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—INSTRUCTION MANUALRS485 Modbus adapter for RVT controllerInstallation and start-up guide

—Table of contents1 Introduction. 31.1 Intended audience . 31.2 Before you start . 31.3 How to use this manual . 32 Overview. 42.1 Introduction to Modbus . 42.2 The Modbus adapter . 42.3 Compatibility. 43 Serial interface considerations . 53.1 Communication mode . 53.2 SINGLE ENDED versus DIFFERENTIAL data transmission . 53.3 RS-232 interface . 63.4 RS-422 interface . 63.5 RS-485 interface . 63.6 Bias resistors. 73.7 Termination resistors . 73.8 Shielding and grounding considerations . 73.9 Cable requirements . 73.10 Network topology. 84 RS485 Modbus adapter . 94.1 Main features . 94.2 Physical dimensions . 94.3 Mounting. 104.4 Technical data . 104.5 Commissioning process . 114.6 To set the COMMUNICATION LOCK parameter . 124.7 To test the communication.125 Modbus protocol overview . 135.1 Overview .135.1.1 Transactions on Modbus Networks .135.1.2 Serial Transmission Mode .135.2 Data Addresses in Modbus Messages . 145.3 Supported function codes . 146 Data access . 156.1 Access levels . 156.2 Minimum and maximum values. 156.3 Modbus Data table . 157 Troubleshooting . 167.1 Preferred method of testing. 167.2 Check of identical Slave – Master configuration . 167.3 Check the cabling of the RS485.177.4 Check the Transmit – Receive indicators .177.5 Check the function called and the register addresses . 177.6 Check the data access level and the limited range of data . 187.7 Counters and Loopback diagnostics . 187.8 Debugging tool and documents . 188 Appendices . 19A1 List of abbreviations . 19A2 References .21A3 Adequate choice of an RS232-RS485 converter at the computer side . 222 Table of contents RS485

—1 Introduction1.1 Intended audienceThis manual is intended for installers, commissioning people, network managerswho need to install an RS485 network, start or maintain a supervision systembased on the Modbus protocol.1.2 Before you startThis manual describes the RS485 Modbus adapter.To be able to access data of the Power Factor Controller RVT Touchscreen consistently,a basic knowledge of it is needed. Functionality of the RVT, meaning of variousmeasurements, logging of data are some particular aspects that should be familiar.If not, please refer to the RVT Installation and operating Instructions to get the sufficientknowledge.To know more about the RVT data access, please refer to the RVT Modbus data table.As other devices may be connected through the RS485 Modbus adapter, the term“controller” will be used here to define the device.1.3 How to use this manualChapter 2 is a short description of the Modbus adapter.Chapter 3 contains a description of the physical layer. Connection to a controller isdescribed.Chapter 4 gives all technical details concerning the Modbus adapter.Chapter 5 is an overview of the Modbus protocol and how Modbus is implemented in thecontroller.Chapter 6 contains the table reference and formats to access data.Chapter 7 is a reference in case of problemsChapter 8 is dedicated to annexesRS485 Introduction 3

—2 OverviewThis chapter contains a short description of the Modbus protocol and the RS485interface.2.1 Introduction to ModbusModbus is a serial, asynchronous protocol. The Modbus protocol does not specify thephysical interface. The typical physical interfaces are RS-232 and RS-485. The InterfaceModule uses the RS-485 interface.Modbus is designed for integration with PLCs or other automation devices, and theservices closely correspond to the PLC architecture.The Modbus commands and services supported by the Modbus adapter are discussedin Chapter 5.2.2 The Modbus adapterThe Modbus adapter is an optional device for the Power Factor Controller RVTTouchscreen which enables the connection of the RVT to a Modbus system. Thecontroller is considered as a slave unit in the Modbus network.Through the Modbus adapter it is possible to: Read measurements and logged values Read and write parameters settings of the controller Activate output relays Read status information Read device identification and type numbers2.3 CompatibilityThe Modbus adapter is compatible with any Power Factor Controller RVT Touchscreen.Other ABB controllers may be connected with the adapter.CAUTION: Be careful that the RS485 MODBUS ADAPTER is the one with a GREEN textcolour (3.3V power supply). The one with a WHITE text colour is reserved for the oldmodel (5V power supply).The Modbus protocol is compatible with all master stations that support the Modicondefined Modbus serial communication protocol.4 Overview RS485

