Supercharging Network34Plug-in Vehicle Heaven, also known as Norway36Finding a Public EV Charging Station37Chapter 6 – Workplace Charging39Chapter 7 – Multi-family Housing Charging41Chapter 8 – The State of Charging Around the World44Key Learnings and Conclusions51Annex 1: Measures Municipalities & Utilities Have Taken to Incentivize EV Adoption52Appendix 2: Photo Credits54
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYPlug-invehiclechargingisacritical link in the journey towardselectrified personal transportation.Every new plug-in vehicle soldrequires a means of charging the vehicle.The majority of this infrastructure is installedat the residence, and while the underlyingelectrical infrastructure is largely in place, thehardware required to actually plug cars intothat infrastructure to charge — electric vehicleservice equipment (EVSE)* — simply does notexist in many places today.This report looks at the current state of theplug-in vehicle charging landscape within thecontext of the broader transition from internalcombustion vehicles to plug-in vehicles. EVSEdeployments and sales largely track with thesales of plug-in vehicles, so we will brieflytouch on the broader transition to plug-inbattery electric vehicles and how the transitionis progressing around the world to set thestage for the EVSE discussion.The report then breaks out the currentand future projected states of ional potential of workplacecharging as a demand response tool forutilities. It then discusses the challenges andsolutions of installing EVSEs in multi-familyhousing complexes.The report closes with a look at dominantregions around the world that have pavedthe way forward with high adoption rates ofplug-in vehicles and what lessons can belearned from these frontrunners in the journey.The report looks at the disruptive innovationtaking place in the EVSE space and discussesthe promise to not only improve EVSEconsumer options but also have a profoundimpact on the electric grid of the future.*For the purposes of this report, the term “electric vehicle service equipment” (EVSE) will beused to describe the hardware installed between the plug-in vehicle and the power source as ameans of charging the plug-in vehicle. This is widely — and inaccurately — called an “electricvehicle charger,” whereas the actual charger is built into the vehicle.04
METHODOLOGY & DISCLAIMERSAs with any aggregate report, this oneincludes a number of limitations. Thisreport is based on the informationcurrently available about existingelectric vehicle service equipment (EVSE)product offerings and the correspondinginformation available about the EVs that canutilize them.Data for this report was sourced directlyfrom EVSE manufacturers, plug-in vehiclecharging network operators, peer-to-peerplug-in vehicle EVSE sharing networks, andsurveys of readers of CleanTechnica.com,EVObsession.com, and Gas2.org.For the survey portion of the report, thatmeans that the results suffer from selfselection bias and any respondent biasespresent. For example, readers are alreadyhighly informed and enthusiastic about thetechnologies and trends being discussed.Many of the results would have been quitedifferent if the surveys were completed by abroad, representative sample of citizens of theworld who would have much less knowledgeabout the topics of the survey.in the world of clean technology serves asa gauge to determine how the early marketis functioning and how it will transition intothe early majority as plug-in vehicles, electricvehicle service equipment, utilities, andrelated clean technologies scale up on theroad to mass adoption. This niche surveyfocus was intentional, as we were eager tounderstand what learnings and opportunitieshave surfaced from regions, companies, andindividuals that have taken an early lead. Webelieve this insight could help those thatfollow to more successfully integrate thesetechnologies without having to learn the samelessons.The questions to and discussions withparticipating companies were crafted toeke out unique insights into plug-in vehiclecharging that are not already publicly available.It is our belief that sampling thought leaders,early adopters, and technology enthusiasts05
CHAPTER ONE:Plug-in Vehicle AdoptionThe pace of plug-in vehicle salescontinues to ramp up, with 2017 ontrack to be the first year seeing morethan 1 million plug-in vehicles soldglobally.More importantly, these sales are comingfrom a wide range of manufacturers spanningall major automotive markets and across agrowing number of vehicle classes. Of oursurvey respondents, 30% shared that theyexpected to buy one plug-in vehicle in the next12 months and another 5% noting that theyexpected to buy more than one plug-in vehiclein the next 12 months. 28% of respondentswere on the fence and responded “Maybe”.06
