Windows 2000/XP History, And Data Management - University Of Kentucky

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Unit 5 Windows 2000/XP History, and Data Management Copyright 2002 Heathkit Company, Inc. All rights reserved.

Microsoft Windows98 WindowsMe Microsoft Windows 2000 Microsoft Professional Microsoft XP Windows 2

Windows 2000/XP or Windows 9x (95/98/Me)? Windows 9x Windows 2000/XP Runs on today’s Runs on “nearly any hardware, doesn’t run old hardware” well or at all on marginal hardware Secure, more difficult to Open, easy to configure configure Supports lots of Device support somewhat devices limited, so far 3

Windows XP or Windows 9x? If you need: Choose: Reliable, solid security Windows 2000/XP “Crash-proof” system Windows 2000/XP Support for older/slower machines Windows 9x Easy setup and configuration Windows 9x Support for that older scanner, CD Writer, NIC, Video, etc. Windows 9x 4

The Windows Universe 1990 Business Consumer Windows 3.1 Windows NT 3.51 Windows for Workgroups Windows NT 4 Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows 2000 Today Windows Me Windows XP Pro/Home 5

The Windows Universe 1990 Business Consumer Windows 3.1 Windows NT 3.51 Windows for Workgroups Windows NT 4 Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows 2000 Today Windows Me Windows XP Pro/Home 6

The The Windows Business Consumer Windows Universe Universe 1990 Windows 3.1 Windows NT 3.51 Windows for Workgroups Windows NT 4 Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows 2000 Today Windows Me Windows XP Pro/Home 7

Windows XP Flavors Windows XP Professional Windows XP Home Windows 2003 Server Windows 2003 Enterprise Server Windows 2003 Datacenter Server 8

Windows Package Types Upgrade Full Version “OEM” 9

Upgrade Version Converts older Windows to Windows XP You must have the old version (disks) Replaces old version Less expensive than Full version 10

Full Version No requirements No strings Complete documentation Full Microsoft support 11

OEM Version Available only with a new computer Cannot be purchased without a computer No tech support from Microsoft 12

Which version do you need? If you are using: You need DOS/Windows 3.x Windows 9x, Windows NT 4, or Windows Me Full Version Upgrade Version A brand-new computer with Windows XP pre-loaded You have the OEM version 13

Windows 2000/XP is: Powerful and secure desktop operating systems. Optimized for use in business networks and high-stability applications. 14

Windows 2000/XP Key Features Performance Profiles Security Stability Administration 15

Performance Multiple processor support Multithreaded multitasking Memory space 16

User Profiles Allows the computer to have multiple “personalities.” Allows your system user interface to travel with you to different workstations on the LAN. (roaming profiles) 17

Security Windows 9x: no security Windows 2000/XP: strong security 18

Stability Applications cannot affect each other Applications cannot crash the hardware Applications cannot crash the operating system 19

Administration Many systems controlled from a central location. Load applications or drivers on multiple machines. 20

Windows 2000/XP Professional versus Windows 9x 21

Windows 2000/XP Advantages Performance Profiles Security Stability Administration 22

Windows 2000/XP Disadvantages Price Requires special drivers Will not run all Windows software Requires robust hardware 23

Windows 2000/XP Architecture 24

MS-DOS Architecture Application Operating System BIOS Hardware 25

MS-DOS with Windows Application Application Application Windows 3 DOS BIOS Hardware 26

Windows 9x Application Application Application Windows 9x BIOS Hardware 27

Windows 2000/XP Application Application Application Windows 2000 BIOS Hardware 28

Windows 2000/XP Application Application User Mode Kernel Mode Integral Subsystems (security, etc.) Environmental Subsystems (Win32, etc.) Windows XP Executive Kernel Hardware Abstraction Layer Hardware 29

Windows XP Application Application User Mode Integral (Unprivileged) Subsystems (security, etc.) Environmental Subsystems (Win32, etc.) Windows 2000 Executive Kernel Mode Hardware Abstraction Layer (Privileged) Kernel Hardware 30

Windows XP Environmental Subsystems (Win32, etc.) User Mode Kernel Mode Application Windows 2000 Executive Kernel Hardware Abstraction Layer Hardware I/O Manager Device Drivers, Net Drivers 31

Are you ready to install Windows?

First, you have to ask yourself one question: Do I have everything I need?

Hardware Requirements Minimum CPU Microsoft Recommends Pentium 233 Pentium II-300 Memory 64 MB HDD 1.5 GB 128 MB For real work Pentium 4 512 MB, min. 5 GB 34

Hardware Compatibility List A list of Win XP and approved hardware www.microsoft.com/hcl/ [win2k cd]:\support\hcl.txt 35

Hardware Rules: Use good-quality hardware Windows won’t run if the hardware has a problem Check for firmware updates 36

Prepare the Software Backup your system Is your software Windows XP compatible? 37

Plan the Installation Upgrade or clean install Hard drive partitions Security configuration Network configuration 38

Upgrade or Clean Install Upgrade wipes out the old OS, but transfers all the old settings Clean install is for an empty hard drive Clean install can also create a dualboot system 39

FAT or NTFS? FAT/FAT 32 NTFS No Security Complete Security DOS, Win 9x/ME, NT and 2000 Susceptible to Virus Win 2000 and XP No automatic backups Integral boot sector backups Resistant to Virus 40

File Allocation Table (FAT) MS-DOS’s road map to the disk drive. How MS-DOS keeps track of which clusters belong to which files. How MS-DOS keeps track of bad sectors. Two copies maintained and kept up to date by MS-DOS. 41

The File Allocation Table contains a 16-bit entry for every cluster on the disk. For this reason, the system is called FAT16. 42

