A Practical Guide For Students - Higher Education Pearson

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Fifth EditionFundamentalsof PhoneticsA Practical Guidefor StudentsLarry H. SmallBowling Green State UniversityA01 SMAL6492 05 SE FM.indd 108/11/18 7:55 PM

Director and Publisher: Kevin DavisPortfolio Manager: Aileen PogranManaging Content Producer: Megan MoffoContent Producer (Team Lead): Faraz Sharique AliContent Producer: Deepali MalhotraPortfolio Management Assistant: Maria FelibertyDevelopment Editor: Krista McMurrayExecutive Product Marketing Manager: Christopher BarryExecutive Field Marketing Manager: Krista ClarkProcurement Specialist: Deidra HeadleeCover Design: Pearson CSCCover Art: larionova Olga 11/ShutterstockFull Service Vendor: Pearson CSCFull Service Project Management: Pearson CSC, V anitha PuelaEditorial Project Manager: Pearson CSC, Clara BartunekPrinter-Binder: LSC CommunicationsCover Printer: PhoenixText Font: Charis SILCredits and acknowledgments for materials borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbookappear on the appropriate page within the text.Every effort has been made to provide accurate and current Internet information in this book. However, the Internet andinformation posted on it are constantly changing, so it is inevitable that some of the Internet addresses listed in this textbook willchange.Copyright 2020, 2016, 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 221 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030. All rights reserved. Printed inthe United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisherprior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please visit http://www.pearsoned.com/permissions/Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataNames: Small, Larry H., 1954– author.Title: Fundamentals of phonetics : A practical guide for students / Larry H.Small.Description: Fifth edition. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc., [2020] Includes bibliographical references and index.Identifiers: LCCN 2018036838 ISBN 9780135206492 ISBN 0135206499Subjects: LCSH: English language–Phonetics–Problems, exercises, etc. LCGFT: Problems and exercises.Classification: LCC PE1135 .S49 2018 DDC 421/.58–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/201803683810 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1ISBN-13: 978-0-13-520649-2ISBN-10:0-13-520649-9A01 SMAL6492 05 SE FM.indd 215/11/18 5:15 PM

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PrefaceThe idea to create this textbook began in 1996. I needed a phonetics textbookthat would coincide with the lecture material I used when teaching my ownphonetics course. So I began to write my own book. Little did I know I wouldbe revising the text for this fifth edition more than twenty years later!One of the guiding principles I followed when writing the first edition was toensure that anyone could pick up the book and understand the material. I havetried to follow this principle in all subsequent editions. This fifth edition is quitesimilar to earlier editions in terms of basic layout and organization. Each chapterhas been revised with updated material and new exercises. The book is filled witha wealth of exercises to assure that students become experts in basic phonetictranscription of American English. Answers to most of the exercises can be foundin the back of the book so that students can immediately receive feedback on theirprogress.It is not possible to learn phonetic transcription without having an abundanceof listening exercises. Therefore, audio recordings of many of the exercises areavailable as Audio Practice files in the e-textbook. These recordings are essentialin helping students learn the subtleties of pronunciation, both in relation to thesegmental and suprasegmental characteristics of speech.New to This Edition Learning Objectives have been updated in each chapter to reflect changes incontent.Chapter Summaries that shadow the Learning Objectives have been added tothe end of each chapter.Existing embedded exercises have been revised, and new ones have beenadded throughout the text.New material has been added to Chapter 2, Phonetic Transcription of Speech,including an expanded section on spelling versus sound. Additional information relating to word stress and consonant and vowel patterns in syllables alsohas been added to the chapter.New anatomical figures have been created for Chapter 3, Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism. A discussion of the source-filter theory of speechproduction also has been added.A new section on the application of speech acoustics in clinical practice hasbeen added to Chapter 6, Acoustic Characteristics of Vowels and Consonants.Chapter 9, Dialectal Variation, has been revised and updated with current census data relative to the population demographics of the United States. Additional material has been added on sociolinguistics and regional dialects.Online Resources have been updated to include additional websites thatshould prove beneficial to students’ understanding of phonetics.References have been updated to reflect current philosophies and best practices in the speech, language, and hearing professions.Starting with this edition, the IPA symbol /ɹ/ (“turned r”) will be used whentranscribing consonantal English “r” as in the words “rabbit” /ɹæbɪt/ and“star” /stɑɹ/. In previous editions, the symbol /r/ was used when transcribingconsonantal “r.” (The IPA symbol /r/ is a trill, a sound not part of the EnglishvA01 SMAL6492 05 SE FM.indd 508/11/18 7:55 PM

