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HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYCourse CodeHEM 604Course TitleBasic Anatomy and Physiology ofHuman BodyCourse Developer/WriterDr A. O. ederalMinistry of Science and Technology,Lagos.Programme LeaderProf. Afolabi AdebanjoDean, School of Science andTechnologyNational Open University of NigeriaLagosCourse CoordinatorJane-Frances AgbuSchool of Science and TechnologyNational Open University of NigeriaLagosNATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIAii

HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYNational Open University of NigeriaHeadquarters14/16 Ahmadu Bello WayVictoria IslandLagosAbuja OfficeNo. 5 Dar es Salaam StreetOff Aminu Kano CrescentWuse II, AbujaNigeriae-mail: centralinfo@nou.edu.ngURL: www.nou.edu.ngNational Open University of Nigeria 2008First Printed 2008ISBN: 978-058-400-5All Rights ReservedPrinted by .ForNational Open University of Nigeriaiii

HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYTABLE OF CONTENTSPAGEModule 1 1Unit 1Unit 2Unit 3Unit 41-56-1415-1920-26Basic Concepts in Anatomy and PhysiologyLevels of Organization .Fundamental Organic Chemistry .Haematology Module 2 .27Unit 1Unit 2Unit 3Unit 427-3536-4950-5657-62The Integumentary System .The Skeletal System .The Nervous System The Endocrine System .Module 3 .Unit 1Unit 2Unit 363The Digestive System 63-68The Respiratory System . 69-74The Circulatory System . 75-80Module 4 81Unit 1Unit 2Unit 3ivThe Immune System .The Urinary System .The Reproductive System .81-8788-9192-97

HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYMODULE 1Unit 1Unit 2Unit 3Unit 4Basic Concepts in Anatomy and PhysiologyLevels of OrganizationFundamental Organic ChemistryHaematologyUNIT 1BASIC Content3.1 Definition of anatomy and physiology3.2 Relationship between anatomy and physiology3.3 Divisions of anatomy3.4 Divisions of physiologyConclusionSummaryTutor-Marked AssignmentReferences/Further Readings1.0 INTRODUCTIONYou have gone through the basic biology course where you learnt thatall living things share basic characteristics, some of which include thefollowings: ResponsivenessGrowth and differentiationReproductionMetabolism and excretionThat basic biology that you already know includes sub specialties.Examples of these sub-specialties are anatomy and physiology. They arebiological subjects with slightly different perspectives.2.0OBJECTIVESAt the end of this unit, you should be able to:1

HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY Define what Anatomy is: Define what physiology is: Describe the various specialties of each discipline Explain the relationship between anatomy & physiology3.0MAIN CONTENT3.1Definition of anatomy and physiologyThe word ‘anatomy; has Greek origin. A literal translation would be “acutting open” Anatomy is the study of internal and external structures ofthe body and the physical relationships among body parts for examplestudying how a particular muscle attaches to the skeleton whilephysiology which also has Greek origin, is the study of how organismsperform their vital functions. An example is the study of how a musclecontract or what kind of forces contracting muscles exert on theskeleton?3.2Relationship between anatomy and physiologyAnatomy and physiology are closely integrated both theoretically andpractically Anatomical information provides clues about probablefunctions and physiological mechanisms can be explained only in termsof the underlying anatomy. This observation leads to a very importantconcept: All specific functions are performed by specific structures.Anatomists and physiologists approach the relationship betweenstructure and function from different perspectives.Please be attentive as we consider a simple non-biological analogy.Assume that this class is made up of Anatomists and physiologists andwe are asked to consider an electric bulb. The anatomists may begin bydescribing and measuring the shape of the bulb and if possible, take itapart (“dissect it”) and put it back together. The physiologist could thenexplain its key structural relationships.SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1i.ii.What basic functions do all living things perform?a)Define anatomyb)Define physiology3.3Divisions of anatomyAnatomy can be divided into different specialties based on:2

