CAMBRIDGE CITY COUNCILMay 20, 2021Mr. Anthony WilsonClerk of CambridgeCambridge City HallDear Mr. Clerk:Please include this correspondence on the agenda as part of Communications and Reports fromOther City Officers for the City Council meeting scheduled for May 24, 2021.On June 29, 2020, the City Council passed a policy order stating that “the City of Cambridge shouldconsider and evaluate an effective, unarmed, Public Health and Human service response mechanism toredefine what Public Safety looks like, and develop an alternative public health response with the ultimategoal of decreasing arrests, increasing connections to critical housing, addiction and other services, andensuring that Public Safety feels safe for all residents.” To initiate this process, the City Manager conveneda Task Force – comprised of Cambridge residents coming from a variety of differing backgrounds,experiences, and viewpoints – that was charged with developing a set of recommendations that would speakto the policy order’s stated goals.These recommendations, and the work that went into arriving at them, are being now beingpresented to the City Council and the Cambridge community, in the form of the attached City Manager’sPublic Safety Task Force Report. As the Co-Chairs appointed to this task force, we shall now turn ourattention to working with the City Manager to commence a robust process of soliciting public feedback onthese recommendations, and ultimately the City Manager shall be charged with actualizing therecommendations in the coming months. We look forward to embarking upon the next phase of this process,and to gaining the community’s feedback on the attached report.We would also like to thank all of the Task Force members who volunteered virtually everyTuesday evening over the past several months, not to mention time outside of scheduled meetings, toaddress this crucial conversation.Sincerely,City Councilor E. Denise SimmonsCity Councilor Marc C. --------------------------------------------(617) 349-4280CITY HALL, CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 02139FAX: (617) 349-4287TTY/TDD: (617) 349-4242EMAIL: email@example.com
CAMBRIDGE CITY COUNCILREPORT FROM THE PUBLIC SAFETY TASK FORCEBACKGROUND AND OVERVIEWOn May 25, 2020, 46-year-old George Floyd, an African-American individual, was murderedduring the process of his being arrested (for allegedly using a counterfeit 20 bill) in Minneapolis, MN.This horrific, senseless act of racially-based police brutality ignited a firestorm across the country, asprotesters took to the streets in cities across America and demanded that the country begin to face up to itssystemic racism, and particularly to the tragic, far-too-numerous incidents of people of color being harassed,brutalized, and murdered by police officers.To be certain, cities like Minneapolis1, of Kenosha2, or Louisville3– each of which had a high profileincident of police-initiated, racially-based violence and/or murder that made it to national headlines in 2020– represent the most extreme examples of police departments that are anathema to the very concept of“public safety;” rather than serving as a department designed to keep the peace and protect people, thesepolice departments have demonstrably failed in their core mission of keeping all residents safe, and haveeven targeted some of the members of their community for harassment, violence, and murder.Not all police departments engage in the kinds of shameful, unconscionable actions that the abovecited police departments have done – yet the national condemnation that came about following the murdersof Mr. Floyd, Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, and far too many other people of color at the hands ofpolice officers has forced conversations in communities of all experiences. Even cities like Cambridge,where the Police Department is looked to as a national leader in proactive, progressive, community-basedpolicing, have seen a groundswell of support for re-examining the concept of how we keep the members ofour community safe, and what the best practices in public safety truly ought to be.In the weeks following Mr. Floyd’s murder, members of the community, of the City Council, andof organizations providing various social services throughout Cambridge began to consider that one way todecrease the footprint of the Cambridge Police Department in our community would be to re-examine howthe City responds to emergency calls from members of the public, in recognition of the fact that 911 callstend to be one of the predominant gateways between members of the public and the criminal justice system.The notion that perhaps redirecting certain categories of these 911 calls away from the CPD and insteadhaving a different systemic response – particularly by first responders who do not carry weapons – beganto gain currency.CURRENT WORK OF THE CAMBRIDGE POLICEBefore discussing reducing the footprint of the Cambridge Police Department in our community, itis important to have a greater understanding of what that footprint currently consists of. There is, of course,the work that falls under what we traditionally think of as “police work,” i.e., the investigation of majorcrimes4 such as thefts, burglaries, sexual assaults, murders, as well as engaging in regular patrols5 of variousneighborhoods as part of a community policing6 effort. Yet, in recent decades, the Cambridge Police havealso increasingly engaged in work that might be classified under “connecting individuals with