However, 16-bits can represent only 65,536 clusters. 43

Because of this limitation, cluster size increases as disk size increases. 44

Disk Size vs. Cluster Size 16 - 127 MB 2 KB 128 - 255 MB 4 KB 256 - 511 MB 8 KB 512 - 1023 MB 16 KB 1 - 2 GB 32 KB 45

No matter how small the file, FAT allocates the entire cluster. 46

A short text file might require only 1000 bytes. On a 2 GB drive, cluster size is 32,768 bytes. In this example, 31,768 bytes are wasted. 47

The wasted bytes are called “cluster overhang.” Cluster overhang causes a lot of wasted space. The larger the hard drive, the greater the wasted space. 48

Windows 98 has a way of overcoming this problem. Win 98 uses a system called Virtual File Allocation Table or VFAT. 49

In order to maintain backwards compatibility with earlier files, Win 98 accommodates FAT16 files. 50

At the same time, Windows 98 has updated the FAT system to a new FAT32 system. 51

Advantages of FAT32 Smaller cluster sizes Support for larger hard disks Improved reliability Flexible partitioning 52

FAT32 Disk Size vs. Cluster Size 16 MB - 8 GB 4 KB 8 - 16 GB 8 KB 16 - 32 GB 16 KB Over 32 GB 32 KB 53

Windows 98 comes with a utility called Drive Converter (FAT32) that converts FAT16 partitions into FAT32 Partitions. 54

Long File Names “win2kstf.doc” can become “Windows 2000 info about the new file system written on Thursday.doc” 55

Truncated File Names Long File Names 56

FAT/FAT32 NTFS Converting from FAT/FAT32 to NTFS is fast and easy. 57

NTFS FAT/FAT32 Converting from NTFS to FAT/32 is impossible. 58

Security? What level of security do you need? No security allows a simple system Total security is hard to use Strike a balance? 59

Network Plan Workgroup or Domain? IP addresses, domain and workgroup names Dial-up settings 60

Make that Backup! Can you afford to recreate everything that may be lost? Backup data Backup downloaded files Backup configuration info 61

Before you install Windows XP Professional Eliminate all hardware problems. Acquire Win XP drivers for all devices. 62

Plan the Network Server type Network settings Licenses HDD partition strategy Determine groups, shares, permissions 63

Which Operating System is Right for You? Copyright 2002 Heathkit Company, Inc. All rights reserved.

Upgrade or Clean Install, Revisited You cannot upgrade from: – DOS – Windows 3.x – Windows Me (to Win 2000) – Windows 95 (to Win XP) 65

Upgrading to 2000/XP Fast and simple Existing applications, preferences, and settings are maintained but so are many of the problems. 66

Upgrading cannot repair bad configuration settings or hardware problems.

“ employ everything in your power not to upgrade an existing installation.” Source: Windows Magazine, The Essential Guide to Installing Windows 2000

“Unless you have to, don’t do this. [Upgrading] can cause any problems to migrate to the new system.” Source: Windows 2000 Unleashed, Sams Publishing

Only upgrade if: You are using several applications that cannot be easily reinstalled You have too many users to reconfigure and reinstall every application on all machines. 70

Clean Install Benefits A fresh start – No old settings or registry entries to foul things up – New drivers – Optimized installation (no compromises) 71

If you can’t decide Dual-boot! Choose which OS runs, each time you restart. Use dual-boot to evaluate Windows 2000 Pro or XP Eliminating one of the systems later is fast and easy! 72

How does Dual-Boot Work? Hardware reset, then POST is run. BIOS looks for a bootable drive and the MBR. MBR redirects to NTLDR NTLDR reads BOOT.INI Boot Menu is displayed Chosen OS is loaded 73

System Restart Microsoft Normal Boot NT Loader Windows98 BOOT.INI Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional 74

Dual-Boot Advantages You get Windows 2000/XP! You still have the old OS! Run all the new tools and still have the old hardware and software available. 75

Dual-Boot Disadvantages Requires lots of HDD space Win 98 1.5 GB Win 2k 2.0 GB Apps Data 1.5 GB ? GB 76

Dual-Boot Disadvantages Most applications need installed again Security could be compromised Win 98 1.5 GB App1 200 MBApp2 App3 200 MB 100 MB Win 2k 2.0 GB App1 200 MBApp2 App3 200 MB 100 MB 77

When you upgrade, the original OS is gone. When you dual-boot, both operating systems are available. Dual-boot requires a clean install. 78

Hard Disk Recovery Copyright 2002 Heathkit Company, Inc. All rights reserved.

Windows Problems What is the symptom? Can you identify the cause? Eliminate hardware problems. Can you repair the problem? 80

Hard Drive Troubleshooting: Is it hardware or software? 81

Hardware Problems Cables Power and Connectors Motherboard BIOS Hard Drives 82

Software, or File Structure Problems Master boot records (MBRs) Boot Files BOOT.INI Viruses and other Malware Configuration errors 83

Repairing Windows Safe Mode Boot to DOS/Command Prompt Startup Disks System Backups 84

Safe Mode Minimal drivers Default Registry No CD-ROM and minimal VGA drivers 85

Press F8 Now! 86

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Command Prompt Windows 9x: boot to DOS Windows Me: ERD Windows 2000: Recovery Console 96

Recovery Disks Bootable DOS disks The Startup Disk Boot from the Windows CD 97

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The Recovery Console It’s a Windows 2000 command prompt It’s very limited 109

The Windows The Windows Universe Universe Windows 3.1 Windows for Workgroups Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows 2000 1990 Today Business Consumer Windows Me Windows NT 3.51 Windows NT 4 Windows XP Pro/Home. 8 Windows XP Flavors Windows XP Professional Windows XP Home Windows 2003 Server

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