1. ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST II. APPARATUS: III. THEORY: A .

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AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYD1.MECHANICS OF SOLIDSROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST1.AIM: To determine the Rockwell Hardness of a given test specimenII.APPARATUS: Rockwell Hardness testing machine, Test specimen.III.THEORY:HARDNESS-It is defined as the resistance of a metal to plastic deformationagainst Indentation, scratching, abrasion of cutting.The hardness of a material by this Rockwell hardness test method is measured bythe depth of Penetration of the indenter. The depth of Penetration is inverselyproportional to the hardness. Both ball or diamond cone types of indenters are used in thistest. There are three scales on the machine for taking hardness readings. Scale “A” withload 60 kgf or 588.4 N and diamond indenter is used for performing tests on thin steeland shallow case hardened steel.Scale “B” with load 100 kgf or 980.7 N and 1.588 mm dia ball indenter is used forperforming tests on soft steel, malleable iron, copper and aluminum alloys.First minor load is applied to over come the film thickness on the metal surface.Minor load also eliminates errors in the depth of measurements due to spring of themachine frame or setting down of the specimen and table attachments.The Rockwell hardness is derived from the measurement of the depth of the impressionEP Depth of penetration due to Minor load of 98.07 N.Ea Increase in depth of penetration due to Major load.E Permanent increase of depth of indentation under minor load at 98.07 N evenafter removal of Major load.This method of test is suitable for finished or machined parts of simple shapes.DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING1

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYDIV.MECHANICS OF SOLIDSPROCEDURE:1.Select the load by rotating the Knob and fix the suitable indenter.2.Clean the test-piece and place n the special anvil or work table of themachine.3.Turn the capstan wheel to elevate the test specimen into contact with theindenter point.4.Further turn the wheel for three rotations forcing the test specimen againstthe indenter. This will ensure that the Minor load of 98.07 N has beenapplied5.Set the pointer on the Scale dial at the appropriate position.6.Push the lever to apply the Major load. A Dash Pot provided in the loadingmechanism to ensure that the load is applied gradually.7.As soon as the pointer comes to rest pull the handle in the reversedirection slowly. This releases the Major, but not Minor load. The pointerwill now rotate in the reverse direction.8.The Rockwell hardness can be read off the scale dial, on the appropriatescale, after the pointer comes to rest.V.OBSERVATIONS:Material of test piece Thickness of test piece Hardness Scale used Minor Load Major Load Test No.1234Hard ness valueDEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING2

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYDVI.MECHANICS OF SOLIDSPRECAUTIONS:1.For testing cylindrical test specimen, use V-type platform.2.Calibrate the machine occasionally using standard test blocks.3.For thin metal prices place another sufficiently thick metal piece betweenthe test specimen and the platform to avoid any damage which may likelyoccur to the platform.4.After applying Major load, wait for sometime to allow the needle to cometo rest. The waiting time vary from 2 to 8 seconds.5.The surface of the test piece should be smooth and even and free fromoxide scale and foreign matter.6.Test specimen should not be subjected to any heating or cold working.7.The thickness of test piece or of the layer under test should be at least 8times the permanent increase of depth of “E”.8.The distance between the centers of two adjacent indentation should be atleast 4 indentation to the edge of the test piece should be at least 2.5 timesthe diameter of the indentation.VII.VIVA QUESTIONS:1.Define Hardness.2.Applications of Rockwell Hardness A – Scale, B-Scale, C-Scale.3.Type of Indentor used in the Three Different Scales of Rockwell HardnessTest.4.Different Types of Hardness Testing Methods.5.Size of the Ball to be used in Ball Indentor of Rockwell Hardness Test.6.Diameters of the different Balls used in Brinell Hardness Test.7.Selection of Load in Brinell Hardness Test.8.Selection of Load in Rockwell Hardness Test.DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING3

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYDMECHANICS OF SOLIDSFigure: Hardness Testing MachineDEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING4

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYD2.MECHANICS OF SOLIDSBRINELL HARDNESS TESTI.AIM: To determine the Brinell hardness of the given test specimen.II.APPARATUS: Brinell hardness machine, test specimen. Brinell MicroscopeIII.THEORY:INDENTATION HARDNESS-A number related to the area or to the depth ofthe impression made by an indenter or fixed geometry under a known fixed load.This method consists of indenting the surface of the metal by a hardened steel ballof specified diameter D mm under a given load F(kgf) and measuring the averagediameter d mm of the impression with the help of Brinell microscope fitted with a scale.The Brinell hardness HB is defined, as the quotient of the applied force F divided by thespherical area of the impressionHB Test load in kgf/surface area of indentation 2Fkg D( D D d )22mm 2IV.PROCEDURE:1.Select the proper size of the ball and load to suit the material under test2.Clean the test specimen to be free from any dirt and defects or blemishes.3.Mount the test piece surface at right angles to the axis of the ball indenter plunger.4.Turn the platform so that the bal is lifted up.5.By shifting the lever apply the load and wait for some time.6.Release the load by shifting the lever.7.Take out the specimen and measure the diameter of indentation by means of theBrinell microscope.DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING5