HEM 604-BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYDegree of structural detail under considerationSpecific processesMedical applicationOn the basis of structural detail we have(i)Microscopic Anatomy(ii)Gross (Macroscopic Anatomy)Microscopic anatomyMicroscopic anatomy deals with structures that cannot be seen withoutmagnification. The limits of the equipment’s used determine theboundaries of microscopic anatomy. For example with a lightmicroscope, you can see basic details of cell structure, with an electronmicroscope, you can see individual molecules that are only a fewnanometers a cross. It includes cytology and histology. As we gothrough the course, we will consider details at all levels, frommacroscopic to microscopic.Cytology is the analysis of the structure of individual cells, the simplestunits of life. Cells are composed of chemical substances in variouscombinations, and our lives depend on the chemical processes occurringin the trillion cells in the body. Histology is the examination of tissuesgroups of specialized cells and cell products that work together toperform specific functions, tissues combine to form organs, such as theheart, kidney, liver or brain. Many organs are easily examined without amicroscopic anatomy by using gross anatomy.Gross anatomy (Macroscopic anatomy) is the examination ofrelatively large structures and features usually visible with the unaidedeye. There are many ways to approach gross anatomy:--Surface anatomy; Study of general form and superficialmarkings.Regional anatomy: focuses on anatomical organizational ofspecific areas of the body, such as the head, neck or trunkSystemic anatomy: study of the structure of organ systems, suchas the skeletal system or the muscular system. Organ systems aregroups of organs that function together in a co-ordinate manner.For example the heart, blood and blood vessels form thecardiovascular system, which distributes oxygen and nutrientsthrough out the body. The human body has 11 organ systems, andthey will be introduced later in this course.Developmental anatomy: This deals with the changes in form thatoccurs during the period between conception and physical3

HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYmaturity. The study of these early developmental processes iscalled EMBRYOLOGY.Other anatomical specialties with focus on clinical settings include:(a)(c)Mechanical anatomy (anatomical features that change duringillness).Radiographic anatomy (anatomical structures as seen by usingspecialized imaging techniques.Surgical anatomy (anatomical landmarks important in surgery).3.4Divisions of physiology(b)As you learnt earlier, physiology is the study of the function ofanatomical structures. Human physiology is the study of the functions ofthe human body. These functions are complex and much more difficultto examine than most anatomical structures. As a result, there are evenmore specialties in physiology than in anatomy, which includes:i.Cell physiology: This is the cornerstone of human physiology; itis the study of the functions of cells. It deals with events at thechemical and molecular levels.ii.Special physiology: this is the study of the physiology of specialorgans. For example, renal physiology is the study of kidneyfunction.Systemic physiology: includes all aspects of the function ofspecific organ systems; cardiovascular physiology, respiratoryphysiology and reproductive physiology are examples ofsystemic physiology.Patho-physiology is the study of the effects of diseases on organor system functions (pathos is the Greek word for “disease”).Modern medicine depends on an understanding of both normalphysiology and patho-physiologyiii.iv.SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 2i.ii.iii.Name the factors that determine the divisions of anatomy.The analysis of cell structure is called what?Define cell physiology.4.0CONCLUSIONPhysicians normally use a combination of anatomical and psychologicalinformation when they evaluate patients.4

HEM 6045.0BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYSUMMARYIn this unit we have learnt that;(i)Human beings share basic characteristics of living things.(ii)Human anatomy is the study of body structures and the physicalrelationship among body parts of human beings.(iii)Human physiology is the study of the functions of the humanbody.(iv)Anatomy and physiology are closely integrated boththeoretically and practically(v)Modern medicine depends on an understanding of physiologyand anatomy.6.0TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT1. Explain the differences between anatomy and physiology2. List the Divisions of anatomy3. List the Divisions of physiologyANSWERS SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISESELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1i.Basic functions of living things include: Movement, Respiration,Nutrition, Irritability, Growth, and reproduction.ii.a.Anatomy is the study of the structure of living things.b.Physiology is the science of the functioning of livingorganisms and their component parts.SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 2i.Factors that determine divisions in anatomy are:a.Degree of structural detail under consideration5

HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYii.b.Specific processesc.Medical applicationThe analysis of cell structure is Cytology.iii.Cell physiology is the study of the functions of cells.7.0REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGSHales D and Hales RE.Caring for the mind (1995): The comprehensiveguide to mental health, Batam Books, New York.Martini FC, Ober WC, Garrison CW, Welch K and Hutchings RT (2001)Fundamentals of anatomy and Physiology, 5th Ed, Prentice-Hall,Inc, New Jersey.Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary.Thibodeau GA and Patton KT (1996) Anatomy and Physiology, 3rd Ed,Mosby, 1996.6

HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYUNIT 2LEVELS OF ionObjectivesMain Content3.1 Different levels of organisation3.2 Interrelationships between the levels of organisation3.3 Organs systems in the bodyConclusionSummaryTutor-Marked AssignmentReferences/Further Readings1.0INTRODUCTIONThis "concept of Anatomy and Physiology" should be learned andunderstood (be able to explain the basis for the study) before continuing.Our study of the human body will begin with an overview ofmicroscopic and then proceed to the gross anatomy of each organsystem. When considering events from the microscopic to themacroscopic scale, we will examine several interdependent levels oforganization.2.0OBJECTIVESAt the end of this unit, you should be able to: To have an overview of microscopic anatomy of the human body. To describe the basic gross anatomy of each organ system in thebody. To describe the several independent level s of organization in thebody. Identify the six levels of organization of the body7

HEM 6043.0BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYMAIN CONTENTFig 1: Organs of the human body.Source: 1999 Encyclopaedia, Britanica,Inc3.1Different levels of organisationThe chemical or molecular level .Atoms, the smallest stable units ofmatter, can combine to form molecules with complex shapes. Even atthis simplest level, the specialized shape of a molecule determines itsfunction.8

HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYFig 2 Diagram of a typical mammalian cell.1999 Encyclopaedia, Britanica, IncThe cellular level: Molecules can interact to form organelles, such as theprotein filaments found in muscle cells. Each type of organelle hasspecific functions. For example, interactions among protein filamentsproduce the contractions of muscle cells in the heart. Cells are thesmallest living units in the body, and organelles are their structural andfunctional components.The tissue level: A tissue is a group of cells working together to performone or more specific functions. Heart muscle cells, or cardiac musclecells, interact with other cell types and with extra-cellular materials toform muscle tissue.The organ level: Organs consist of two or more tissues working incombination to perform several functions. Layers of cardiac muscletissue in combination with connective tissue, another tissue type, formthe bulk of the wall of the heart, a hollow three-dimensional organ.The organ system level: Organs interact in organ systems. Each time itcontracts, the heart pushes blood into a network of blood vessels.Together the heart, blood and blood vessels form the cardiovascularsystem, one of 11 organ systems the body.9

HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYThe organism level: All organ systems of the body work together tomaintain life and health. This brings us to the highest level oforganization, that of the organism – in this case, a human being.3.2Interrelationships between the levels of organizationThe organization at each level determines the characteristics andfunctions of higher levels. For example, the arrangement of atoms andmolecules at the chemical level creates the protein filaments that, at thecellular level, give cardiac muscle cells the ability to contractpowerfully. At the tissue level, these cells are linked, forming cardiacmuscle tissue. The structure of the tissue ensures that the contractionsare coordinated, producing a heart-beat. When that beat occurs, theinternal anatomy of the heart, an organ, enables it to function as a pump.The heart is filled with blood and connected to the blood vessels and thepumping action circulates to the blood vessels of the cardiovascularsystem. By interacting with the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and othersystems, the cardiovascular system performs a variety of functionsessential to the survival of the organism.Something that affects a system will ultimately affect each component.For example, the heart cannot pump blood effectively after a massiveblood loss. If the heart cannot pump and blood cannot flow, oxygen andnutrients cannot be distributed. Very soon, the cardiac muscle tissuebegins to break down as individual muscle tissue cells die from oxygenand nutrient starvation. All cells, tissues, and organs in the body will bedamaged.SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1i.List the Six levels of organization in the human body.ii.STATE TRUE OR FALSE: Something that affects a system willultimately affect each component. Please explain your answers.3.3Organs Systems in the BodyThis is an introduction to the organ systems in the human body. Theseorgan systems are interdependent, interconnected, and packagedtogether in a relatively small space. The cells, tissues, organs, and organsystems of the body live together in a shared environment, like the10

HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYinhabitants of a large city. Just as city dwellers breathe the city air anddrink the water provided by the local water company, cells in the humanbody absorb oxygen and nutrients from the fluids that surround them. Ifa city is blanketed in smog or its water supply is contaminated, theinhabitants will become ill. Similarly, if body fluid compositionbecomes abnormal, cells will be injured or destroyed. Suppose thetemperature or salt content of the blood changes, the effect on the heartcould range from a minor adjustment (heart muscle tissue contractsmore often, so the heart rate goes up) to a total disaster (the heart stopsbeating, so the individual dies).Various physiological mechanisms act to prevent potentially damagingchanges in the composition of body fluid and the environment inside ourcells.Homeostasis(homeo, unchanging stasis, standing) refers to the existence of a stableinternal environment. To survive, every organism must maintainhomeostasis.3.4Some Organs Systems In The Body And Their FunctionsTable 1: Functions of Organs of the Human BodyThe Integumentary SystemProtects against environmental hazards;helps control body temperatureEpidermisCovers surface; protects deeper tissues.DermisNourishes epidermis; provides strength;contains glandsProduce hair; innervations and providessensationsHair folliclesProvide some protection for the headSecrete lipid coating that lubricates hairshaft and epidermisProvides perspiration for evaporativecooling11

HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYSebaceous glandsProtect and stiffen distal tips of digitsProvide sensations of touch, pressure,temperature, painSweat glandsNailsStores lipids; attaches skin to deeperstructuresSensory receptorsSubcutaneous layerTHE SKELETAL SYSTEMProtects tissues; stores minerals; formsblood Provides support;Bones, cartilages and joints.Support, protect soft tissues and storeminerals.Axial skeleton (skull,vertebrae, ribs, sternum,sacrum, cartilages, andligaments)Protects brain, spinal cord, sense organs,and soft tissues of thoracic cavity;supports the body weight.Appendicular skeleton(limbs and supporting bonesand ligaments).Provides internal support and positioningof the limbs; supports and moves axialskeletonBone marrowActs as primary site of blood cellproduction (red blood cells, white bloodcells)Skeletal musclesProvide skeletal movement; controlentrances and exits of digestive tract;produce heat; support skeletal position;protect soft tissues12

HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYAxial musclesSupport and position axial skeletonCENTRAL NERVOUSSYSTEM (CNS)Acts as control center for nervous system;processes information; provides shortterm control over activities of othersystemsBrainPerforms complex integrative functions;controls both voluntary and autonomicactivitiesSpinal cordRelays information to and from brain;performs less-complex integrativefunctions and directs many simpleinvoluntary activitiesPeripheralnervous system (PNS)Links CNS with other systems and withsense organsTHE ENDOCRINESYSTEMDirects long-term changes in activities ofother organ systemsPineal glandMay control timing of reproduction andset day-night rhythmsControls other endocrine glands; regulatesgrowth and fluid balancePituitary glandControls tissue metabolic rate; regulatescalcium levelsThyroid glandRegulate calcium levels (with thyroid)Controls maturation of lymphocytesParathyroid glandsThymusAdjust water balance, tissue metabolism,cardiovascular and respiratory activity13

HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYAdrenal glandsControl red blood cell production andelevate blood pressureKidneysRegulates blood glucose levelsPancreasTestesSupport male sexual characteristics andreproductive functionsSupport female sexual characteristics andreproductive functionsOvariesTHE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEMTransports cells and dissolved materials,including nutrients, wastes, and gases.Propels blood; maintains blood pressureHEARTDistribute blood around the bodyBLOOD VESSELSCarry blood from heart to capillariesArteriesPermit diffusion between blood andinterstitial fluidsReturn blood from capillaries to the heartCapillariesVeinsBLOODTransports oxygen, carbon dioxide, andblood cells; delivers nutrients andhormones; removes waste products;assists in temperature regulation anddefense against disease.Source: Fundamentals of anatomy and Physiology, 5th Ed, Prentice-Hall,Inc,SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 2i.14Define homeostasis.

HEM 604BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODYii.Mention 3 characteristics of organ system.4.0CONCLUSIONThe relationship at each level determines the characteristics andfunctions of different organs in the human body.5.0SUMMARYIn this unit you have learnt that there are: Six levels of organization of the body. There are certain levels of r

Anatomy is the study of the structure of living things. b. Physiology is the science of the functioning of living organisms and their component parts. SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 2 i. Factors that determine divisions in anatomy are: a. Degree of structural detail under consideration 5. HEM 604 BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN BODY b. Specific processes c. Medical application ii. The analysis .

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