Introduction To Digital Voice And DMR Presented At The San .

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Introduction to Digital Voice and DMRPresented at the San Diego HamfestDavid Hull, KC6NOctober 6, 2018

Contents Introduction to Digital Voice Digital Voice Radio Implementation Characteristics of DV systems Wide Area Networking Methodologies Available Equipment On line resources Demos (if time permits)

What is going on in a DV radio?

Digital FM Transmitter

Digital FM Receiver

DSTAR Receiver signalsSampleSample1GMSK Receiver Eye DiagramShowing decision region boundaries0

4-FSK/C4FM Receiver signalsSampleSample100001114-PAM Receiver Eye DiagramShowing decision region boundaries

Unique Characteristics of Digital Voice Systems:Modulation, Access, Spectral Efficiency and Performance

Modulation Schemes for DV Five specifications, two different modulation schemes C4FM (4FSK) based systems DMR – ETSI administered StandardProject 25 (P25) – APCO administered StandardNXDN – Kenwood/ICOM SpecificationYaesu System Fusion – Yaesu Specification GMSK (2FSK) based Systems DSTAR – JARL administered Standard None of these are interoperable one to another

Spectrum Sharing Methods Frequency Division Multiple Access Traditional Analog FM (25 kHz)DSTAR (6.25 kHz)NXDN (6.25 kHz)P25 Phase I (12.5 kHz)Yaesu Fusion (12.5 kHz) Time Division Multiple Access Tait Communications DMR (12.5 kHz) P25 Phase II (12.5 kHz) Note that since these technologiesoffer two simultaneoustransmissions they are functionallyequivalent to a 6.25 kHz system.Tait Communications

TDMA Equipment Simplicity ]Motorola

Longer Battery Life w/ TDMAOlder Digital Modes(FDMA)DMR(TDMA)“For each hour of usage TDMA radios require between19% and 34% less battery capacity than FDMA models.”This translates to “40 percent improvement in talk time incomparison with traditional FM analog radios “

Better Signal Quality Better RF rangethan analogparticularly at thefringes ofcoverage. True for all digitalvoice modes Demonstration

Basic Communication Modes All systems support: Basic Simplex Basic RepeaterCommunication Wide area NetworkingSource: ICOM

Wide Area Networking MethodologiesTalk GroupsReflectorsRooms

Talk Groups Talk groups allow segregation of the user community Allows a communication resource (a frequency or timeslot) to be shared among multiple “User Groups” suchthat they hear only those calls intended for them. This keeps user radio activity to a minimum for anyspecific group of users, and prevents users from ignoring their radios . if itsquawks, it’s probably important for them. CTCSS was originally implemented for this purpose Motorola “Private Line”, GE: “Channel Guard”, RCA:“Quiet Channel”

Analog Talk-Groups using PL PL Tones: 50, DPL Codes: 99, Fusion DSQ Codes: 99,available DMR Talk Group ID’s: 16 million

Talk Groups in the DMR world

Talk Groups on DMR (PAPA)California StatewideTS1National and WorldwideRegional and ClubTS2Local and Reflectors

Reflectors (YSF, DSTAR)Source: ICOM

Reflector basics The reflector is essentially a “VoIP packet repeater”which connects repeaters or gateways. The reflector maintains a “list” of subscribers whichconsists of currently connected gateways (repeaters). VoIP packets sent to the reflector from a subscribinggateway are re-sent (shotgun style) to each of theother subscribers (i.e. connected gateways). The “users” communicate with the repeater which is,itself, linked to the reflector as a “subscriber”. Usersdo not communicate directly with a reflector onlyindirectly via the gateway.

Reflector Operation (DSTAR):

Typical YSF/FSC Network

Typical Wires-X Network

Hot SpotsThese things allow you toestablish a local RF network“access point” wherever youhave an internet connection.Shark RF Open Spot(DSTAR, YSF, DMR)Needs Wired InternetDV Access Point Dongle(DSTAR only)Need a Raspberry PiAll Modes, whereveryou may beNo Repeater?No Problem!Zum Spot(DSTAR, YSF, DMR, P25)Needs a Raspberry Pi

Appendix OneAvailable Equipment

Popular 50 W DMR Repeaters 2000 1800 1800Hytera RD-982 Repeater

Popular DMR Mobile Radios 589Vertex StandardVXD7200 400Motorola XPR5550 489Hytera MD78XGConnect SystCS800 260

Some Popular DMR PortablesTyteraMD380VHF or UHFAnyToneATD UV688VVHF/UHFHyteraAR482GUHFHyteraPD982VHF or UHFMotorolaXPR7550EVHF or UHF

Popular DSTAR RadiosICOMID-880ICOMID-51a PlusKenwoodTH-D74AICOMID-5100

Popular Yaesu FUSION RadiosYaesuFTM-400Yaesu DR1 Fusion RepeaterYaesuFT-2drYaesuFT-70drYaesuFTM-100

Ham Friendly Dealers Sandy’s Communications (Motorola), 866-993-9011, Contact: Jeff Samuels, N0WTFTwo Way Digital Radio Communications (Motorola),828-389-5000, Contact: Ken Bryant, K1DMRRaynet Communications, (Hytera / TYT), 626-4755926, Raymund Reyes, KJ6RAYConnect Systems, Inc., (Connect Systems), 818889-0503, Contact: Jerry WangerHam Radio Outlet, Inc. (Vertex Standard, Tera,Hytera, Icom, Kenwood, Yaesu, Wuxon, Hot Spots)GigaParts (Icom, Kenwood, Yaesu, Others)

Further Information PAPA System: DMR: Brandmeister: Hoseline: DMR-MARC: DSTAR DSTAR Info: Yaesu System Fusion SoCal Link Society (Fusion):

Questions Dave Hull, KC6N

ID-5100 ICOM ID-880 Kenwood TH-D74A . Popular Yaesu FUSION Radios Yaesu FT-2dr Yaesu FTM-400 Yaesu FTM-100 Yaesu FT-70dr Yaesu DR1 Fusion Repeater . Ham Friendly Dealers

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