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYDMECHANICS OF SOLIDS8.Repeat the experiment at other positions of the test piece.9.Calculate the value of HB.V.OBSERVATIONS:Test Piece Material Diameter of Ball “D” Load selection F/D2 Test Load FLoad application time Least count of Brinell Microscope HB 2Fkg D( D D d )22mm 2Impression DiameterSl.No.d1d2d1 d 22FTDHBin kGin secin mmKg/mm2Average value of HB VI.PRECAUTIONS:1.The surface of the test piece should be clean.2.The testing machine should be protected throughout the test from shock orvibration.3.The test should be carried out at room temperature.4.The distance of the center of the indentation from the edge of the test pieceshould be at least 2.5 times the diameter of the indentation and thedistance between the center of two adjacent indentations should be at least4 times the diameter of the indentation.DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING6

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYD5.MECHANICS OF SOLIDSThe diameter of each indentation should be measured in two directions atright angles and the mean value of the two readings used for the purposeof determining the hardness number.LIST OF PARTS1.3.5.7.9.11.13.15.17.19.21.23.MAIN LEVERHANGER VE (FEMALE)WEIGHT HANGERBOTTOM WEIGHTFRAMESPINDLE SPRINGMAIN NKIFE EDGEPIVOT KNIFE EDGESPINDLEFLATANVILELEVATING SCREWHAND WHEEL2.4.6.8.10.12.14.16.18.20.22.24.HANGERHANGER VEE (MALE)WEIGHTCOVEROPERATING LEVERSPINDLE SHAFTPIVOT VEESPINDLE BUSHINGBALL HOLDERADAPTORADAPTORMETERING VALVEFIGURE: BRINELL HARDNESS TESTING MACHINEDEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING7

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYD3.MECHANICS OF SOLIDSIZOD IMPACT TESTI.AIM:To perform the Izod Impact test on Metals.II.APPARATUS:Izod impact testing machine, test specimen, verniar caliper,steel ruleIII.THEORY:IMPACT STRENGTH: The high resistance of material to fracture undersuddenly applied loads.The types of test pieces are used for this test as given.i.Square cross-section ii.Round cross-sectionThe specimens may have single, two or three notches. The testing machine shouldhave the following specifications. Angle between top fce of grips and face holding thespecimen vertical 900 Angle of tip of hammer 750 10Angle between normal to the specimen and the underside face of theHammer at striking point 100 10Speed of hammer at impact 3.99 m/secStriking energy 168 N-M or Joules.Angle of drop of pendulum 900Effective weight of pendulum 21.79 kg.Minimum value of scale graduation 2 Joules.Permissible total friction loss of corresponding energy 0.50%Distance from axis of rotation of distance between base of specimen notch and the pointof specimen hit by the hammer 22 mm 0.5 mm.The longitudinal Axis of the test piece shall lie in the plane of swing of the center ofgravity of the hammer. The notch shall be positioned so that it is in the plane of thehammer. The notch shall be positioned so that its plane of symmetry coincides with thetop face of the grips. For setting the specimen. The notch impact strength I is calculatedaccording to the following relation.I K/AWhere I Impact Strength in Joules/m2DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING8

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYDIV.MECHANICS OF SOLIDSPROCEDURE:1.For conducting Izod test, a proper striker is to be fitted firmly to thebottom of the hammer with the help clamping piece.2.The latching take for Izod test is to be firmly fitted to the bearing housingat the side of the columns.3.Adjust reading pointer along with pointer carrier on 168 J reading on thedial when the pendulum is hinging free vertically.4.The frictional loss of the machine can be determined by free fall test.Raise the hammer by hands and latch in. Release the hammer by operatingliver, the pointer will then indicate the energy loss due to friction. Fromthis reading confirm that the friction loss is not exceeding 0.5% of theinitial potential energy. Otherwise friction loss ha to be added to the finalreading.5.Now raise the pendulum by hands and latch in with latch6.The specimen for Izod test is firmly fitted in the specimen support with thehelp of clamping screw and élan key. Care is to be taken that the notch onthe specimen should face to pendulum striker.7.After ascertaining that there is no person in the range of swingingpendulum. Release the pendulum to smash the specimen.8.Carefully operate the pendulum brake when returning after one swing tostop the oscillations.9.Read off position of reading pointer on dial and not indicated value.10.Remove the broken specimen by loosening the clamping screw.The notch impact strength depends largely on the shape of the specimen and the notch.The values determined with other specimens therefore may not be compared with eachother.V.Sl.No.OBSERVATION TABLE:AKIArea of Cross-section of SpecimenImpact EnergyImpact StrengthAbsorbedDEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING9

