Instructor’s Guide toProcess OrientedGuided Inquiry LearningbyDavid M. HansonStony Brook University — SUNYWith Contributions from other POGIL project personnel:Diane Bunce, Frank Creegan, Richard Moog, Linda Padwa,James Spencer, Andrei Straumanis, and Troy Wolfskill
Instructor’s Guide toProcess Oriented Guided Inquiry LearningDavid M. HansonDepartment of ChemistryStony Brook University – SUNYStony Brook. NY 11794-3400David.Hanson@StonyBrook.eduPublished by:Pacific CrestP.O. Box 370Hampton, NH 03843-0370www.pcrest.comCopyright 2013 David M. Hanson, all rights reserved.No part of the contents of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without theprior written permission of the author and copyright holder.ISBN: 1–878437–73–9
iiiTable of ContentsPreface.v1. Motivation for POGIL .12. Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning.3A. Learning Teams are Highly Effective.4B. Guided Inquiry Activities Develop Understanding.4C. Critical and Analytical Thinking are the Key to Success.6D. Problem Solving Requires Expert Strategies.6Conclusions from Novice-Expert Comparisons.9Implications for Instruction.12Developing Essential Transfer Skills.14Problem-Solving Instruction in Action.15E. Reporting Builds Skills and Solidifies Concepts.16F. Metacognition is Important.16G. Individual Responsibility is a Motivating Force.17H. Grade Points May be Necessary.183. Strategies for Successful Learning Teams.21A. Structure the Teams.21B. Motivate Process.21C. Motivate Learning Teams and Collaborative Skills.22D. Promote Positive Interdependence.23E. Require Individual Accountability.24F. Provide Closure.24G. Use Metacognition.244. A New Paradigm for the Teacher.25A. Instructors Play Four Simultaneous Roles.25B. Planning and Preparing Lessons.26C. TA Training.275. Can this Approach be Successful.296. References.337. Appendices.39A. Reflection on Learning.40B. Self-Assessment.41C. Hints for the Instructor.43D. Structure of a POGIL Session.45E. Sample Class Schedule.49F. Sample Strategy Analyst’s Report.50
ivInstructor’s Guide to Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry LearningAcknowledgementsDan Apple, founder and president of Pacific Crest, is acknowledged as the motivating force and inspirationbehind process-oriented education. His insights on activity design, classroom facilitation, and changingthe way faculty teach are much appreciated.Troy Wolfskill’s numerous insights on teaching and facilitating in a POGIL classroom, as well as thecontributions from other POGIL project personnel in furthering the idea of Process Oriented GuidedInquiry Learning, are also acknowledged and appreciated.Support from the National Science Foundation made it possible to develop the pedagogy and curriculummaterials for Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning and help faculty move from lecturing to morestudent-centered teaching strategies. The following grants supported these projects: DUE-9752570, DUE9950612, DUE-0127650, DUE-0127291, DUE-0231120, and DUE-03441485
vPrefaceDiscussions and studies revealing that traditional teaching methods in higher education no longer meetstudents’ educational needs have led to several reform initiatives. Some of these initiatives focus onchanging the curriculum and course content; others seek to utilize computer-based multimedia technologyfor instruction; and some promote more student involvement in class and seek to engage students inlearning.Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL, rhymes with mogul) is one manifestation of thelatter. In a POGIL classroom students work in learning teams on specially designed activities that promotemastery of discipline content and the development of skills in the processes of learning, thinking, problemsolving, communication, teamwork, management, and assessment. The POGIL classroom environmentis appropriate for faculty who want to engage students in learning and help students develop the skillsthey need to be successful in courses, college, and careers. In this environment, students take on greaterresponsibility for their education; they learn to rely on thinking skills rather than memorization; theyimprove performance skills while learning subject content; and they develop positive relationships withother students and faculty.This instructor’s guide documents the need to include such performance skills in our courses and describesthe educational tools and processes used in a POGIL classroom. These tools and processes includelearning teams, guided inquiry activities, critical and analytical thinking, problem solving, reporting,metacognition, and individual responsibility. Strategies for the successful use of learning teams arediscussed, the roles of the instructor in this learning environment are described, and implementation hintsare provided along with examples of questions for student self-assessment of performance and reflectionon learning. Assessment and evaluation results pointing to the success of this approach also are included.The term learning teams is used rather than cooperative or collaborative learning groups because itbetter brings to mind similarities with athletic teams in which students work together to reach commongoals. The term also avoids preconceptions of the meanings of cooperative and collaborative. Analogiesbetween learning and sports (such as tennis, swimming, golf, track and field, and wrestling) can be madeto introduce students to the POGIL classroom. In all these areas, participants work together in teams andhelp each other to develop their skills and abilities; they then compete as individuals.This guide complements books that provide POGIL activities1-5 that