1y ago
7.64 MB
453 Pages
Last View : 15d ago
Last Download : 9m ago
Upload by : Luis Wallis


Board of Studies and Programme CoordinatorBoard of StudiesProf. H.C.S.BishtDepartment of ZoologyDSB Campus,Kumaun University,NainitalProf. B.D.JoshiRetd.Prof.Department of ZoologyGurukul Kangri UniversityHaridwarDr.N.N.PandeyPrincipal Scientist,Directorate of Coldwater FisheriesResearch (ICAR)Bhimtal (Nainital).Prof. H.C.TiwariRetd. Prof. & PrincipalDepartment of Zoology,MB Govt.PG CollegeHaldwani Nainital.Dr. Shyam S.KunjwalDepartment of ZoologySchool of Sciences, Uttarakhand Open UniversityProgramme CoordinatorDr. Shyam S.KunjwalDepartment of ZoologySchool of Sciences, Uttarakhand Open UniversityHaldwani, NainitalUnit writing and EditingEditorDr. Mahesh KumarDepartment of ZoologyMB Govt.PG College Haldwani(Kumaun University Nainital)Uttarakhand (India).WriterDr. Suneeta NegiAssociate ProfessorDepartment of ZoologyGovt.PG College Kotdwar(HNB Garhwal)UniversityDr.Shyam S.KunjwalDepartment of ZoologySchool of SciencesUttarakhand Open UniversityHaldwani (Nainital)Dr.Poonam TripathiAssistant ProfessorDepartment of ZoologyMB Govt.PG College Haldwani(Kumaun University Nainital)Uttarakhand (India).

Shruti SaxenaAssistant ProfessorDepartment of ZoologySGRRPG College, DehradunDr.Manisha UniyalAssistant ProfessorDepartment of ZoologySGRRPG College, DehradunDr.N.C.KhanduriAssistant ProfessorDepartment of ZoologyGovt.PG College AgustyamuniCourse Title and Code ISBNCopyrightEditionPublished By: Practical Zoology (BSCZO 104): 978-93-85740-56-5: Uttarakhand Open University: 2017: Uttarakhand Open University, Haldwani, Nainital- 263139

BSCZO-104Practical ZoologyDEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGYSCHOOL OF SCIENCESUTTARAKHAND OPEN UNIVERSITYPhone No. 05946-261122, 261123Toll free No. 18001804025Fax No. 05946-264232, E. mail: [email protected]://uou.ac.in

ContentsCourse 4: Practical ZoologyCourse code: BSCZO104Credit: 3UnitBlock and Unit titlenumber123Pagenumber1-288Block 1 Museum Specimen StudyProtozoa: Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena, Ceratium and Noctiluca. 1-33Plasmodium, Monocystis, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Ent-amoeba andGiardia.Porifera: Leucosolenia, Grantia, Scypha, Hyalonema, Euplectella, Spongilla 34-55and Euspongia. L. S. and T. S. of Scypha & Grantia.Coelentrata: Medusa of Obelia, larval stages of Aurelia, Physalia, Porpita, Vellela, 56-85Tubipora, Millepora, Aurelia, Gorgonium, Pennatua, Alcyonium, Adamsia.4Platyhelminthes: Dugesia, Fasciola and Taenia.Transverse sections of 86-110Fasciola and Taenia, mature and gravid proglottids of Taenia, developmentalstages of Fasciola and Taenia.5Nematoda: Ascaris, Ancylostoma, Dracunculus, Wuchereria, Trichinella, 111-131Schistosoma and Enterobius.6Annelida: Nereis, Heteronereis, Aphrodite, Arenicola, Pheretima,132-160Pontobdella, and Hirudinaria. Transverse sections of Nereis and Hirudinaria,Trochophore larva of Nereis, Parapodium of Nereis and HeteronereisArthropoda : Limulus, Spider, Palamnaeus, Apus, Lepas, Balanus, 161-229Sacculina,Palaemon, Lobster, Eupagurus, Crab, Lepisma,Odontotermes, Pediculus, Schistocerca, Papilio, Bombyx,Xenopsylla, Apis, Julus and Scolopendra. Crustacean larvae(Nauplius, Zoea, Megalopa and Mysis), mosquito larva & pupa.Sacculina, Lice, flea, bedbug, tick and mitesMollusca: Chiton, Dentalium, Sepia, Patella, Pila, Turbinella, Aplysia, Slug, Snail, 230-26578Mytilus, Octopus. Transverse sections of Lamellidens and Glochidium larva.910Enchinodermata: Pentaceros, Asterias, Ophiothrix, Echinus, HolothuriaandAntedon. Pedicellariae of Star fish.266-288Block 2 Experimentation289-448Study of living animals: Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena, Hydra and rectal 289-320ciliates

1112Minor dissections /Permanent slide preparation: Permanent preparations / 321-354Minor dissections of the following: Paramecium Porifera: Spongespicules and gemmules. Coelenterates: Obelia colony, Obeliamedusa. Arthropoda: Mouth parts of honey bee, butterfly,cockroach and grasshopper.355-409Cytological study:a. Study of mitosis and meiosis using available material.b. Study of permanent slides showing stages of cell division, giantchromosome, , mitochondria, Golgi body etc13Genetics experiment:Experimentation on Mendelian and non – Mendelian inheritance, study ofmutants of Drosophila through charts/photographs.410-448