—3 Serial interface considerationsThe Modbus protocol communicates with the instrumentation by means of an industrystandard serial interface. This interface may be RS-232, RS-422 or RS-485. Some systemsmay also support the protocol over other busses or networks, such as Ethernet.An RS-232 interface allows only two devices to be connected together.RS-422 supports 1 driver and up to 10 receivers on a single network.For bi-directional communications, special tri-state circuitry is provided. RS-485supports up to 32 driver/receiver pairs. With special hardware, the RS-422 and RS-485limits can be expanded to allow as many as 248 devices on a single network. Each deviceon a network must have a unique address, which may be soft configured. Address zerois reserved for broadcast messages from the host to all slaves.All devices on a network must also be configured with the same parameters, such asbaud rate and parity. In designing the communication architecture, one should considercommunications performance when deciding how many devices to connect to a hostport. Generally, nearly twice the performance can be achieved by splitting the devicesfrom one port, onto two ports.3.1 Communication modeMODBUS protocol uses half-duplex communications, regardless of the hardware.Half-duplex hardware shares the same lines for transmit and receive, whereas, fullduplex hardware has dedicated transmit and receive lines.3.2 SINGLE ENDED versus DIFFERENTIAL data transmissionSingle-ended transmission is performed on one signal line, and the logical state isinterpreted with respect to ground. The main disadvantage of the single-ended solutionis its poor noise immunity.For differential transmission, a pair of signal lines is necessary for each channel. On oneline, a true signal is transmitted, while on the second one, the inverted signal istransmitted. The receiver detects voltage difference between the inputs and switchesthe output depending on which input line is more positive. Differential datatransmission schemes are less susceptible to common-mode noise than single-endedschemes.RS485 Serial interface considerations 5

3.3 RS-232 interfaceAn RS-232 interface is rated for distances up to 15 meters (50 feet). At least three wiresare required for an RS-232 interface. Wires are required for Transmit, Receive and SignalGround. Some devices support additional wires for communication handshaking. RS-232hardware is a full-duplex configuration, having separate Transmit and Receive lines.Each signal that transmits in an RS-232 data transmission system appears on theinterface connector as a voltage with reference to a signal ground. The RS-232 receivertypically operates within the voltage range of 3 to 12 and -3 to -12 volts.3.4 RS-422 interfaceAn RS-422 interface requires at least four wires. Two wires each are used for Transmitand Receive. A fifth wire is usually required for Signal Ground, when connecting nonisolated devices together. Handshaking lines may also be supported by some hardware.This interface is full duplex, allowing use of the same software drivers as for RS-232. Thedifferential drivers allow for distances up to 1200 meters (4000 feet). The receivers of anRS-422 device are always enabled.3.5 RS-485 interfaceFor multi-drop operation, drivers must be capable of tri-state operation.An RS-485 interface requires at least two wires. In a two-wire configuration, the samepair of wires is used for Transmit and Receive. The two-wire configuration utilizes halfduplex communications. Transmit driver circuits are always taken off-line or tri-stated,when not in use. This tri-state feature reduces the load on the network, allowing moredevices, without the need of special hardware. This interface also uses differentialdrivers, supporting distances up to 1200 meters (4000 feet).In a differential system the voltage produced by the driver appears across a pair of signallines that transmit only one signal. A differential line driver will produce a voltage from 2to 6 volts across its A and B output terminals and will have a signal ground (C)connection. Although proper connection to the signal ground is important, it isn't usedby a differential line receiver in determining the logic state of the data line.6 Serial interface considerations RS485