Table Source: CleanTechnica, Gas2 and EVObsession SurveyAre you looking to buy a plug-in vehicle in the next 12 months?Answered: 690Skipped: 3NoMaybeYes — I planto purchase.Yes — I planto purchase.0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%ANSWER CHOICESNoMaybeYes — I plan to purchase a plug-in vehicle in the next 12 monthsYes — I plan to purchase more than one a plug-in vehicle in the next 12 25919220534690Plug-in Vehicle SalesIncreasing RapidlyBYD and Tesla are each on track to sell morethan 100,000 vehicles in 2017 as theyrace to ramp up production to meet growingdemand. China, Europe, and the UnitedStates continue to lead the globe in plug-invehicle sales, supported by a combination oftighter regulations governing emissions andincentives on plug-in vehicles.Looking at the vehicles gaining traction withconsumers, 46% of readers surveyed whowere planning to purchase a plug-in vehiclein the next 12 months were planning topurchase a Tesla. With Tesla and the Model 3having such pent-up demand, it should comeas no surprise that Tesla comes out on top.Chevrolet came in second place at 13%, withits Bolt battery electric vehicle and Volt plugin hybrid vehicle generating a lot of interest,followed by Nissan at 12%. The list tails offfrom there, with BMW, Volkswagen, Toyota,and Kia following the top three.07
Table Source: CleanTechnica, Gas2 and EVObsession SurveyIf yes, what make of plug-in vehicle are you planning to buy?Answered: 516Skipped: 1770%20%TeslaChevroletNissanother (please specify)BMWVolkswagenToyotaKiaRenaultFord10%ANSWER 4%Chevrolet13.18%Nissan11.82%Other (please 614017131212109973333222208
Plug-in Vehicle Charging SpeedsAs context for this report, a groundedunderstanding of plug-in vehicle chargingspeeds is crucial to understanding therole EVSEs will play in the transition tomass adoption of plug-in vehicles movingforward. Charging speeds are split into threeofficial levels of charging as detailed in theSAE Charging Configurations and RatingsTerminology document.Utilizing an Alternating Current (AC) EVSE, whichincludes the vast majority of Level 1 and Level2 EVSE, requires the plug-in vehicle to have anonboard charger to convert the incoming ACpower to Direct Current (DC). Thankfully, plug-invehicle manufacturers know this and have builtthe charger into their vehicles.Conversely, for a vehicle to support DCcharging, the manufacturer must wire thevehicle specifically to accommodate DCcharging. This is typically accomplishedthrough the addition of a separate chargingport like the CHAdeMO and CCS Combofast-charging ports. Naturally, adding a portcosts extra money, so most automotivemanufacturers charge extra to have theoptional DC charging port included (insteadof a standard-offering version of the carwithout the fast-charging port).09
Table Source: CleanTechnicaSummaryIn summary, plug-in vehicles are selling well andare on track to move beyond early adopters intothe early majority market thanks to efforts byChina’s BYD, the United States’ Tesla, and otherearly EV leaders. Efforts by early movers havecatapulted plug-in vehicles into the mainstreamand are in the early stages of disrupting theirrespective markets.This can be seen in the luxury vehicle segmentin the USA, in which internal combustion salesare down for most manufacturers while Teslais surging in the category as the dominantautomotive manufacturer with respect to yearover-year sales growth. It has taken the #1position for sales in the large luxury car classand is near the top of the large luxury SUV class.Large Luxury Car Sales in USA (H1 2017)Tesla estimate and chart from CleanTechnica.comTesla Model S (est.)12,550Mercedes S Class7,5834,255BMW 7 Series3,001Porsche PanameraAudi A72,290Lexus LS1,8551,601Audi ABJaguar XJ1,377BMW 6 SeriesAcura RLX1,479555US Large Luxury SUV SalesH1 2017H1 2016BMW X524,15922,2049%Mercedes-Benz GLS-Class15,53012,88021%Volvo XC9012,03116,017-25%Tesla Model X (est.)11,0006,50069%Lexus GX10,89711,150-2%Porche Cayenne7,0607,991-12%BMW X63,2533,535-8%Lexus LX2,6972,5775%Change10
CHAPTER TWO:EVSE InnovationsIn parallel to the increased adoption of plug-invehicles, innovation is taking root with EVSEas consumers look for options that bestserve their new vehicles. The influx of newplug-in vehicle owners has injected significantcapital into a market that is transitioning fromserving a niche market of early adopters intoserving a mass market with robust productsready for mainstream consumers. Theincrease in EVSE sales is also driving increasedcompetition in the space that is manifestingitself in several specific trends. 53% of surveyrespondents shared that they installed a Level2 EVSE for their plug-in vehicle. Adjustingfor respondents who did not own a plug-invehicle shows that 64% (just under 2/3) ofplug-in vehicle owners installed a Level 2 EVSE.11