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYDMECHANICS OF SOLIDSFIGURE : IZOD & CHARPY IMPACT TESTDEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING10

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYDMECHANICS OF SOLIDS4. DEFLECTION TEST ON A SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAMIII.AIM: This experiment is to demonstrate the effect of span of a simply supportedbeam on deflection of the beam. The effect of young’s modulus of the material of the beam using differentmaterials bars. The effect of type of cross section on the deflection because of the effectof moment of inertia of the beam.III.THEORY:A beam with a span L and is supported at both ends by knife edges. Let themoment of inertia of the Beam is ‘I’ about it’s neutral axis and the Young’sModulus be ‘E’.Figure:bh 3Moment of Inertia about the neutral axis I 12Deflection at the center of span where the load is acting The deflection at the center (Max deflection) is related to the load ‘W’. Span ‘L’moment of Inertia ’I’, and Young’s Modulus ‘E’ through the equation. WL348 EIWe can observe thati.If load is doubled deflection will also be doubledii.If span is doubled deflection increases by 8 times.DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING11

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYDMECHANICS OF SOLIDSiii.If Young’s Modulus of material is more, then deflection will be less.iv.If Moment of Inertia is increased the deflection will reduced.The relations for Moment of Inertia area as follows.Cases of Hollow sections with same cross sectional area of solid sections.i.Hollow Circular Section: Let D0 2 Di [(2 Di2 Di2 )] ( D02 Di2 )Cross Section Area 44222 (4 Di Di ) (3Di ) 44ii.Solid Circular Section: Let ‘d’ be the diameter of solid circular section with thesame cross-sectional area. (3Di2 ) xd 2 4422d 3Di or d 3 DiMoment of Inertia for Hollow Section ( D04 Di4 ) [(2 Di2 Di2 )]Ihollow 6464444 (16 Di Di ) (15Di ) 6464DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING12

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYDMECHANICS OF SOLIDSMoment of Inertia for Solid Section (d 4 ) [ 3Di ]4 [9 Di4 ]Isolid 646464 Hollow section has more ‘I’ than solid section with same cross-sectional area.Some comments on sections of Beams & Materials.i.Hollow section with same cross sectional area of a solid section; will havemore load carrying capacity and hence more stiffness.ii.Beams area used with depth longer than width because of more Momentof Inertia for the same cross-sectional area.iii.Mild Steel is stiffer than Aluminum because the Young’s Modulus of theformer material is bigger.Concept of stiffness of Beam’s in Bending (Kb)Stiffness of component in bending is defined as the ration of load required for unitdeflection in bending.Bending stiffness Kb W/ In the case of Simply supported Beam with control loading the Stiffness48 EIKb L3Hencei.ii.iii.iv.IV.If E is doubled Stiffness will be doubled.If Moment of Inertia is doubled Stiffness will be doubled.If the Distance of load is doubled the Stiffness reduced by 1/8 times.Higher the Stiffness lesser will be the deflection of beam for the same loadapplied.EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP: The set-up contains the following1.2.3.4.5.Two knife edges and supporting stands for beam.Beams of different sectionLoading arrangement along with different weightsDial gauge with magnetic stand.Measuring tape or Steel Scale.XIII. PROCEDURE:i.ii.iii.iv.v.Set the beam horizontally on the two knife edges.Measure the span of Beam L (distance from clamp end to loading point)Fix the dial gauge under the beam at the loading point middle of the spanto Read down-ward moment and set to zero.Hang the loading Pan at the mid point of the beam span.Load the Beam with different loads(W) and note the dial gauge readings( ).DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING13

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYDvi.vii.MECHANICS OF SOLIDSChange the span of beam for two more different lengths repeat theexperiment.Change the position of Beam and repeat the experiment for the other valueof I for rectangular cross-section.XIV. PRECAUTIONS :i.Beam should be positioned HorizontallyXV.Sl.No.ii.The span of the Beam should be measured properlyiii.The dial gauge spindle knob should alwaysiv.Loading hanger should be placed at center of the Beam length.v.All the errors should be eliminated while taking readings.vi.Elastic limit of the Beam should not exceeded.OBSERVATIONS:a)Independent Variables:1.Load2.Span3.Moment of Inertia (By choosing different sections)4.Young’s Modulus (By choosing different Materials)BeamCrossMaterial SectionY.M.EN/mm2M.I.I mm4SpanL mmLoadDeflection BendingW in in mmStiffnessNN/mmXVI. GRAPHS:Deflection Vs W, L, I and EStiffness Vs W, L, I and EXVII. CONCLUSION:DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING14