vi  Preface sound system; /r/ has been used in phonetic transcription over the years bymany speech and hearing professionals.) In order to remain consistent withthe principles of the IPA, and to avoid confusion, turned r will be used whentranscribing consonantal “r.”Supplemental audio recordings, called Audio Practice, are embedded in manyof the e-textbook chapters for transcription practice (the audio files also areavailable for the print version of this text).AcknowledgmentsI would not have been able to write this new edition without the assistance ofmany individuals who made the first four editions possible. First of all, I mustthank the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders at Ohio University (Athens) for providing the learning environment necessary for me to becomeknowledgeable in the area of phonetics. Specifically, I would like to thank mymentor Dr. Zinny Bond for her unfaltering support and friendship throughout theyears.A big thank you goes to Erik Trentrock and Mark Bunce at Bowling GreenState University who assisted me in the creation and recording of the audiotracks that accompany this text. Also, I would like to thank Rob Fox and Ewa Jacewicz at Ohio State University for allowing me to make several recordings inthe D epartment of Speech and Hearing Science.I would like to thank my previous Executive Editors with Pearson, Steve Dragin and Ann Davis. Their support was immeasurable throughout the first foureditions. Many thanks to my current Executive Editor, Aileen Pogran, who hasbeen incredibly supportive and encouraging. In addition, I want to extend a hugethank you to my Development Editor, Krista McMurray, who really helped in thetransition to a new editorial team.A final thank you goes to the reviewers for this fifth edition whose contributions greatly assisted me in the editing process: Andy McMillin from PortlandState University; Barabara Prakup from Cleveland State University; Joy E. Goodfrom Arkansas State University, Jonesboro; Mary Dale Trabue Fitzgerald from Tennessee State University; and William F. Katz from University of Texas at Dallas.A01 SMAL6492 05 SE FM.indd 608/11/18 7:55 PM

Brief Contents1Phonetics: A “Sound” Science12Phonetic Transcription of English93Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism414Vowels535Consonants1096Acoustic Characteristics of Vowels and Consonants1697Connected Speech1998Transcription of Speech Sound Disorders2399Dialectal Variation283References331Answers to Questions335Appendix381Glossary383Index389viiA01 SMAL6492 05 SE FM.indd 708/11/18 7:55 PM

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Contents1PrefacevPhonetics: A “Sound” Science1Phonetics and the International Phonetic Alphabet1Learning ObjectivesVariation in Phonetic PracticeThe IPA and Unicode FontsChapter SummaryStudy QuestionsOnline Resources246679The Differences Between Spelling and Sound10Syllables and their Components20Morphemes, Phonemes, and AllophonesPrimary Word StressBroad Versus Narrow, and Systematic Versus Impressionistic TranscriptionChapter SummaryReview ExercisesStudy QuestionsOnline ResourcesAssignmentsAnatomy and Physiology of the Speech MechanismLearning ObjectivesThe Respiratory System and RespirationThe Laryngeal System and PhonationThe Supralaryngeal System and ArticulationThe Vocal Tract and ResonanceChapter SummaryReview ExercisesStudy QuestionsOnline Resources43Phonetic Transcription of EnglishLearning Objectives31VowelsLearning ObjectivesEnglish Vowel and Diphthong ProductionTranscription of English Vowels and DiphthongsChapter SummaryReview ExercisesStudy QuestionsOnline 05052525353535794949999101ixA01 SMAL6492 05 SE FM.indd 908/11/18 7:55 PM

x  Contents5ConsonantsLearning ObjectivesConsonants Versus VowelsProduction of English Consonants: Manner, Place, and VoicingTranscription of the English ConsonantsChapter SummaryReview ExercisesStudy QuestionsOnline ResourcesAssignments6Acoustic Characteristics of Vowels and ConsonantsLearning ObjectivesTime, Frequency, and IntensityAcoustic Characteristics of Vowels and DiphthongsAcoustic Characteristics of ConsonantsClinical ApplicationChapter SummaryReview ExercisesStudy QuestionsOnline Resources7Connected SpeechLearning ObjectivesAssimilatory Processes in Connected SpeechNonassimilatory Processes in Connected SpeechSuprasegmental Aspects of SpeechChapter SummaryReview ExercisesStudy QuestionsOnline ResourcesAssignments8Transcription of Speech Sound DisordersLearning ObjectivesPhonological ProcessesTranscription of Speech Sound Disorders: DiacriticsTranscription of Speech Sound Disorders: Non-English PhonemesSuggestions for Increasing Accuracy in Phonetic TranscriptionChapter SummaryReview ExercisesStudy QuestionsOnline ResourcesAssignments9Dialectal VariationLearning ObjectivesFormal and Informal Standard American EnglishDefining Regional DialectsSocial and Ethnic DialectsA01 SMAL6492 05 SE FM.indd 025026126626726827127127328328328328629508/11/18 7:55 PM

Contents xiLearning English as a Second Language298Chapter Summary315Accent Modification with English Language LearnersReview ExercisesStudy QuestionsOnline ResourcesAssignmentsA01 SMAL6492 05 SE FM.indd 11314316324324327References331Answers to Questions335Appendix381Glossary383Index38908/11/18 7:55 PM

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Fundamentalsof PhoneticsA01 SMAL6492 05 SE FM.indd 1308/11/18 7:55 PM

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1 Phonetics: A “Sound” Science 1 Learning Objectives 1 Phonetics and the International Phonetic Alphabet 1 Variation in Phonetic Practice 3 The IPA and Unicode Fonts 4 Chapter Summary 6 Study Questions 6 Online Resources 7 2 Phonetic Transcription of English 9 Learning O

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