A Level Geography Examiner Marked Student Responses Paper 1

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A Level Geography Examiner MarkedStudent ResponsesPaper 1Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced GCE in Geography (9GE0)

A Level Geography Examiner MarkedStudent ResponsesContentsIntroduction2Example 1 - Question 1 (b)3Example 2 - Question 2 (a)10Example 3 - Question 2 (b)15Example 4 - Question 2 (c)20Example 5 - Question 2 (d)24Example 6 - Question 3 (a) (i) and (ii)31Example 7 - Question 3 (b)Example 8 - Question 3 (c)3740

9GE0/01 Paper 1IntroductionThis guide has been created using student responses to our sampleassessment materials in A level Geography Paper 1 (9GEO/01). Theanswers and examiner commentaries in this guide can be used to showthe standards in the A level Geography assessment.Paper 1 assesses the physical geography topics in the A level Geographyspecification and is split into 3 sections:Section A: Students answer all question partsQuestion 1: Tectonic Processes and HazardsSection B: Students answer either Question 2 or Question 3Question 2: Glaciated Landscape and ChangeQuestion 3: Coastal Landscape and ChangeSection C: Students answer all question partsQuestion 4: The Water Cycle and Water Insecurity and The CarbonCycle and Energy SecurityThe exam duration is 2 hours and 15 minutes. The paper is marked out of105 marks and is worth 30% of the qualification.The exam paper will include open response, calculation and resourcelinked questions and calculators will be required. The marks per questionitem increase throughout each question so that each question willculminate with an extended open response question. Question 1 willculminate in a 12 mark extended open response question. Questions 2, 3and 4 will culminate in a 20 mark extended open response question.Our command words are defined in our specification, please see page 95,and will remain the same for the lifetime of the specification. Questionswill only ever use a single command word and command words are usedconsistently across question types and mark tariffs. Our AS and A levelGeography Getting Started Guide contains more information about thecommand words and mark tariffs used for different types of questions.2 Pearson Education Ltd 2017

9GE0/01 Paper 19GE0/01 Paper 1SECTION A: TECTONIC PROCESSES AND HAZARDSExample 1 – Question 1 (b)Mark scheme Pearson Education Ltd 20173

9GE0/01 Paper 14 Pearson Education Ltd 2017

9GE0/01 Paper 1 Pearson Education Ltd 20175

9GE0/01 Paper 1Student answers to 1 (b)Governance plays a very important role in successful management of megadisasters, for example if a very corrupt government is receiving aid andmoney from foreign countries to help those affected it is unlikely that theaid will reach the majority of those who need it. Also how organised thegovernment is plays a very big part as if the government hasn’t made stepsto modify loss, modify the event, or modifying resilience and vulnerabilityof the population then there will be bigger losses. An example of this isfound in the Tohuku tsunami and earthquake and the Haiti earthquake. Bothwere mega-disasters with 230,000 dying in the Haiti disaster and just12,000 dying in the Tohuku disaster despite it being a more serious andpowerful event. This difference in deaths was due to two governmentshaving different amounts of success in managing the disasters. TheJapanese government had evacuated its population, trained its army to dealwith this disaster, performed extensive risk assessments, and implementedplans in the event of a disaster. All of these management strategies weresuccessful and it was due to the governance. However in the Haitiearthquake very little was done by the government both in the preparationfor an event and to modify loss afterwards, this was mostly done by someNGOs afterwards. However it is possible that the different loses of the twoevents is due to their different levels of development as Japan can affordtechnology and other things in a disaster.In conclusion governance plays a very important role in successfulmanagement of tectonic mega-disasters. However it is not the only role asa country’s development is also another factor.Examiner s commentsThis response is awarded 9 marks.The candidate starts by making an unsubstantiated point on how poorgovernance (corruption) would not successfully manage tectonic megadisasters. Although the candidate is getting AO2 marks here it would havebeen better to use a named example – perhaps using the Izmit earthquake asa possible exemplar.The candidate then went on to explain how good governance throughpreparation and response limited the damage caused by the Japanese 2011tsunami resulting from the Tohoku earthquake compared to the Haiti 2010earthquake. The candidate did, however, evaluate the role of governance byexamining the role of different levels of economic development in causing thedifferences in the impacts between these two mega-disasters.6 Pearson Education Ltd 2017