social services.” This work includes continual outreach to the local unhoused community7 and connectingunhoused individuals to the appropriate short-term and long-term support services, responding to 911 callsconcerning those experiencing mental health crises8, responding to 911 calls from those in the midst ofdomestic disturbances and/or domestic violence situations,9 and working with young people10 in danger ofgetting swept up in the criminal justice system, offering them a more positive path.In this work, the Cambridge Police have fostered important strategic alliances with a number ofcommunity partners, including the ROCA11 organization (for helping to divert young people from thecriminal justice system, and helping those exiting prison with their reentry into society), First Step12(assisting with homelessness), Transition House13 (for working with survivors of domestic violence), andthe BID outreach workers14 who work to connect people in Central Square with critical support services.As in other communities, the Cambridge Police have gradually assumed more and more15 of thiswork in connecting community members with social services and similar obligations over time16 as fundingfor federal, state, and private departments and programs17 has gradually disappeared or been redirected.ASSESSING CITY’S CURRENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE DATAIn an effort to better understand the types of emergency calls that typically come in to the City, andthe volume \ by neighborhood, the Department of Emergency Communications and 911 compiled asummary of all psych/pink slip18 incidents by neighborhood, and included the corresponding ReportingAreas (RA) for total incidents by year. In the initial review, the highest area of these types of calls for thepast 5 years are as follows:Five (5) year avg:Cambridgeport North Cambridge Mid Cambridge Riverside The Port 2020 North CambridgeCambridgeportEast CambridgeWellington/West Cambridge (tied)This summary also includes the map of reporting areas within the neighborhoods defined.“Neighborhoods” is the macro lens we use to capture call data and the Reporting Areas are the micro lenswithin the neighborhood. The Reporting Areas are the shortest segment within the neighborhood that weuse for response plans and to ensure anonymity [See Appendix A].4/13/21 RA/Neighborhood PSYCH/PINKSLIP BreakdownsThis document lists the breakdowns of PSYCH and PINKSLIP calls per reporting area (RA) perCambridge neighborhood.
The Department of Emergency Communications and 911 also prepared a map of all 911 callspertaining to mental health emergencies placed to the Cambridge 911 system in 2020, broken down byneighborhood. The darker the neighborhood on the map indicates a greater number of calls in that area.[See Appendix B]The above referenced information provides a general overview of the kinds of calls that have beencoming into the City’s 911 system in recent years, and this information provided a reasonable starting pointfor the City to begin deliberating on where, and how, we might be able to re-imagine a different kind ofemergency response, and how we might reduce the footprint of the Cambridge Police in our community.INITIATING CITY REVIEW OF PUBLIC SAFETY MODELIn response to the public’s strong desire for the municipal government to begin taking firm stepsreviewing how the City handles its public safety responsibilities, and to the demands that the City be willingto consider new models of public safety and emergency response, the City Council took up and passed thefollowing policy order on June 29, 2020:19WHEREAS:The Cambridge City Council recently declared racism as a Public Health crisis; andWHEREAS:The recent murders of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor and others have elevated theconversation around where traditional Public Safety and policing intersects withsocial services, and there has been a national call for alternative emergency responsesfor non-emergency related situations; andWHEREAS:Currently the definition of Public Safety only includes Police, Fire and EMTs, andsaid definition must be redefined to include Public Health and Human Services; and