ZO-104: Practical ZoologyUttarakhand Open UniversityUNIT 1: PROTOZOA (STUDY OF PERMANENTSLIDES)Contents1.1- Objectives1.2-Introduction1.3- General Character & Classification1.4- Study of Protozoan’s:1.4.1- Amoeba and Paramecium1.4.2- Euglena1.4.3- Ceratium & Noctiluca1.4.5- Plasmodium & Trypnosoma1.4.6-Leishmania, Entamoeba and Giardia1.5- Summary1.6- Glossary1.8-References1.9-Suggested ReadingsPage 1

ZO-104: Practical ZoologyUttarakhand Open University1.1-Objectives: To study General characters of Phylum Protozoa and its classification up to order. Study of permanent slides & study of Protozoan’s with particular reference to Amoeba,Paramecium, Ceratium, Noctiluca, Euglena, Plasmodium , Monocystis, Trypnosoma,Leishmania , Entamoeba and Giardia.1.2-Introduction The Protozoa are heterogeneous assemblage of some 50,000 cellular or single- cellorganism found worldwide in most habitats. Protozoa means ‘first animal’ the simplestform of animal life. Protozoa are unicellular microorganisms (eukaryotes) that lack cellwalls. They are found in marine habitat or soil, in fresh water bodies, symbiotic, someforms are parasites in other organisms. Protozoa depends on nutrition, temperature, pH,and some depends on sunlight. Protozoa weredefinedasunicellular protists with animal-likebehavior,suchas movement. Protozoa were regarded as the partner group of protists to protophyta,which have plant-like behavior, e.g. photosynthesis. The term protozoan has becomehighly problematic due to the introduction of modern ultra structural, biochemical, andgenetic techniques, which have showed that the group does not form a clade as requiredby modern classifications. Modern unicellular clades within Eukaryotes which may ssofprotozoainclude: Excavata, Amoeba, Chromalveolata and Rhizaria. Protozoan’s are usually single-celled heterotrophic eukaryotes containing nonfilamentous structures that belong to any of the major lineages of protists. They arerestricted to moist or aquatic habitats (i.e., they are obligate aquatic organisms). Manyprotozoan species are symbionts, some are parasites, and some are predators of fecesbacteria and algae. There are an estimated 50,000 protozoan species.Page 2

ZO-104: Practical Zoology Uttarakhand Open UniversityThe Protozoa are considered to be a subkingdom of the kingdom Protista, although in theclassical system they were placed in the kingdom Animalia. More than 50,000 specieshave been described, most of which are free-living organisms; protozoa are found inalmost every possible habitat. The fossil record in the form of shells in sedimentaryrocks shows that protozoa were present in the Pre-Cambrian era. Anton vanLeeuwenhoek was the first person to see protozoa, using microscopes he constructedwith simple lenses. Between 1674 and 1716, he described, in addition to free-livingprotozoa, several parasitic species from animals, and Giardia lamblia from his ownstools.1.3- General Characters of phylum Protozoa:1. Protozoa are microscopic animalcules with very simple organization.2. These are unicellular, having one or more nuclei.3. The body may be naked or protected either with the pellicle or with skeleton in the formof test or cyst.4. The single cell of the body performs all the vital activities i.e. there is no physiologicaldivision of labour.5. Animalcules may be “free living, commensal or parasitic. The free living forms areaquatic, inhabiting fresh and slat waters. These may be solitary or colonial. The parasiticforms reside on or inside the body of animals and plants.6. Nutrition may be holozoic (animal-like), holophytic (plant-like), saprozoic (subsisting ondead organic matter.) saprophytic (feeding on liquid food) or parasitic.7. The digestion is intracellular and is accomplished inside the food vacuole.8. Locomotory organs may be pseudopodia or flagella or cilia or absent.9. Respiration and excretion are brought about through the general body surface. Thecontractile vacuoles help in osmoregulation and excretion.10. Asexual reproduction by binary fission, multiple fission and budding and Sexualreproduction by gamete formation or by the conjugation of adult.Page 3

ZO-104: Practical ZoologyUttarakhand Open UniversityClassification of Protozoa:Outline Classification of Phylum Protozoa:Subphylum: 1.SarcomastigophoraSuperclass: 1.MastigophoraClassA. Phytomastigophorea (Phytoflagellata)Orders: 1. Chrysomonadida 4. Euglenida2. Cryptomonadida 5. Chloromonadida3. Dinoflagellida6. VolvocidaClass B. Zoomastigophora (Zooflagellata)1. Rhizomastigida 2. Kinetoplastida3. Choanoflagellida 4. Diplomonadida5. Hypermastigida 6. TrichomonadidaSuper class: 2 OpalinataOpalinidaOrder:Superclass: 3SarcodinaRhizopodeaClass: ASubclass :(a)LobosiaOrders: 1.Amoebida 2. Arcellinida ( Testacida)Subclass b. FilosiaSubclass c: GranuloreticulosiaOrder: 1.ForaminiferidaClass B.PiroplasmeaOrder:PiroplasmidaClass C.ActinopodeaSubclass a. Acantharia b. Heliozoiac. Radiolaria d. Proteomyxidiae. MycetozoaSubphylum: II SporozoaClass A. TelosporeaPage 4