9GE0/01 Paper 1This allows the candidate to access Level 3 as the answer shows some of theAO2 characteristics namely: Applies knowledge and understanding of geographical information/ideaslogically, making relevant connections/relationships. (AO2) Applies knowledge and understanding of geographical information/ideas tomake supported judgements about the significance of factors throughout theresponse, leading to a balanced and coherent argument. (AO2)The candidate could have developed their answer further into Level 3 byexamining the issues caused by long return intervals as well as short-termbudgetary constraints. This would have meant the candidate was secure inAO2 characteristic: Applies knowledge and understanding of geographical information/ideas toproduce a full and coherent interpretation that is relevant and supported byevidence. (AO2)A mega-disaster is where 2500 people were killed and the GDP of thatcountry was reduced by 5% for a year. Before a disaster occurs, earlywarning systems can be put in place to alert people before a disaster strikes.This allows people to escape safely via evacuation plan routes. Also thegovernment can invest in hazard proof infrastructure, which stops buildingfrom collapsing which reduces the impact of the disaster. Also they canallocate a budget for repair. This budget will cover most items in order toreturn to a good quality of life. Also people can insure possessions in casethey get broke or destroyed during a natural disaster. A stable governmentwill rebuild fast and recover fast but also build to a higher quality of lifethan before. However, an unstable government will take longer to rebuildbut also to a lower quality of life than before due to insufficient funding. Ifhighly invested in natural disaster strategies, it will reduce the overallimpact of the hazard. However if not prepared against, the hazard will havea greater effect. Often, if a hazard is left unprepared it will leave the countryin a state of total poverty.Examiner s commentsThis response is awarded 7 marks.The candidate discusses a variety in ways (which can be considered asexamples) in which the impacts of tectonic hazards can be reduced, but asthere are no named exemplars used these management strategies are rathergeneric to tectonic hazards and not to tectonic mega-disasters. They are alsonot clearly linked to governance. The candidate then assesses the need forgovernance by examining the likely impacts of not having any governance. Asa result it was thought that the candidate demonstrated Level 2 AO1 as theyshowed: Pearson Education Ltd 20177

9GE0/01 Paper 1 Demonstrates geographical knowledge and understanding, which ismostly relevant and may include some inaccuracies. (AO1)To obtain Level 3 the candidate could have used named examples to supportthe discussion of management strategies. The candidate could have also usedmega-disaster examples.The candidate also demonstrated Level 2 AO2 as the response showed: Applies knowledge and understanding of geographical information/ideaslogically, making some relevant connections/relationships. (AO2) Applies knowledge and understanding of geographical information/ideasto produce a partial but coherent interpretation that is mostly relevantand supported by evidence. (AO2) Applies knowledge and understanding of geographical information/ideasto make judgements about the significance of some factors, to producean argument that may be unbalanced or partially coherent. (AO2)To obtain a higher mark the candidate should ensure that the answer is focusedon what constitutes successful management and how governance plays a rolein it.Park's model is used to show the quality of life over time after a hazardevent takes place. The advantages of this are that the curves can be drawnon the same graph, as well as showing the development. However, thedisadvantages are that it is general and does not show the different levelsof development. Another way is to build the resilience a community has toa mega-disaster. This could be done by changing the way a building isconstructed to prevent it from falling. As well as making adaptations to acommunity to increase the resilience so that it is able to live in an activetectonic site. However increasing the resilience can also be hard to dobecause many disasters can be hard to predict and to reduce thevulnerability and increase the resilience, changes must be made before thedisaster take place.Also the amount of money that is put into the management can alsodetermine how successful it is. More money can be spent on managementin a MEDC, such as America and Japan, which means there will be a higherchance of the management being successful. This is the opposite to themoney spent on management in Asia and countries surrounding the IndianOcean. As well as there being no money to put into management in LEDCs,there may also be corruption in the government which stops the moneythat's meant to be spent on management being spent on something else.8 Pearson Education Ltd 2017

