Reading Biblical Hebrew

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Reading Biblical Hebrew Chapter 40 The Hebrew Bible Accents, Pausal Forms, Hebrew Bibles, Masoretic Notes, & How to Prepare a Passage for Class John C. Beckman 2017.04.03

Roadmap Sof Pasuq Accents Pausal Forms Hebrew Bibles Masoretic Notes How to Prepare a Passage 2

3 Sof Pasuq

Sof Pasuq ( ׃ )סֹוף פָּ סּוק Groups Words into Verses Sof Pasuq ( )סֹוף פָּ סּוק Looks like a large colon ׃ The dots are diamond-shaped in many fonts Occurs immediately after the last word of every verse in the Bible Groups all preceding words (since the last )׃ into a verse Make sense out of the preceding words as a group before moving on. Not part of the original text Missing in all Dead Sea scrolls, etc. Present in vocalized Hebrew manuscripts 4

5 Groups Words into Verses ׃ )סֹוף פָּ סּוק( Sof Pasuq ֱֹלהים ֵאֵ֥ת הַ שָּ ַמִׁ֖יִ ם וְּ ֵאֵ֥ת הָּ ָּ ָֽא ֶרץ׃ 2 וְּ הָּ ָָּ֗א ֶרץ אשית בָּ ָּרָ֣א א ִ ִ֑ ְּ 1 ב ֵר ִ ִׁ֖ ֱֹלהים ּוח א ִֹ֔ ל־פנֵ ָ֣י ְּתהִ֑ ֹום וְּ ָ֣ר ַ ְּ תה ֹ֙תהּו ּ֙ ו ָֹּ֔בהּו וְּ ִׁ֖חשֶ ְך עַ הָּ יְּ ָּ ֵ֥ ֱֹלהים יְּ ִהָ֣י אִ֑ ֹור ל־פנֵ ֵ֥י הַ ָּ ָֽמיִ ם׃ 3 וַיֵ֥אמֶ ר א ִ ִׁ֖ ְּ ְּמ ַר ֶחִׁ֖פֶ ת עַ ֱֹלהים אֶ ת־הָּ אִׁ֖ ֹור ִכי־טִ֑ ֹוב ַוי ְַּב ֵדָ֣ל י־אֹור׃ 4 וַיַ ְַּּ֧רא א ִ ִ֛ וַ ָֽ ַֽיְּ ִה ָֽ ֱֹלהים׀ לָּ אֹור ּ֙ יֹֹ֔ום ּובֵ֥ין הַ ָֽחשֶ ְך׃ 5 וַיִ ְּק ָּר ּ֙א א ִ ִ֤ ֱֹלהים ֵבֵ֥ין הָּ אִׁ֖ ֹור ֵ א ִֹ֔ חד׃ פ י־בקֶ ר יֵֹ֥ום אֶ ָּ ָֽ י־ע ֵֶ֥רב וַ ָֽ ַֽיְּ ִה ִׁ֖ וְּ לַ ִׁ֖חשֶ ְך ָּ ָ֣ק ָּרא ָּל ִ֑יְּ לָּ ה וַ ָֽ ַֽיְּ ִה ֶ

6 Accents

Placement of Hebrew Accents Almost every word has an accent A word followed by maqqaf lacks an accent E.g., no accent on ִכי in ִכי־טִ֑ ֹוב Usually with first consonant of accented syllable Over וְּ הָּ ָָּ֗א ֶרץ Under תה ֵ֥ ָּ ְּ הָּ י Some accents at the beginning ( ָ֠)הָּ אָּ ֶרץ or the end ( אֹור ֹ֙ ָּ )ל of a word Accented syllable Usually the last syllable of a word Sometimes the penult אשית ִׁ֖ ִ ְּב ֵר וְּ ִׁ֖חשֶ ְך 7

Secondary Accents Almost every word has an accent Words with 3 or more syllables might have additional accents The additional accents are called secondary accents The additional accents help with pronunciation and sometimes parsing They do NOT indicate the pitch or the relationships between words ‘Accents’ in this lecture does not include secondary accents Meteg ) ָֽ ( ֶ ָֽמתֶ ג is the most common secondary accent 8

Functions of Accents Accents indicate pitch for chanting the text in unison Called ‘cantillation marks’ Each accent indicates a series of pitches for the word Multiple musical systems exist Most accents tell us the accented syllable Pronunciation Sometimes helps with parsing Accents indicate relationships between words Tell us which words belong together Group words into phrases and clauses Indicate poetic lines 9 ָָּ֫קמָּ ה vs. קָּ ָ֫ ָּמה