Table Source: CleanTechnica, Gas2 and EVObsession SurveyIf you own at least one plug-in vehicle, do you have a Level 2 EVSE (home EV charging station)installed at your residenceAnswered: 613 Skipped: 80YesNoNot Applicable0%10%20%30%40%ANSWER CHOICESYesNoNot 9.04%18.27%323178112613That percentage is expected to increaseas battery electric vehicle range increasesand allows more drivers to purchase plug-invehicles that can support longer commutes.Draining the vehicle of more miles per daywill require faster home chargers to refillthe battery overnight, even for some driversutilizing public Level 2 and public DC fastcharging stations for extra-long commutes.Interestingly, 39% of survey respondentsshared that they used a Level 1 EVSE forovernight charging of their plug-in vehicle.42% of respondents shared that they did not,with the remaining 19% stating that they didnot currently own a plug-in vehicle.12
Table Source: CleanTechnica, Gas2 and EVObsession SurveyIf you own at least one plug-in vehicle, do you have a Level 1 EVSE (home EV chargingoutlet) forovernight charging?Answered: 614 Skipped: 79YesNoNot Applicable0%10%20%ANSWER CHOICESYesNoNot 8.76%41.86%19.38%238257119614
EVSE Price ReductionsEVSE built for residential use today isevolving rapidly as consumer demand rampsup. The boost in volume has lured morecompanies into EVSE and with the increasein competition, has brought inevitable pricedrops. The Tesla Wall Charger for instancewas originally listed at 1,200 and is nowavailable for purchase for 500.As retail prices of EVSEs have fallen, so havethe government incentives that have helpedearly plug-in vehicle drivers to adopt the newtechnology. On average, the actual EVSE is justover half of the installed cost, with the averagepurchase price of an EVSE in the 600-700USD price range. Installing the EVSE makesup another 500 USD of the total installedprice for an average Level 2 EVSE installedcost of between 1100 and 1200 USD.Installation costs vary wildly with somehomes already having the infrastructure forplug-in vehicle charging and some requiringsignificant upgrades. Looking at the currentinstalled base of residential EVSEs, 15.8%of survey respondents shared that theytook advantage of government incentivestotaling more than 1000 USD for their EVSEpurchase and installation. Another 19.5%received less than 1000 in incentives with afull 40.0% responding that they did not receivea financial incentive from the government forthe purchase and installation of their EVSE.24.7% responded that they were not sure orthat the question was not applicable.14
Table Source: CleanTechnica, Gas2 and EVObsession SurveyDid you or can you take advantage of local, state, or federal incentives for home EV charging?Answered: 689Skipped: 4Yes —morethan 1000 USDYes —lessthan 1000 USDNoNot Sure0%10%20%30%40%50%ANSWER CHOICESYes — more than 1000 USDYes — lass than 1000 USDNoNot SureTOTALThe complexity of installing a Level 2 EVcharging station (EVSE) is largely determinedby the current state of the in-home electricalsystem. If service from the local electrical utilityis limited, high-demand electrical applianceslike electric water heaters or air conditionersare installed, or there simply isn’t sufficientroom in the electrical panel for a new circuitbreaker, the installation may cost hundredsor even thousands of dollars. Conversely, if ahome has a spare 240-volt electrical 4.67%109134276170689for an old electric dryer or air conditioner, theinstallation could be as simple as mountingthe EVSE to the wall and plugging it in.We asked our survey respondents if their home’swiring had capacity to install a Level 2 EVSE,and while the vast majority (83%) said thattheir home’s wiring was sufficient, another 10%shared that it was not sufficient, indicating therequirement to get an electrician and possiblyeven the utility involved for EVSE installation.15