9GE0/01 Paper 1This therefore increases the vulnerability that that country has to thedisasters.Examiner s commentsThis response is awarded 4 marks.The candidate starts by evaluating the Parks model of how a country respondsto a tectonic event and so is not focused on the question. The candidate thenexamines whether the resilience of a community can be improved but lacksexemplars as well as a clear link to governance and mega-disasters. Thecandidate then examines the role of the level of economic development butagain is not focused on the key words of the essay - what constitutes successfulmanagement and how governance plays a role in it.It therefore demonstrates Level 1 AO1 namely: Demonstrates isolated elements of geographical knowledge andunderstanding, some of which may be inaccurate or irrelevant. (AO1)It therefore also demonstrates Level 1 AO2 namely: rmation/ideas, making limited logical connections/relationships.(AO2) Applies knowledge and understanding of geographical information/ideasto produce an interpretation with limited relevance and/or support.(AO2) Applies knowledge and understanding of geographical information/ideasto make unsupported or generic judgements about the significance offew factors, leading to an argument is unbalanced or lacks coherence.(AO2) Pearson Education Ltd 20179

9GE0/01 Paper 1SECTION B: LANDSCAPE SYSTEMS, PROCESSES ANDCHANGEExample 2 – Question 2 (a)10 Pearson Education Ltd 2017

9GE0/01 Paper 1Mark scheme Pearson Education Ltd 201711

9GE0/01 Paper 1Student answers to 2 (a)12 Pearson Education Ltd 2017

9GE0/01 Paper 1Examiner s commentsThis response is awarded 6 marks.The candidate starts by explaining the formation of a sandur. The candidateobtains AO1 marks by describing the braided river system but then obtainsAO2 marks by linking the meltwater to the sorted nature of the sandur.Similarly the candidate is obtaining AO1 by describing kettle holes and varvesand AO2 by linking the formation of these features with meltwater.The answer was therefore thought to be very secure in Level 3 as it showedthe attributes of a Level 3 answer namely: Demonstrates accurate and relevant geographical knowledge andunderstanding throughout. (AO1) Applies knowledge and understanding to geographical informationlogically to find fully relevant connections/relationships betweenstimulus material and the question. (AO2) Pearson Education Ltd 201713

9GE0/01 Paper 1Examiner s commentsThis response is awarded 6 marks.This answer was also thought to be secure in Level 3. The candidate explainsthe formation of a sorted outwash plain and so gains AO2 marks. The candidatealso explains how the gorge was formed due to increases in erosion alsogaining AO2 marks. Although there was some misunderstanding of kettleholes the answer was still thought to demonstrate most of the characteristicsof a Level 3 answer and so it was decided that this was worth Level 3 6 marks.This is an example of positive marking where even though one part of theanswer wasn’t fully correct, there was still enough AO2 material in the answerto obtain 6 marks.14 Pearson Education Ltd 2017

9GE0/01 Paper 1Examiner s commentsThis response is awarded 4 marks.Although the candidate has explained the formation of the sandur and soobtains AO1 marks. They have not however explained the likely stratificationthat would occur, which would have secured higher AO2 marks. In addition,the explanation of the pro-glacial lake is not explicitly linked to the diagram(where it has been created by a tongue of high land) and instead there is ‘textbook’ explanation. It is important to stress to students that Level 3 has to have‘fully relevant connections’ to the stimulus material. In this case it was thoughtthat the answer only showed ‘some relevant connections.This answer is thought therefore to be secure in Level 2. This is because itdisplays the characteristics of the Level 2 descriptors: Demonstrates geographical knowledge and understanding, which ismostly relevant and may include some inaccuracies. (AO1) Applies knowledge and understanding to geographical information tofind some relevant connections/relationships between stimulus materialand the question. (AO2)Example 3 – Question 2 (b) Pearson Education Ltd 201715

9GE0/01 Paper 1Mark scheme16 Pearson Education Ltd 2017

9GE0/01 Paper 1Student answers to 2 (b)Examiner s commentsThis response is awarded 6 marks.The candidate starts by describing the formation of terminal moraines and soobtains AO1 marks. The candidate then has descriptions (AO1 marks) andexplanations (AO2 marks) of how drumlins and recessional moraines can helpreconstruct ice movement, which are good as they clearly indicated how thedirection of ice movement is related to the characteristics of the features i.e.‘Therefore ice has moved up stoss ’.Although some of the explanations are not always accurate (there is someconfusion over terminal and push moraines), it was thought that this answerwas secure in Level 3 and was awarded 6 marks. This is because it displaysthe requirements of Level 3 which are: Demonstrates accurate and relevant geographical knowledge andunderstanding throughout. (AO1) Applies knowledge and understanding to geographical informationlogically to find fully relevant connections/relationships betweenstimulus material and the question. (AO2) Pearson Education Ltd 201717