A differential line receiver senses the voltage state of the transmission line across twosignal input lines, A and B. It will also have a signal ground (C) that is necessary in makingthe proper interface connection. If the differential input voltage Vab is greater than 200mV the receiver will have a specific logic state on its output terminal. If the input voltageis reversed to less than -200 mV, the receiver will create the opposite logic state on itsoutput terminal.3.6 Bias resistorsRS-422 and RS-485 networks often require bias, or pull-up and pull-down resistors. Theseresistors are used to stabilize the network. By definition, in a MODBUS RTU network, itis the responsibility of the Master to provide this function.Some systems may function without these stabilizing resistors, but may be moresusceptible to communication errors. Though the pull-up and pull-down resistors are thesame, the value of these resistors varies from device to device. The actual recommendedresistance may be calculated, and varies with the number of devices on the bus.3.7 Termination resistorsTermination resistors are often used to reduce reflections on the network. This problemoccurs most with long wires and high baud rates. Due to variations in wire andequipment, whether or not to use these terminators is usually determined by systemtesting. The general rule is to add them only if needed. The resistors are typically 120ohms, and installed across the Transmit and Receive wire pairs. Normally, one resistor isinstalled at each end of each pair of wires.3.8 Shielding and grounding considerationsThe signal ground conductor is often overlooked when ordering cable. An extra twistedpair must be specified to have enough conductors to run a signal ground. A two-wiresystem then requires two twisted pairs.It is often hard to quantify if shielded cable is required in an application or not. Since theadded cost of shielded cable is usually minimal it is worth installing the first time.3.9 Cable requirementsThe type of wire to use will vary with required length. Wire with twisted pairs and anoverall shield is used most often. The shield is tied to earth ground or chassis, andtypically at one end only (generally at the Modbus Master side). The shield is not to beRS485 Serial interface considerations 7

used as a signal common or ground. The table below lists typical cablerecommendations.RS-232Up to 15m (50ft) virtually any standard shielded twisted pair with drain (Belden 9502 orequivalent).RS-422 and RS-485Up to 1200m (4000ft) 24 AWG twisted pair with foil shield and drain wire on each pair(Belden 9841 for 2-wire and 9729 for 4-wire or equiv.).3.10 Network topologyVarious kinds of network topologies may be done on the basis of an RS485 Modbusnetwork.The Modbus network may be managed by a computer collecting data. Typically thiscomputer runs an OPC server connected to a plant intranet. OPC client applications maypresent this information to any supervision program that will perform the Humanmachine interface, data logging, and data setting It is also possible to manage the RS485 Modbus network through a PLC.Various kind of RS485 to RS232 converters exists.To bridge the Modbus network to another kind of software protocol, various kinds ofprotocol converters may be used. They are often called ‘protocol gateway: Modbus toProfibus, Ethernet, CAN 8 Serial interface considerations RS485

—4 RS485 Modbus adapterThe RS485 Modbus adapter enables the connection of the controller to an RS485Modbus network.4.1 Main featuresThe adapter is self-powered through the power supply of the controller. Advantage: an external power supply is not needed. Advantage: low power consumption.The adapter is fixed directly on the back side of the RVT. Advantage: the Modbus adapter does not need any rail DIN or such fixationmethods.The adapter is electrically isolated from the RVT power supply. Advantage: the RVT is protected against common mode voltage levels applied onthe RS485 network. Advantage: no ground loop.The adapter has an integrated terminator resistance which may be connected with aswitch. Advantage: no external device to be added.The adapter contains transient voltage suppressors. Advantage: the device and the network are protected against voltage surges.The adapter is fitted with transmission and reception indication LED’s. Advantage: it allows visualizing Modbus queries and Modbus answers.The controller allows a software adjustment of communication parameters. Advantage: no multiple hardware dipswitches to handle. Advantage: permits self-tuning of communication parameters with a higher levelsoftware application.4.2 Physical dimensionsThe Modbus adapter is especially suitable for application where space requirements areimportant.RS485 RS485 Modbus adapter 9

Fixing screw57 mmTX – RX led’s35 mmResistorTermination switchScrewed terminal forbus cable connectionExtra d

CAUTION: Be careful that the RS485 MODBUS ADAPTER is the one with a GREEN text colour (3.3V power supply). The one with a WHITE text colour is reserved for the old model (5V power supply). The Modbus protocol is compatible with all master stations that support the Modicon-defin

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