WHEREAS:The Cambridge Police Department is the only response option when non-violent callsare received by Emergency Communications Department, calls that involve mentalhealth, housing and homelessness issues, grief and trauma response, suicideprevention assessment and intervention and others that could be better served by anunarmed Public Health and Human Services response; andWHEREAS:The Cambridge Police Department has made tremendous efforts in the last decade tointentionally reconceptualize public safety, which currently includes programsperformed by non-sworn employees such as; social workers who specialize in mentalhealth and addiction recovery, domestic violence advocates, an on-staff ChildPsychologist, and more, and this model would not be intended to replace thoseprogram, but to enhance and create a co-response alternative model that includes thePublic Health and Human Services departments; andWHEREAS:Unarmed alternative emergency response programs exist across the country that canserve as a model for Cambridge to develop a program that works for our community;andWHEREAS:Programs like CAHOOTS20 (Crisis Assisting Help on the Streets), in Oregon work intandem with Emergency Communications to triage whether traditional Public Safetyis dispatched, or an unarmed team that is better prepared to perform Health andHuman Service functions; andWHEREAS:The CAHOOTS model consists of a medic (either a nurse or an EMT), and a crisisworker (who has at least several years experience in the mental health field).CAHOOTS provides immediate stabilization in case of urgent medical need orpsychological crisis, assessment, information, referral, advocacy, and (in some cases)transportation to the next step in treatment; andWHEREAS:CAHOOTS offers a broad range of services, including but not limited to:·Crisis Counseling·Suicide Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention·Conflict Resolution and Mediation·Grief and loss·Substance Abuse·Housing Crisis·First Aid and Non-Emergency Medical Care·Resource Connection and Referrals·Transportation to Services; andWHEREAS:The City of Cambridge should consider and evaluate an effective, unarmed, PublicHealth and Human service response mechanism, like in Oregon, Miami, Dallas,Nashville and others to redefine what Public Safety looks like, and develop analternative public health response with the ultimate goal of decreasing arrests,increasing connections to critical housing, addiction and other services, and ensuringthat Public Safety feels safe for all residents; therefore now be itORDERED:That the City Manager confer with the Cambridge Police Department, EmergencyCommunications Department, Department of Public Health, Department of HumanServices and other relevant departments to determine the feasibility of an alternativePublic Safety Crisis Response System, which department would be responsible for it,and how it would be funded and implemented in FY2022, and report back to theCouncil by September 14th; and be it further
ORDERED:That the City Manager discuss any such alternative with community members.Following the passage of this policy order, the City Manager set to work in establishing a TaskForce that would be comprised of Cambridge residents from various backgrounds and experiences whowould be asked to develop recommendations on the feasibility of establishing an alternative Public SafetyCrisis Response System, including which department would be responsible for it, and how it would befunded and implemented in FY2022. The members of this Task Force, which was Co-Chaired by CouncilorMarc C. McGovern and Councilor E. Denise Simmons, were:Rae Simpson, PhDImam Dr. Khalil Abdur-RashidRev. Jaron S. GreenPastor Ellis WashingtonRev. Irene MonroeChristopher SchmidtLoren CroweSamuel M. GebruCatherine PembertonTina-Marie Johnson (TMJ)Chandra Banks, Ed.M.Christina GiacobbeQueen-Cheyenne WadeLeo GayneTyrone BellittiCambridge Resident and Mental Health AdvocateMuslim Chaplain at Harvard UniversitySenior Pastor Union Baptist ChurchSt. Paul AME ChurchCambridge Resident, Public Speaker, BroadcasterCambridge ResidentCambridge resident and Management ConsultantDirector of Policy and Public Affairs, Black Economic Councilof MassachusettsCambridge resident and Heath Care and Wellnessconsultant and system navigation specialistCambridge Youth Council FacilitatorConflict Mediator, Cambridge Public SchoolsDistrictDirector of Emergency Communications and 911Black Response and Community For Us, By UsPublic Relations Officer, East Cambridge SavingsBankMy Brother’s Keeper Cambridge Task ForceBeginning on February 2, 2021, this Task Force convened for the first time to discuss their charge (asprovided by the City Manager):To Examine ways to limit the Police Response to calls for service without diminishing Public Safety orCommunity Safety, while increasing Community Cohesion to include restorative processes.The Task Force would go on to meet on a near-weekly basis, hearing from the following people andorganizations:CHRISTINA GIACOBBE (Cambridge 911): spoke to 911 data and how the Cambridge PoliceDepartment responds to mental health emergencies. Christiana spoke to call volume, EmergencyTelecommunications Dispatchers (ETD), Role of ETD, Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD), EmergencyMedical Dispatch (EMD), EMD – Chief Complaint (Psych/Suicide).Christina Giacobbe’s presentation can be viewed fHd yKTp076X2Iclgmm03tS0sI8kLrhDR. JAMES BARRETT spoke to the history of CPD prior to the Youth and Family Service Unit in 2008,the organizational structure of the Family and Social Justice Section, the Sequential Intercept Model, theFSJS Case Management Process, Cambridge’s Response to Mental Health, Juvenile Diversion Programand its outcomes.