9GE0/01 Paper 1Examiner s commentsThis response is awarded 3 marks.This answer starts correctly in partially explaining how the use of terminalmoraines can be used to reconstruct ice movement and so obtains AO2 marks.The candidate also describes the formation of kettle holes obtaining AO1 marksbut has only a partial explanation of how they can be used to reconstruct icemovement. The candidate is then diverted into explaining varves which is notcreditworthy.This answer was thought therefore to be Level 2 (3 marks) as it has some AO2marks. This is because it displays the characteristics of Level 2 namely: Demonstrates geographical knowledge and understanding, which ismostly relevant and may include some inaccuracies. (AO1) Applies knowledge and understanding to geographical information tofind some relevant connections/relationships between stimulus materialand the question. (AO2)18 Pearson Education Ltd 2017

9GE0/01 Paper 1Examiner s commentsThis response is awarded 2 marks.In contrast this candidate struggles to obtain AO2 marks. The candidateobtains AO1 marks by explaining the formation of recessional moraines, butas there was no explanation of how to date the moraines their response doesnot obtain AO2 marks. Although the candidate does obtain AO1 marks for thedescription of a drumlin they do not gain AO2 marks as their description is notlinked to reconstructing ice movement. Both of these elements of the answerare indicative of a key part of the Level 1 descriptor: Applies knowledge and understanding to geographical informationinconsistently.This answer was thought therefore to be top of Level 1 (2 marks). This isbecause it displays the characteristics of Level 1 namely: Demonstrates isolated or generic elements of geographical knowledgeand understanding, some of which may be inaccurate or irrelevant.(AO1) Applies knowledge and understanding to geographical informationinconsistently. Connections/relationships between stimulus material andthe question may be irrelevant. (AO2) Pearson Education Ltd 201719

9GE0/01 Paper 1Example 4 – Question 2 (c)Mark scheme20 Pearson Education Ltd 2017

9GE0/01 Paper 1Student answers to 2 (c) Pearson Education Ltd 201721

9GE0/01 Paper 1Examiner s commentsThis response is awarded 8 marks.The answer starts well by defining what the candidate understands to be aglacial system. This is a good approach to 8 mark knowledge andunderstanding questions as it focuses the remainder of the answer on glacialsystems as opposed to a description of the glacial mass balance. The studentalso clearly links the glacial mass balance to the glacial system. The studentthen clearly links the variations in a glacial balance to corresponding variationsin the glacial system.This was thought to be very secure in Level 3 and so was awarded 8 marks asit displays the characteristics of a Level 3 answer namely: Demonstrates accurate and relevant geographical knowledge andunderstanding throughout. (AO1) Understanding addresses a broad range of geographical ideas, which aredetailed and fully developed. (AO1)As with the exemplars for Q2a and Q2b it is important to remember thatalthough the response might also have included a consideration of temporalas well as altitudinal variations in the mass balance of a glacier, and how thismight aid our understanding of a glacial system, there was still enough AO1information in the answer to award Level 3 8 marks.22 Pearson Education Ltd 2017

9GE0/01 Paper 1Examiner s commentsThis response is awarded 5 marks.In contrast to the previous answer this candidate has focused on the conceptof mass balance and then implicitly linked it to the glacial system. Theirresponse could have been improved by explicitly linking the last sentence tohow variations in the mass balance aids our understanding of the glacialsystem.This was thought to be high Level 2 as it displayed the characteristics ofLevel 2 namely: Demonstrates geographical knowledge and understanding, which ismostly relevant and may include some inaccuracies.(AO1) Understanding addresses a range of geographical ideas, which are notfully detailed and/or developed. (AO1) Pearson Education Ltd 201723

9GE0/01 Paper 1Examiner s commentsThis response is awarded 2 marks.The candidate has not focused on the question as, unlike the other twoanswers, it has no links (explicitly or implicitly) to how the glacial mass balanceconcept contributes to an understanding of glacial systems. Instead theirresponse is an explanation of the mass balance of a glacier.This answe

assessment materials in A level Geography Paper 1 (9GEO/01). The answers and examiner commentaries in this guide can be used to show the standards in the A level Geography assessment. Paper 1 assesses the physical geography topics in the A level Geography specification and is split into 3 sections: Section A: Students answer all question parts

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