Table Source: CleanTechnica, Gas2 and EVObsession SurveyDoes your home’s wiring setup have capacity to charge an EV?Answered: 692Skipped: 1YesNoNo ApplicableI’m not sureIs this a.0%10%20%30%40%50%ANSWER CHOICESYesNoNo 5%5747010EVSE as IoT Enabled SmartAppliancesYou may think of EVSE simply as a type ofappliance, but EV charging stations arerapidly becoming central intelligent fixtures inthe “smart home” of the future. This shift isbuilt on the premise of internet connectivityand empowering the devices with the fullpower of the Internet of Things (IoT). Internetconnectivity opens up possibilities and hasbrought a windfall of new features to thedevices.EVSE manufacturers see the connectedcapability of their EVSE as strategicdifferentiators, with eMotorWerks noting thatinternet connectivity “allows us to do things likeblockchain-shared EVSE, solar optimizations,and demand response participation.” All ofthese features are cutting edge at presentbut being looked at by all of the EVSEmanufacturers and plug-in vehicle chargingnetwork operators we spoke with.Of our survey respondents already drivingplug-in vehicles, 31% noted that the EVSEthey currently own is a “smart charger,” withthe remaining 69% indicating that the EVSEthey owned was not a smart charger.16
Table Source: CleanTechnica, Gas2 and EVObsession SurveyIf you have a home EV charging station, is it a “smart charger”?Answered: 638 Skipped: 55YesNoNot sure. Isthis a thing?0%10%20%30%40%ANSWER CHOICESYesNoNot sure. Is this a %19.12%158358122638An EVSE charging a plug-in vehicle witha moderate efficiency of 4 miles (6.4kilometers) per kilowatt-hour and being driven13,476 miles (21,688 kilometers) per yearwill consume 9.2 kilowatt-hours per day.Compared to the electricity consumed bythe average American home each day (29.6kilowatt-hours), the incremental electricityused by a plug-in vehicle is a significant 31%increase in electricity usage (Source: USEnergy Information Administration).17
Grid-Scale Demand ResponseCapabilityThe significant, constant usage of electricityfrom a single source like a plug-in vehiclehas opened up a new market for gridscale demand management. Grid-scaledemandresponsebundleschargingplug-in vehicles together into a singledemand unit when they are using smartchargers connected to a utility. The utilitycan then have the charging speed throttledup and down to balance the electricity loadon the grid. EVSE manufacturers and plug-invehicle EVSE network operators arepartnering with utilities to trigger a throttlingof these aggregated demand units up anddown instead of installing more powergeneration or energy storage to absorb gridusage spikes. This is an added value to thegrid that electric vehicles and smart EVSEoffer utilities and ratepayers.18
Here’s an example: As the day warms up,electricity customers turn on air conditioningunits. Instead of ramping up expensive-tooperate and polluting gas peaker units, theutility can compensate an EVSE manufactureror plug-in vehicle charging network operator todecrease the charging rate of plug-in vehiclescharging in specific regions of the grid.Decreasing the charge rate and spreading itout over periods of lower demand keeps thegrid balanced and more efficienctly uses theresources on the grid.The eMotorWerks JuiceNet has demandresponse capability and is actively used inproduction today on a number of its 25,000deployed charging stations. That number is
expected to grow over time as more utilitiesget on board with the program, as EDF didthrough a partnership with eMotorWerks inSeptember 2017. Enel’s recent acquisitionof eMotorWerks and other demand responsetechnology companies speaks to its realizationthat demand response is going to playa crucial role in stabilizing the renewablesbacked electrical grid of the future.ChargePoint CEO Pasquale Romano sharedwith CleanTechnica in an interview in August2017 that ChargePoint was actively workingon demand response functionality but thatit was not a financial game-changer for thecompany. Indeed, it pales in comparison to therevenue generated from building, selling, andinstalling EV charging stations or managinga charging network, but nevertheless, it isa part of the business plan that can add torevenue at relatively little cost.Greenlots CEO Brett Hauser shared withCleanTechnica in November 2017 that connected EV charging stations capable of demand response are an important part of thecompany strategy moving forward and that,“with over a thousand EV chargers operating on the Greenlots network, the majorityare demand response enabled.” Greenlots isconvinced that connected chargers are critical at scale for utilities to be able to adaptand adjust to plug-in vehicle charging loads— and to adjust those charging loads —throughout the day and night. This is criticalfor maintaining grid stability.The Tesla Wall Charger is not a connectedEVSE, but instead utilizes the networkconnection of the Tesla vehicle pluggedinto it for a network connection. The chargerthen gives the driver information through theTesla smartphone app as well as a handfulof controls over vehicle charging. When aconsumer has these as well, Tesla has alsointegrated its residential energy storageproduct, Powerwall, and information fromthe customer’s SolarCity/Tesla rooftop solarsystem into the app for deeper visibility ofthese home energy systems.