Dr. James Barrett’s presentation can be viewed fHd yKTp076X2Iclgmm03tS0sI8kLrhQUEEN-CHEYENNE WADE and DARA BAYER of The Black Response spoke to their mission as “agroup of Black and Brown Cambridge residents and former residents who are concerned about the inputand progression of the #DefundthePolice campaign, especially in regards to engagement with the Blackcommunities in Cambridge.”Queen-Cheyenne Wade and Dara Bayer’s presentation can be viewed VOKF93hJC7P1Y1udA/view?utm campaign designshare&utm source sharebuttonELLEN SEMONOFF, Assistant City Manager of the Department of Human Service Programs, providedan overview of the social service programs overseen by the City.DEPUTY SUPERINTENDENT ROBERT LOWE and OFFICER ERIC HELBERG spoke about thesocial services -- such as outreach to the local unhoused community and connecting these individuals withthe appropriate services, working with those experiencing mental health crises, and working with domesticviolence survivors -- that is conducted by the Cambridge Police Department.Deputy Superintendent Lowe and Officer Helberg’s presentation can be viewed hWS-ZNmb AkrFdKuoylV/view?usp sharingRAHSAAN D. HALL, Esq of the American Civil Liberties Union of Massachusetts, spoke with the taskforce to provide his sense of how this work might evolve from the standpoint of the ACLU.DR. ROBERT SAMPSON, Harvard University, presented to the task force in regards to Social Efficacyand Community Cohesion21.RACHEL BROMBERG and ASANTE HAUGHTON, Co-Founders of the Reach Out ResponseNetwork22, Toronto (and coordinators of the International Mobile Crisis Services Association, a network ofindividuals from alternative mobile crisis initiatives across the US and Canada) also presented to the taskforce.LIZ SPEAKMAN, Coordinator of the Domestic and Gender Based Violence Prevention Initiative23,presented to the task force.CAMBRIDGE POLICE SUPERINTENDENT CHRISTINE ELOW spoke to the task force ondomestic violence laws and department initiatives.TASHA FERGUSON, Director of Emergency Services Programs at Boston Medical Center, presented tothe task force on the Boston Emergency Services Team24KATIA SANTIAGO-TAYLOR, Advocacy and Legislative Affairs Manager at the Boston Area RapeCrisis Center (BARCC)25; spoke to the task force, as did VALERIE DRUCKENMILLER, LCSWCommunity Advocate at Transition House26, and CHARYTI REITER, Executive Director of On the Rise,Inc27.These initial meetings were presented in order to become more familiar with the City’s existingpolice department and current emergency response model, and to learn about alternative response systemsand approaches that other communities have utilized. The summaries of these meetings can be found on theCity’s website here.28 After absorbing this information, the members of the Task Force split off into
sub-groups of two or three to commence formulating recommendations around each of the following areas:Mental Health, Domestic Violence, Restorative Justice, Homelessness, Other Community Safety Options,and Community Outreach. The subgroups met over a period of weeks and then reconvened to present theirthoughts and ideas to the larger group on May 4, 2021. Please see Appendix C for the recommendationsfrom the sub-groups as presented at that meeting.TASK FORCE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NEXT STEPS IN THISPROCESSThe Task Force Co-Chairs have taken the ideas, recommendations, and concepts provided by eachof the subgroups and have distilled them into the recommendations outlined below, which represent theTask Force’s response to the charge it was provided with by the City Manager upon its formation. It shouldbe noted that, as public input is solicited and received, these recommendations may evolve.PRIMARY TASK FORCE RECOMMENDATIONS:1. The City of Cambridge should create a new Department, called the Cambridge Department ofCommunity Safety (CDCS), which has primary responsibility over city services and all 911 callsrelated to the following categories: Mental health emergencies, including some suicide-related calls and wellness checksUnhoused residentsNon-emergency medical servicesSubstance abuse incidentsPublic nuisance complaintsCrisis counselingGrief and loss counselingResource connections and community referralsEmergency transportation services to community resources2. The new Cambridge Department of Community Safety should be a City Department organizedoutside of, and entirely independent from, the Cambridge Police Department and any otheremergency services department, though we recognize, that like the CAHOOTS model, there maybe instances when a police response is required. At such a time, we recommend that members ofthe CDCS should remain on scene, if safety allows, to provide additional support.3. The Cambridge Department of Community Safety should consist of a Director, as well as enoughstaff to allow for a Peer/Professional model of response, and of