Two Systems of Accents in the Hebrew Bible ‘Poetic system’ of 19 accents Psalms, Proverbs, and Job 3:3–42:6 Main system of 26 accents The rest of the Bible This lecture will discuss the main system The two systems are very similar Both have a set of disjunctive accents that operate in a hierarchy Both have a set of conjunctive accents without hierarchy Most of accents exist in both systems with the same meaning A few accents are in one system but not the other 10

Accent Hierarchy 0: Sof Pasuq ׃ סֹוף פָּ סּוק 11 0. Sof Pasuq סֹוף פָּ סּוק׃ groups words into verses ֱֹלהים אֶ ת־הָּ אִׁ֖ ֹור ִ֛ ִ וַיַ ְַּּ֧רא א 4 י־אֹור׃ ָֽ ֱֹלהים יְּ ִהָ֣י אִ֑ ֹור וַ ָֽ ַֽיְּ ִה ִׁ֖ ִ וַיֵ֥אמֶ ר א 3 ּובֵ֥ין הַ ָֽחשֶ ְך׃ ֵ ֱֹלהים ֵבֵ֥ין הָּ אִׁ֖ ֹור ִֹ֔ ִכי־טִ֑ ֹוב ַוי ְַּב ֵדָ֣ל א Sof pasuq comes after the last word of each verse Sof pasuq is not an accent Sof pasuq groups words as if it were the top-level accent Disjunctive accents create a hierarchy of subgroups within the verse Group extends from the accented word to the right

Accent Hierarchy 1: Silluq ִס ָֽלּוק and Atnaḥ אַ ְּתנָּ ִ֑ח Disjunctive accents group words up to the preceding same-level accent 1. Silluq ִס ָֽלּוק and atnaḥ אַ ְּתנָּ ִ֑ח form two subgroups within each verse ֱֹלהִ֑ים ֵאֵ֥ת הַ שָּ ַמִׁ֖יִ ם וְּ ֵ ֵ֥את הָּ ָּ ָֽא ֶרץ׃ ִ אשית בָּ ָּרָ֣א א ִׁ֖ ִ ְּב ֵר Silluq ִס ָֽלּוק looks like meteg Occurs on the last word of every verse Atnaḥ אַ ְּתנָּ ִ֑ח looks like an upside-down ‘v’ Some verses lack atnaḥ If there is no atnaḥ, then silluq groups the entire verse 12

Accent Hierarchy 2: Tifḥa ט ְּפ ָּחִׁ֖א , ִ Zaqef Qaton זָּקֵ ף קָּ ֹ֔טֹון , etc. 13 2. Tifḥa ט ְּפ ָּחִׁ֖א , ִ segolta גֹולתָּ א ְּ ס , ְּ zaqef qaton זָּקֵ ף קָּ ֹ֔טֹון , and zaqef gadol זָּקֵ ף ג ָּ֕דֹול subdivide the silluq and atnaḥ regions לא י ָּ ָָּֽד ְּע ִתי׃ ֵ֥ יקץ ַיעֲקב֘ ִמ ְּשנָּתֹו ו ַ֕יאמֶ ר אָּ כֵ ן ּ֙ יֵ ָ֣ש יְּ ה ָּוֹ֔ה בַ מָּ קִׁ֖ ֹום הַ זֶ ִ֑ה וְּ אָּ נ ִ ִׁ֖כי ָ֣ ַ ִ וַי Below this level of the hierarchy, there are two more levels of embedded regions. In every level of the hierarchy, there may be words with conjunctive accents that do not start a new embedded region E.g., the merka accent on לא ֵ֥ and the munaḥ accent on יֵ ָ֣ש and יקץ ָ֣ ַ ִ וַי

14 Pausal Forms

Major Accents May Change Spelling of Their Word 15 A word with a major disjunctive accent may change spelling (pausal form) Silluq ִס ָֽלּוק Atnaḥ אַ ְּתנָּ ִ֑ח Zaqef qaton זָּקֵ ף קָּ ֹ֔טֹון Pausal forms are rare or non-existent with other accents Pausal form Accent may shift Vowel may change (with or without an accent shift) Often becomes qamats This even happens with shva תה ֵ֥ ָּ ַ א ַֹ֔אתָּ ה תה ֵ֥ ָּ ַ א ָּאִ֑תָּ ה דה ִׁ֖ ָּ אָּ ְּב אָּ ָּב ִָּ֑דה