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYDMECHANICS OF SOLIDSXVIII. VIVA QUESTIONS:1.2.3.Give Equation for maximum Deflection, Maximum Bending Moment,Maximum Slope in the case of Cantilever. Simply Supported Beam, FixedBeam and a Continuous Beam with Three Supports.For the same cross sectional area and span give in the increasing order thevalues of i) Square Section, ii) Rectangular Section with ‘h’ ‘b’ and ‘h’ ‘b’, iii) Hollow Square Section, iv) Circular Section.Define Point of Contraflexure, Stiffness, Shear Force and Shear Stress inBeams in Bending.DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING15

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYD5.I.DEFLECTION TEST ON CANTILEVER BEAMAIM: II.MECHANICS OF SOLIDSThis experiment is to demonstrate the effect of distance at which the loadacting from the fixed end on deflection of the beamThe effects of young’s modulus of the material of the beam using differentmaterials bars.The effect of type of cross section on the deflection because of the effectof moment of inertia of the beam.THEORY:A Cantilever is a Beam one end of which is clamped and other end is free.A beam with a length L and is fixed at one end and the other end is free. Let themoment of inertia of the Beam is ‘I’ about it’s neutral axis and the Young’sModulus be ’E’.Moment of inertia about the neutral axis I bh 312Deflection at the end where point load is acting The deflection at the end (Max deflection) is related to the load ‘W’, length ‘L’moment of Inertia ‘I’ and Young’s Modulus ‘E’ through the equation.WL3 3EIWe can observe thati.If load is doubled deflection will also be doubledii.If span is doubled deflection increases y 8 times.DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING16

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYDMECHANICS OF SOLIDSiii.If Young’s Modulus of material is more, then deflection will be less.iv.If Moment of Inertia is increased the deflection will reduced.Cases of Hollow sections with same cross sectional area of solid sections.i.Hollow Circular Section: Let D0 2 DiCross Section Area ii. ( D02 Di2 )4 (4 Di2 Di2 )4 [(2 Di2 Di2 )]4 (3Di2 )4Solid Circular Section: Let ‘d’ be the diameter of solid circular section with thesame cross-sectional area. xd 24 (3Di2 )4DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING17

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYDd2 3D12 or d MECHANICS OF SOLIDS3 DiMoment of Inertia for Hollow SectionIhollow ( D04 Di4 )64 (16 Di4 Di4 )64 [(2 Di ) 4 Di4 )]64 (15Di4 )64Moment of Inertia for Solid Section (d 4 ) [ 3Di ]4 [9 Di4 ]Isolid 646464 Hollow section has more ‘I’ than solid section with same crosssectional area.i.ii.iii.Some comments on sections of Beams & Materials.Hollow section with same cross sectional area of a solid section; will havemore load carrying capacity and hence more stiffness.Beams area used with depth longer than width because of more Momentof Inertia for the same cross-sectional area.Mild Steel is stiffer than Aluminum because the Young’s Modulus of theformer material is bigger.Concept of stiffness of Beam’s in Bending (Kb)Stiffness of component in bending is defined as the ration of load requiredfor unit deflection in bending.Bending stiffness Kb W/ In the case of Simply supported Beam with control loading the Stiffness3EIKb 3LHencei.ii.iii.iv.IV.If E is doubled Stiffness will be doubled.If Moment of Inertia is doubled Stiffness will be doubled.If the Distance of load is doubled the Stiffness reduced by 1/8 times.Higher the Stiffness lesser will be the deflection of beam for the same loadapplied.EXPERIMENTAL SET-UP: The set-up contains the followingi.ii.iii.iv.v.One rigid clamping support for fixing one end of the beam.Beams of different sectionLoading arrangement along with different weights.Dial gauge with magnetic stand.Measuring tape or Steel ScaleDEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING18

AURORA’S TECHNOLOGICAL AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE,UPPAL,HYDMECHANICS OF SOLIDSV.PROCEDURE:i.Clamp the Beam horizontally on the clamping support at one end.ii.Measure the length of cantilever L (distance from clamp end to loadingpoint)iii.Fix the dial gauge under the beam at the loading point to Read down-wardmoment and set to zero.iv.Hang the loading Pan at the free end of the cantilever.v.Load the cantilever with different loads (W) and note the dial gaugereadings ( )vi.Change the length of cantilever for two more differ

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