support staff. The “response staff”will be large enough to allow for no less than 2 staff to respond to any calls that fall into the abovecategories on a 24/7 basis. “Peer” will be defined as a non-professional, non-licensed, communitymember. “Professional” will be defined as a licensed social worker or licensed mental healthprofessional.4. The Cambridge Department of Community Safety should be fully integrated into the city’s 911system, and should have at least one staff member, trained in mental health/social work, serving asa CDCS liaison staffed within the City’s 911 Emergency Response Unit on a 24/7 basis to handleand triage calls and to help determine if the call is appropriate for the CDCS or another emergencyresponse. The DCS liaison should be fully informed of what services the CDCS can provide.5. In addition to being reachable via 911, the Cambridge Department of Community Safety shouldhave its own three-digit number other than 911. We recognize that many people, at least for theforeseeable future, will call 911 as that is the number they are most familiar with, which is onereason why we recommend a CDCS liaison be placed within the 911 unit.
6. CDCS responders should be equipped to contact CPD or other city emergency services for safetyon calls using existing emergency service communications networks.7. The new CDCS should be a uniformed service, but those uniforms should be impossible to confusewith police uniforms. CDCS responders will be unarmed.8. CDCS responders will require significant training in de-escalation strategies and should not berequired to engage if they feel the situation is a danger to themselves or others. CDCS respondersshould be equipped with radios to allow them to call for CPD support if needed.9. The Department of Community Safety should have an auxiliary response capability, as opposed toa primary response capability, to assist other emergency responders with incidents of domesticviolence or other similar incidents of interpersonal violence or disturbances. The CDCS shouldhave trauma-informed staff or community partners who can be dispatched 24/7 to a domesticviolence incident with the police, and to assist survivors of a domestic violence incident after thescene is clear, as the individual situation warrants. These CDCS staff or community partners shouldbe able to provide assistance directly and also be able to connect survivors and others at risk withexisting community resources.OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS:1. The City should allocate sufficient funds to engage in a comprehensive community process thatreaches out to all members of the community, with an emphasis on those who have been mostnegatively impacted by structural and institutional racism, to solicit feedback and refinementfrom the public on these initial recommendations of this task force. We recognize that there arecommunity conversations already taking place on this issue and any community process shouldreach out to and take into account the work being done by these organizations for consideration.2. The City should allocate sufficient funds to hire a facilitator or facilitators with experience in thisarea to organize and lead the aforementioned broad community process.3. After soliciting and incorporating comprehensive public feedback on these recommendations, theCity should consider funding a pilot program (or programs) to begin the process of creating analternative response to specified public safety calls that could grow into the Department ofCommunity Safety if successful.4. The City and the Department of Community Safety should consider enhancing partnerships withorganizations already addressing these issues in the community, potentially through increasedfunding to these organizations. For example, the City should fund a new position at TransitionHouse - The Director of Equity and Justice. The position will work strategically to advance ourmission to end domestic violence and strengthen our work through an anti-racist lens. This role isfocused on internally examining and transforming our work to best meet the needs of survivorsfrom all walks of life and externally on fostering community relationships to learn, apply, and sharetransformative practices.5. The City should establish a citywide respite center for unhoused individuals that can provide asafe space as well as services, including (but not limited to): counseling, showers, meals, haircuts,clothes, laundry, etc.6. While the new CDCS should have primary jurisdiction over calls and services that have longdefaulted to CPD, the City should continue to invest in CPD training and resources that have helpedthe department better work with the city’s vulnerable populations over the years. CPD shouldmaintain its co-response model, innovative training modalities, and Family and Social