On 4 Words, 2ms Pronominal Suffix in Pause Looks Like 2fs ָ֣ ְּלך ָּל ְִ֑ך to you (ms or fs) ְּבך ָּבְִ֑ך in you (ms or fs) ִא ְּתך ִא ָּתְִ֑ך with you (ms or fs) ֵ֥ א ְּתך א ֹ֔ ָּתְך you (ms or fs) If a ‘2fs’ pronominal suffix occurs on those 4 words ( ב , ל , את , )את with a major accent, consider the possibility that it is 2ms. 16

17 Hebrew Bibles

The Leningrad Codex vs. The Aleppo Codex Leningrad Codex Dated 1008. The oldest complete copy of the Hebrew Bible Reprinted with critical notes as BHS and BHQ (see next slide) Used in most Bible software as ‘the Hebrew Bible’ Aleppo Codex 10th century (so older than Leningrad Codex) Most authoritative extant manuscript of the Hebrew Bible About ¼ of it was lost in anti-Jewish riot of 1948 Almost all of Pentateuch is lost Basis for the in-progress Hebrew University Bible (where extant) 18

BHS and BHQ BHS Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia The old standard edition of the Hebrew Bible used by pastors and scholars. The text of the Leningrad codex is reproduced as is Some very selective, difficult-to-use text-critical notes at the bottom. BHQ Biblia Hebraica Quinta To replace BHS when completed (2020 at the soonest) The text of the Leningrad codex is reproduced as is More thorough and readable text critical notes Explanations of the masoretic notes 19

Book Order for BHS Tanakh תַ ַנ”ְך תֹורה ָּ Torah Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy נְּ ִבי ִאים Prophets Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, the 12 The 12 Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nathum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi . תּובים ִ ְּכ Writings Psalms, Job, Proverbs Ruth, Song of Songs, Qohelet, Lamentations, Esther Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, Chronicles . 20

21 Masoretic Notes

Three Kinds of Masoretic Notes 22 Masora Parva Small Masora Short notes in the outside margin of the page Masora Magna Large Masora Usually a list of the other occurrences of a word. BHS: Arabic numbers in the margin point to other numbers at the bottom of the page, which are the index to the full note in a separate book. BHQ: Full note given in unpointed Aramaic. Commentary explains the notes. Masoretic notes at the end of each book Usually states the number of verses in the book. Sometimes gives additional information of that sort.

Reading the Small Masora Circle over a word Note on that word E.g., ַ ָֽבמַ חֲֲ֯ זֶ ִׁ֖ה in Genesis 15:1 Circle between words Note on the phrase E.g., אַ ַחָ֣ר ׀ֲ֯ הַ ְּדבָּ ִ ָ֣רים ֲ֯ הָּ ֵָ֗אלֶ ה in Genesis 15:1 Go to the outside margin to find the note Notes are in heavily abbreviated Aramaic. BHQ translates and discusses the notes. Multiple notes on a line are separated with . Ordered right to left 23

2 Useful Notes in the Small Masora ָ֗ל there are no other occurences of this spelling E.g., ַ ָֽבמַ חֲֲ֯ זֶ ִׁ֖ה in Genesis 15:1 Either a very rare word or a misspelling. The Leningrad Codex may have a ‘typo’ in this word ָ֗ק Qere Don’t read the consonants in the text. Read the vowels in the text with the consonants above ָ֗ק in the marginal note. 24

Understanding Ketiv-Qere Ketiv ( ְּכ ִתיב Aramaic) ‘[what is] written’ The consonants in the text Don’t read them. They do NOT go with the vowels. Qere ( ְּק ֵרי Aramaic) ‘[what is] read’ The consonants in the margin. Read them with the vowels in the text Text יבָּ אּו vowels ּ ָּ ּו Qere consonants ובאו Read ּובָּ אּו Usually correcting spelling, but sometimes changes parsing! Perpetual Qere So common that there is no circle or note E.g., אֲדנָּי יְּ הוָּה 25

26 What to Read Practice Reading Ketiv-Qere Qere ִלגְּ אָּ ל וְּ י ַָּר ְָּ֣ד ְּת מודע יעש לגאל וירדת Nothing וְּ ֵ ָֽא ְּדעָּ ה ֹלתִ֛יִ ְך ִׂש ְּמ ַ אֵ ַלִׁ֖י ְּממּוכָּ ן ואדעה שמלתיך אלי ממוכן מֹודָ֣ע ַ יַ ָ֣עַ ׂש Ketib מי ַדָ֣ע יַ ָ֣עַ ׂשה ִלגְּ אָּ ול וְּ י ַָּר ְָּ֣ד ְּתי אם וְּ ֵ ָֽא ְּדעָּ ֹלתֵַּ֧ ְך ִׂש ְּמ ַ ֵ֥ ֵ ַ ִׁ֖ ְּמומֻ כָּ ן Ruth 2:1 Ruth 1:8 Ruth 4:6 Ruth 3:3 Ruth 3:12 Ruth 4:4 Ruth 3:3 Ruth 3:6 Esther 1:16