can be used at each class meeting orin sessions held once or twice each week to supplement lectures. A guided inquiry format based on thelearning cycle of exploration, concept formation or invention, and application is used in these activities.Students work on the activities in teams to acquire knowledge and develop understanding. The teamsexamine data, models, or examples in response to critical thinking questions. They then demonstrate andapply their knowledge in exercises, and problems are used to develop problem solving skills and higherorder thinking such as analysis, synthesis, transference, and evaluation.6 This guide is intended to assistinstructors in using such activities successfully in their classrooms.POGIL can be implemented in a wide variety of ways depending on such factors as the institutionalculture, class size, the nature of facilities, and instructor preferences. A few successful models includereplacing essentially all lectures with POGIL sessions,7 converting standard recitation sessions to POGILsessions,8 and replacing one lecture session each week with a POGIL session.9 For example, in GeneralChemistry at Stony Brook, three weekly lecture periods (55 minutes) are complemented by a once-aweek POGIL recitation session (80 minutes). After these lecture and recitation sessions, students workon homework assignments individually or in study groups that they organize for themselves. Free tutorial
viInstructor’s Guide to Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learningsessions for individual students or small groups of students are provided every afternoon and someevenings to answer questions, guide students in developing an understanding of concepts, and developproblem-solving skills. The lecture sessions are being made increasingly student-centered and interactiveby the use of an electronic student response system. With this response system, individuals and teams canrecord answers to questions which are then immediately available for feedback and discussion.
11Motivation for POGILChanges in society, technology, and the world economy are occurring at increasingly faster rates. It isessential that we in higher education provide our students with opportunities to acquire the knowledgeand skills that they will need to survive and be successful in this increasingly dynamic environment.Our students need to be quick learners, critical thinkers, and problem solvers. They need to be computerliterate and skillful in communication, teamwork, management, and assessment (including the ability toself assess). Knowledge of the fundamentals and concepts beyond a single discipline are necessary.10Traditional teaching methods that maintainthe conventional objectives of structuring andpresenting information do not address theseissues. Several studies11-20 have documentedthat many students are having difficultyunderstanding and applying concepts, findingrelevance, transferring skills within and acrossdisciplines, and identifying and developing theskills they need for success in specific courses,college, and careers. Students are missing theexperience of science as the exchange andevolution of ideas, and gender and ethnic issuesare being ignored in the design of courses. Poorperformers withdraw from learning, and even the best performers may disengage because they are notchallenged. The results are low levels of learning and high levels of attrition. Both students and faculty arefrustrated by the lack of achievement and community. These issues are compounded at institutions thathave large numbers of diverse students in introductory courses.To address this situation and to help students become better learners in our courses, it is essential torecognize that education has two components, content and process, and that the process component oftenis not given adequate attention. Science education needs to be concerned equally with both the structureof knowledge, which is the content component, and with the development of the skills for acquiring,applying, and generating knowledge, which is the process component. Process skills become increasinglyimportant as our knowledge base expands, as society addresses interdisciplinary and more complicatedproblems, and as businesses seek technological developments on shorter and shorter time scales. Underthese conditions, those with highly developed process skills are those who will be most successful.There are many learning process skills, and these can be classified into cognitive, social, and affectivedomains.21 The most important of these skills for science education lie in seven areas: informationprocessing, critical and analytical thinking, problem solving, communication, teamwork, management, andassessment. Surveys of managers and leaders in industry generally show that employees are sought who areknowledgeable and have such skills, i.e. those who are self-motivated and who are quick learners, criticaland creative thinkers, problem solvers, communicators, team players.22 The general conclusion of one suchsurvey was “that industrial employers would like chemistry-trained employees whose education includesgreater preparation in communication, team skills, relating applications to scientific principles, and problemsolving, without sacrificing thorough preparation in basic science concepts and experimental skills.”23Learning process skills, just like skills in laboratory work and athletics, can be developed, strengthened, andenhanced.24 These skills therefore need to be included explicitly in college-level courses, not only to helpstudents be successful in these courses but also to prepare them for the workplace and for life in general.