Cutting-edge utilities already compensateEVSE manufacturers and plug-in vehiclecharging network operators for providingmore flexibility in demand load. That paymentprovides a revenue stream for operatorsand provides an incentive to plug-in vehiclecharging customers for their participationin the program.Leveraging EVSE for demand responseis a rising trend with residential EVSEmanufacturers and will gain popularity in theimplementation of workplace charging stationsin the coming years, which we discuss in moredetail later in the report. Public plug-in vehicleEV charging stations are not well suited foraccommodating the flexibility required fordemand management, as customers payingfor charging as a service are less willing to beinconvenienced by the possibility of a slowercharging rate, but this still has the potential tobe a factor as the need for grid-scale flexibilityincreases in the coming years and EV chargingtechnology gets smarter and smarter.As noted above, a handful of EVSE manufacturers, led by eMotorWerks and Greenlots,have the functionality for grid-scale demandresponse in production devices today. Additionally, numerous EVSE manufacturers haveproducts capable of demand response inthe pipeline. Expect to see connected, intelligent EVSE with demand response capabilities becoming the norm in the coming 18–24months as these products make it to market.will push more consumers to look to “SmartEnergy Management” systems as a way toreduce home energy bills.With plug-in vehicles expected to consume asignificant percentage of a home’s electricity,the ability to control and moderate that consumption to minimize cost and impact on thegrid will be more desirable. Much like the Nestthermostat disrupted what previously seemedlike a boring segment of home improvementstores, intelligent and connected EV chargingtech is poised to become a critical component in the smart home of the future.Smart Home TechnologiesThe increasing focus on Smart Hometechnologies that negotiate the complexrelationships between residential rooftop solarsystems, intelligent energy storage, and EVSE21
CHAPTER THREE:Residential ChargingThe public discussion about plug-invehicle charging often focuses on theinstallation, quantity, distribution andspeed of public chargers, but the datareveal that the vast majority of charginghappens at home. The challenges withresidential charging are best split two ways– renting vs owning and single-family homes vsmulti-family housing.Owning a home makes the process of addingan EV charging station to the home electricalnetwork a more straightforward process, asany upgrades can happen at the discretionof the homeowner and can add to the value of the home. Renting and apartment livingcan make plug-in vehicle charging at homechallenging, as it requires the consent of thehomeowner’s association, property owner,22
Table Source: National Multifamily Housing Councilor building manager. Further complicating matters, the electrical grid for multi-tenant housing may not have been built to accommodatethe extra incremental load of plug-in vehiclecharging for even a handful of units, let alonethe full population of the building once theyare driving plug-in vehicles. Solutions suchas EverCharge have cropped up to addressthis with intelligent, dynamic load balancingto maximize vehicle charging load within theconstraints of the grid connection capability.U.S Households - Renters & OwnersType of HousegoldHouseholds% of U.S. TotalResidents% of U.S. ,065100%315,047,636100%Source: 2016 American Community Survey, 1-Year Estimates, US Census Bureau.Updated 9/2017The latest US Census survey revealed that63% of the population lives in a property theyown, with 37% of the population renting.Of our survey respondents, more than twothirds said they own detached homes — with85% live in single-family homes and just under11% living in multi-family housing.23
Table Source: CleanTechnica, Gas2 and EVObsession SurveyDo you or will you charge your plug-in vehicle in a single-family home or an apartment complex/multi-family housing unitAnswered: 687 Skipped: t sure0%10%20%30%40%50%60%ANSWER CHOICESSingle-family homeApartment complex/multi-family housing unitNeitherNot SureTOTALThe majority of the readership of the sitesthe survey was hosted on (CleanTechnica,Gas2 and EV Obsession) live in the US andhave higher than average household incomes.This correlates with the higher than averagepercentage of single-family homes, which are,on average, more expensive than %58410.77%742.77%191.46%10687Crossing the pond to Europe, the residentialrent/own mix changes completely. The latestEurostat surveys have only 33% of those inEU-28 nations living in detached houses, with24% living in semi-detached houses and theremaining 42% living in apartments / flats.(Source: Eurostat)24