27 How to Prepare a Passage

What it Means to ‘Prepare a Passage’ In Hebrew classes, you will be expected to ‘prepare’ a particular passage This means that you will come to class able to do the following, with only the Hebrew text in front of you: Read it out loud in Hebrew Parse all the verbs Translate The following is a suggested method for preparing to do so 28

Steps 1&2: Create an Interlinear 1. Print the passage 24 point Ezra SIL Triple space Justified both sides 2. Write these underneath the text Translate each word Parse each verb Dot each non-Qal parsing Underline non-vocab translations Skip words that you know on sight 29

Step 3: Practice Word-by-Word 3. Practice word-by-word Pronounce, Parse & Translate Use a 3x5 card to hide your interlinear notes Uncover your notes word-by word to check yourself as you go along 30

Step 4: Divide Into Chunks at Major Accents 4. Divide into chunks at major accents Level 1 accents: Silluq ( ִס ָֽלּוק with sof pasuq )׃ Atnaḥ אַ ְּתנָּ ִ֑ח Level 2 accents Tifḥa ִט ְּפ ָּחִׁ֖א Segolta גֹולתָּ א ְּ ְּס Zaqef qaton זָּקֵ ף קָּ ֹ֔טֹון Zaqef gadol זָּקֵ ף ג ָּ֕דֹול 31

Steps 5&6: Practice Chunk-By-Chunk 5. Practice chunk-by-chunk using your interlinear with the level 1 and level 2 accents marked Pronounce, Translate, & Parse Use a 3x5 card as usual 6. Practice chunk-by-chunk using an unmarked Hebrew Bible Pronounce, Translate, & Parse No need for a 3x5 card, because there are no notes to cover up 32

33 Summary

Summary: Accents Disjunctive accents make subgroups of words within each verse Accents form a hierarchy of embedded subgroups Groups all of the preceding words since the last accent of the same or higher level When you reach a level 1 or 2 accent, stop and make sense of the unit Hierarchy (marker on the last word of each region) 0. Sof Pasuq סֹוף פָּ סּוק׃ groups words into verses 1. Silluq ִס ָֽלּוק and atnaḥ אַ ְּתנָּ ִ֑ח 2. Tifḥa ט ְּפ ָּחִׁ֖א , ִ segolta גֹולתָּ א ְּ ס , ְּ zaqef qaton זָּקֵ ף קָּ ֹ֔טֹון , and zaqef gadol זָּקֵ ף ג ָּ֕דֹול 34

35 Summary: Pausal Forms Pausal forms May occur at major accents, especially silluq, atnaḥ, and zaqef qaton Accent may shift ultima penult תה ֵ֥ ָּ ַ א ַֹ֔אתָּ ה Vowel may change (with or without an accent shift) Often becomes qamats תה ֵ֥ ָּ ַ א ָּאִ֑תָּ ה This even happens with shva דה ִׁ֖ ָּ אָּ ְּב אָּ ָּב ִָּ֑דה These forms look 2fs but might be 2ms if pausal: ָּל ְִ֑ך to you, ָּבְִ֑ך in you, ִא ָּתְִ֑ך with you, א ֹ֔ ָּתְך you (DDO)

Summary: Hebrew Bible Leningrad codex Oldest complete Hebrew manuscript that is still entact (dated 1008) Your Hebrew Bibles is probably a copy of this single manuscript Book order differs from Christian OT book order Ketiv-Qere System of text criticism by the scholars who put the vowels in the text Combine the qere consonants from the margin with the vowels in the text E.g., Text יבָּ אּו has vowels ּ ָּ ּו Qere consonants ובאו Read ּובָּ אּו ‘Perpetual qere’ are words so common that qere consonants are not written E.g., אֲדנָּי יְּ הוָּה 36

The Hebrew Bible Accents, Pausal Forms, Hebrew Bibles, Masoretic Notes, & How to Prepare a Passage for Class 2017.04.03 Reading Biblical Hebrew. Roadmap 2 Sof Pasuq Accents Pausal Forms Hebrew Bibles Masoretic Notes How to Prepare a Passage. 3 Sof Pasuq . Sof Pasuq (קוּסָּפ ףוֹס) ׃Groups Words into Verses 4

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