ZO-104: Practical ZoologyUttarakhand Open UniversitySubclasses: a. Gregarinia b. coccidianClasses B Toxoplasmea C. HaplosporeaSubphylum: III CnidosporaClasses A: Myxosporidea B: MicrosporideaSub-phylum: IV CiliophoraClass:a. CiliataSubclass:a. Holotricha1. Gymnostomatida 2. Trichostomatida3. Chonotrichida4. Apostomatida5. Astomatida6. HymenostomatidaSubclass: b. PeritrichiaOrder: 1. PertrichidaSubclass: c. SuctoriaOrder: suctoridaSubclass: d. Spirotrichia Orders: 1. Heterotrichida2. Oligotrichida3. Hypotrichida1.4-Study of Protozoan’s:1.4.1 Amoeba and ParameciumAmoeba:Systematic roteusFig: 1 AmoebaPage 5

ZO-104: Practical ZoologyUttarakhand Open UniversityHabit and Habitat:Amoeba proteus is widely distributed. It is commonly found on the bottom mud or on undersideof aquatic vegetation in fresh water ponds, lakes, springs, pools and slow running streams. It israrely found in, free water as it requires a substratum to glide on from place to place.Distribution: - It is found all over the world.Identifying Characters:123456789Animal is irregular shape, with simple or branched pseudopodia measuring 250 to 600microns in diameter.Cytoplasm is differentiated into ectoplasm and endoplasm. Ectoplasm containsectoplasmic ridges.Body of the animal is covered by a thin, delicate and permeable plasma membrane, calledas plasma lemma.Endoplasm contains nucleus, food vacuole, contractile vacuoles, water globules andcrystals.Permanent posterior end is called as uroid.Withdrawal of pseudopodium and new pseudopodium containing endoplasm is presentFeeding may be studied by giving carmine. Nutrition is holozoic.Reproduction by binary fission & Multiple fissionAmoeba proteus move by the formation of pseudopodia.Pseudopodia are blunt, fingerlike extensions of the ectoplasm containing endoplasm (lobo podium).Special significance: Amoeba has unique phylogenetic significance and it is referred asimmortal. Recently certain free living Amoeba has been found to be pathogenic causingmeningeo encephalic.Identification: Since the animal has pseudopodia and above feature, hence it is Amoebaproteus.Page 6

ZO-104: Practical ZoologyUttarakhand Open UniversityParamecium:ClassificationPhylum ProtozoaSubphylum .CiliophoraClass CiliataSubclass EuciliataOrder HolotrichaSuborder TrichostomataFamily .ParamecidaeGenus ParameciumFig.2 ParameciumHabit and habitat: - Paramecium is best known ciliate, found in fresh water ponds, rivers,lakes, streams and pools, etc.Distribution: - It has cosmopolitan distribution.Identifying Characters:12345Commonly called as slipper animalcule, being microscopic, elongated, slipper- shapedcigar-shaped or spindle shaped.Most familiar and extensively studied protozoans.Pellicle covers the body. It is clear firm and elastic cuticular membrane. Pellicle hasseries of polygonal or hexagonal depressions for trichocysts.Paramecia propel themselves by whiplash movements of their cilia, which are arrangedin tightly spaced rows around the outside of their body.The beat of each cilium has two phases: a fast "effective stroke," during which the ciliumis relatively stiff, followed by a slow "recovery stroke," during which the cilium curlsloosely to one side and sweeps forward in a counter-clockwise fashion.Page 7

ZO-104: Practical ZoologyUttarakhand Open University6The densely arrayed cilia move in a coordinated fashion, with waves of activity movingacross the "ciliary carpet," creating an effect sometimes likened to that of the windblowing across a field of grain.7Paramecia live mainly by heterotrophy, feeding on bacteria and other small organisms.A few species are mixotrophs, deriving some nutrients from endosymbiontic algae(chlorella) carried in the cytoplasm of the cell.8Osmoregulation is carried out by contractile vacuoles, which actively expel water fromthe cell to compensate for fluid absorbed by osmosis from its surroundings9The number of contractile vacuoles varies from one, to many, depending on species10 Paramecia reproduce asexually, by binary fission. During reproduction, themacronucleus splits by a type of amitosis, and the micronuclei undergo mitosis. The cellthen divides transversally, and each new cell obtains a copy of the micronucleus and themacronucleus.11 Fission may occur spontaneously, in the course of the vegetative cell cycle. Under certainconditions, it may be preceded by self-fertilization (auto gamy), or it may followconjugation, a sexual phenomenon in which Paramecia

ZO-104: Practical Zoology Uttarakhand Open University Page 6 Habit and Habitat: Amoeba proteus is widely distributed. It is commonly found on the bottom mud or on underside of aquatic vegetation in fresh water ponds, lakes, springs, pools and slow running streams. It is .