Table Source: CleanTechnica, Gas2 and EVObsession SurveyThe mixed landscape of residential livingsituations combined with the complexlandscape of electrical utilities makesresidential plug-in vehicle charging challengingto address at the global, national, or evenregional level in most cases.18% believe they will require an electricalservice upgrade to add an EVSE to theproperty. 7% were not sure, while the final 5%responded that this was not applicable.Popping open the garage of plug-in vehicleowners today, a full 70% of survey respondentsbelieve their current home electrical servicecan accommodate plug-in vehicle charging.Will your home require a service upgrade prior to installing an EVSE?Answered: 690 Skipped: 3YesNoNot ApplicableNot sure. Isthis a thing?0%10%20%30%ANSWER CHOICESYesNoNot ApplicableNot Sure. Is this a 470.00%4834.78%337.25%5069025
Brands & Types of EV ChargingStationsThe landscape of currently installed residentialEVSEs is varied, resulting in the top choicefrom our lengthy list of EVSEs to choose fromin our survey being “Other” with 30.0% ofrespondents. Second on the list was Tesla with22.9% of respondents followed by the popularClipper Creek and eMotorWerks EVSEs with14.8% and 10.0% of respondents respective.26
Table Source: CleanTechnica, Gas2 and EVObsession SurveyIf you have a home EV charging station, what company or companies produced is?Answered: 459Skipped: 234Other (pleasespecyfy)TeslaClipper CreekeMotorWerks(Juicebox)Charge itonGE(WattStation.0%10%20%30%ANSWER CHOICES40%50%60%80%90%100%RESPONSESOther (please specify)30.07%Tesla22.88%Clipper Creek14.81%eMotorWorks Siemens3.92%Bosch3.49%Schneider Electric2.40%Leviton2.18%GE (WattStation & %Total RESPONDERS70%13810568463418181611109633221045927
Until recently, home EV charging stationswere little more than appliances thattransformed the power from homes into theformat required for electric vehicles, so it waseasy for electrical component manufacturersto compete in the space. With the emergingtrend toward connected, intelligent chargers,product differentiation with value-add optionsfor data collection, remote control, preprogrammed charging behavior, and demandresponse functionality built into the EVSEout of the box, consumers are increasinglyexpecting these features.EV Charging & SolarThe majority of plug-in vehicle drivers in theearly majority bought plug-in vehicles forenvironmental reasons. Additionally, in theUS, many of these drivers are in California,which has one of the most competitive andmature solar power markets. These factorshave resulted in a disproportionate numberof early electric vehicle drivers also installingrooftop solar. As the total costs of ownershipfor residential rooftop solar systems andplug-in vehicles have continued to fall, they areboth increasingly becoming attractive as costsaving solutions for homeowners.Complementing these trends is the factthat plug-in vehicles drive noticeableincreases in residential electricity usage forhomeowners charging at home. This extraelectricity demand gets some consumersthinking about self-generation options, mostnotably solar.Combined, this means that a highlydisproportionate percentage of plug-invehicle owners have installed rooftop solarpower systems. Surveys showed that 32%of respondents already owned a rooftopsolar system while 51% did not. Adjusting forthose who aren’t currently owners of plug-invehicles, we can see that of those who own at
Table Source: CleanTechnica, Gas2 and EVObsession SurveyIf you own at least one plug-in vehicle, does your residence have a solar photovoltaic system installed?Answered: 614 Skipped: 79YesNoNot Applicable0%10%20%30%40%50%ANSWER CHOICESYesNoNot ApplicableTOTALleast one plug-in vehicle, 38.5% have a solarp
used to describe the hardware installed between the plug-in vehicle and the power source as a means of charging the plug-in vehicle. This is widely — and inaccurately — called an "electric
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