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32Process Oriented Guided Inquiry LearningProcess Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) is both a philosophy and a strategy for teaching andlearning. It is a philosophy because it encompasses specific ideas about the nature of the learning processand the expected outcomes. It is a strategy because it provides a specific methodology and structure thatare consistent with the way people learn and that lead to the desired outcomes.Five key ideas about learning have emerged from current research in the cognitive sciences.24 This researchdocuments that people learn by: Constructing their own understanding based on their prior knowledge, experiences, skills, attitudes,and beliefs Following a learning cycle of exploration, concept formation, and application Connecting and visualizing concepts and multiple representations Discussing and interacting with others Reflecting on progress and assessing performanceAll of these ideas are incorporated into the design of POGIL in order to help students learn both disciplinecontent and key process skills simultaneously. POGIL is built on this research base with the idea that moststudents learn best when they are: Actively engaged and thinking in the classroom and laboratory Drawing conclusions by analyzing data, models, or examples and by discussing ideas Working together in self-managed teams to understand concepts and to solve problems Reflecting on what they have learned and on improving their performance Interacting with an instructor as a facilitator of learningTo support this research-based learning environment,POGIL uses learning teams, guided inquiry activitiesto develop understanding, questions to promotecritical and analytical thinking, problem solving,reporting, metacognition, and individual responsibility.These seven components, which are discussed in thefollowing sections, are the tools for developing processskills and the mastery of discipline content. Withinthis structure, students work together in learning teamsto acquire knowledge and develop understandingthrough guided inquiry by examining data, models,or examples and by responding to critical-thinking questions. They apply this new knowledge inexercises and problems, present their results to the class, reflect on what they have learned, and assesshow well they have done and how they could do better. To reinforce the acquired concepts and topromote individual responsibility for learning, students are required to complete additional exercisesand problems outside of class, and to read relevant sections of a textbook or other resource material.
4Instructor’s Guide to Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry LearningA. Learning Teams are Highly EffectiveLearning environments can be competitive, individualized, or cooperative. In cooperative learning,“individuals, working together, construct shared understandings and knowledge.”25 Because the ratio ofstudents to faculty is generally large, it seems clear that the effectiveness of a university can be enhanced if itbecomes a community of learners with students collaborating and learning from each other, and in fact, theliterature is replete with research on different learning environments, and the benefits of students workingtogether have been well documented. We now know that students teaching students results in effectivelearning and that a cooperative environment is more effective than a competitive environment.26-30 In addition,involvement in the classroom and student-student and student-instructor interactions have been identified ashaving the largest positive effect of numerous environmental factors on the academic achievement, personaldevelopment, and satisfaction of college students.11, 30Research has documented that relative to other situations,students working in teams learn more, understand more,and remember more; they feel better about themselves,about the class, and about their classmates. They alsohave more positive attitudes regarding the subject area,course, and instructors. Also, in a team environmentstudents are more likely to acquire critical and analyticalthinking skills, cognitive learning strategies, and otherprocess skills, such as teamwork and communicationskills, that are frequently considered important outcomesof undergraduate education, in addition to being essentialin the workplace.25, 30, 31 Further, this approach addresses the feelings of isolation and competitivenessmany students report experiencing in college, especially women and other minorities in science.14, 15, 32 Ourexperience is consi
learning teams, guided inquiry activities, critical and analytical thinking, problem solving, reporting, metacognition, and individual responsibility. Strategies for the successful use of learning teams are discussed, the roles of the instructor in this learning environment are described, and implementation hints
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