Justice Section. There will always be a need for increased social justice training and diversionopportunities within CPD.7. The City should further explore and invest in restorative justice practices, including the possibilityof creating an Office of Restorative Justice, possibly within the Department of Community Safety.8. A new position, the Manager of Community Engagement, should be established within the CityManager’s Office, to ensure a more uniform level and model of community outreach andengagement exists throughout all City departments.ADDITIONAL AREAS TO CONSIDER:1. Because of its proven track record of success, the City should look to the CAHOOTS program as amodel for the scope and breadth of services the Cambridge Department of Community Safety mighteventually provide, as well as for lessons learned and best practices. At the same time, the Cityshould recognize that the CAHOOTS program as it exists today evolved over decades in responseto specific needs and aspirations in its local community, which may not be the same as those thatexist in Cambridge today. Gathering comprehensive community input to shape, refine, and editthese recommendations now and over time is crucial to the long term impact, success, and viabilityof the CDCS, both as the department is being formed and as part of its operations into the future.The program of the CDCS must be the program set by the community.2. Mandated Reporting: We understand that like all systems, mandated reporting and mental healthservices have deep roots in racism and white supremacy culture. We also understand that at timesmandating reporting is necessary when one or more people are at risk to themselves or others. Howmandating reporting fits in to the Department of Community Safety needs further review, keepingin mind state law and liability issues.3. The City should conduct a full needs assessment of programs and non-profit agencies working withdomestic violence, homelessness, and mental health, in the City of Cambridge to create acomprehensive mapping of what services are available outside of the City and how those servicescan better work together to create a stronger safety net for those who need support.4. Following the full implementation of these recommendations and the transfer of primaryresponsibility for the above listed categories of 911 calls, the City should continue to look at waysto transfer responsibility for emergency calls for non-violent incidents away from the CambridgePolice Department to the Department of Community Safety or to other city departments.UNFINISHED BUSINESS AND AREAS OF DISAGREEMENTAs the recommendations of this committee are taken to the members of the public for considerationand feedback, and as the City Manager seeks ways to actualize the final recommendations that areultimately brought forward to him, it is critical that these recommendations be viewed through the languageof the policy order that initiated this process:29 “The City of Cambridge should consider and evaluate aneffective, unarmed, Public Health and Human service response mechanism, like in Oregon, Miami, Dallas,Nashville and others to redefine what Public Safety looks like, and develop an alternative public healthresponse with the ultimate goal of decreasing arrests, increasing connections to critical housing, addictionand other services, and ensuring that Public Safety feels safe for all residents.” It is equally critical thatpeople be mindful that this same policy order directs that “.the City Manager [should] confer with theCambridge Police Department, Emergency Communications Department,
Department of Public Health, Department of Human Services and other relevant departments to determinethe feasibility of an alternative Public Safety Crisis Response System, which department would beresponsible for it, and how it would be funded and implemented.” While the members of this task forceengaged in thoughtful discussions and deliberations in coming up with recommendations, there are someinstances where these recommendations are being offered more as general guideposts and governingprinciples that, it is hoped and expected, the City Manager and other appropriate City personnel will fleshout and incorporate into a viable final product.It is also important to note that not every decision and recommendation contained in this reportrepresents a 100 percent consensus among the task force members. Indeed, the biggest area of disagreementamong some of the members was the very structure of this task force and of this process. Some task forcemembers su
CAMBRIDGE CITY COUNCIL May 20, 2021 Mr. Anthony Wilson Clerk of Cambridge Cambridge City Hall Dear Mr. Clerk: Please include this correspondence on the agenda as part of Communications and Reports from Other City Officers for the City Council meeting scheduled for May 24, 2021. On June 29, 2020, the City Council passed a policy order stating that "the City of Cambridge should
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