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16. HISTORICAL LITERACY Literacies for the Digital Age to Teach in the K-12ClassroomBy Leah G. Stambler, Ph.D.Developed for the Pier Institute: Global Youth in theDigital AgeYale University, July 8-12, 2013

“History Literacy Failing Among American Students ratescolleges-base n 1954987.html “A 2010 study by the National Assessment of EducationalProgress (NAEP) showed the U.S. history testing scores are"stagnant," with only 9 percent of fourth graders correctlyidentifying a photograph of Abraham Lincoln and stating tworeasons for his importance.” “Lee White, executive director of the National HistoryCoalition, says the problem stems from history's place inAmerican curriculum.” "They've narrowed the curriculum to teach to the test. Historyhas been deemphasized," he said. "You can't expect kids tohave great scores in history when they're not being taughthistory."c July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.2

CURRICULUM STANDARDS for SOCIAL STUDIESprovide guidelines for educators: CLICK ON URLhttp://www.ncss.org/standards/strandsHISTORICAL LITERACY IS INFUSED IN EACH OF THE STANDARDS10 INTERDISCIPLINARY SOCIAL STUDIES THEMATIC STANDARDS 1.Culture and Cultural Diversity2.Time, Continuity, and Change3.People, Places, and Environments4.Individual Development and Identity5.Individuals, Groups, and Institutions6.Power, Authority, and Governance7.Production, Distribution, and Consumption8.Science, Technology, and Society9.Global Connections10.Civic Ideals and Practicesc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.3

CT Social Studies Curriculum Framework Grades PK-12provide guidelines for riculum/socialstudies/CTSocial Studies Curriculum Framework 2011.pdf The Connecticut Social Studies Framework Grades PK-12 is acomprehensive document that provides a roadmap for teachersto understand what students should know and be able to dofrom prekindergarten through high school. Teachers are expected to combine Content Knowledge(Standard 1) strands and grade-level expectations (GLEs) todevelop comprehensive units and lessons. The Connecticut Social Studies Curriculum Framework isorganized around the following three interrelated standards:CONTINUEDc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.4

CT Social Studies Curriculum Framework Grades PK-12provide guidelines for riculum/socialstudies/CTSocial Studies Curriculum Framework 2011.pdf Standard 1: Content Knowledge Knowledge of concepts, themes, and information from historyand social studies is necessary to promote understanding of ournation and our world. Standard 2: History/Social Studies Literacy Skills Competence in literacy, inquiry and research skills is necessaryto analyze, evaluate and present history and social studiesinformation. Standard 3: Civic Engagement Civic competence in analyzing historical issues and currentproblems requires the synthesis of information, skills andperspective.c July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.5

CT Social Studies Curriculum Framework Grades PK-12provide guidelines for riculum/socialstudies/CTSocial Studies Curriculum Framework 2011.pdf This framework identifies grade-level expectations;however, it allows districts flexibility to select specificcontent that must be taught at each grade level.Districts can take different approaches to helpstudents meet the GLEs. The purpose of thisframework is to identify specific standards, strandsand GLEs that each student should be expected toknow and be able to do, while allowing the flexibilityfor individual districts to determine the organizationof the content at each grade level. CLICK ON THE URL BELOW. SEE PAGES um/socialstudies/CTSocial Studies Curriculum Framework 2011.pdfc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.6

HISTORICAL LITERACY May-2011k.aspx Students’ historical literacy allows them to constructinterpretations of the past with increasing sophistication.(Draper, Broomhead, Jensen, Nokes, & Siebert 2010) Historical “texts” include all resources and evidence historiansand archeologists use to research the past, such as primarysources, government documents, oral histories, artifacts,photographs, movies, numerical data, artwork, music,fashions,secondary sources produced by other historians Historical literacy does not require an encyclopedic knowledgeof historical facts from every era or global location (Wineburg,2004) Historical literacy requires the use of historians’ strategies forworking with historical evidence.c July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.7

ELEMENTS OF HISTORICAL pdf/literacy.pdf Events of the past – Knowing and understandinghistorical events, using prior knowledge, andrealizing the significance of different events. Narratives of the past – Understanding the shape ofchange and continuity over time, understandingmultiple narratives and dealing with openendedness. Research skills – Gathering, analyzing and using theevidence (artifacts, documents and graphics) andissues of provenance. The language of history – Understanding and dealingwith the language of the past.CONTINUEDc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.8

ELEMENTS OF HISTORICAL pdf/literacy.pdf . Historical concepts – Understanding historicalconcepts such as causation and motivation. ICT understandings – Using, understanding andevaluating ICT-based historical resources (the virtualarchive). Making connections – Connecting the past with theself and the world today. Contention and contestability – Understanding the‘rules’ and the place of public and professionalhistorical debate CONTINUEDc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.9

ELEMENTS OF HISTORICAL pdf/literacy.pdf Representational expression – Understanding and usingcreativity in representing the past through film, drama, visualarts, music, fiction, poetry and ICT. Moral judgements in history – Understanding the moral andethical issues involved in historical explanation. Applied science in history – Understanding the use and value ofscientific and technological expertise and methods ininvestigating the past, such as DNA analysis or gaschromatography tests. Historical explanation – Using historical reasoning, synthesisand interpretation (the index of historical literacy) to explain thepast. Historical understanding is incomplete withoutexplanation.c July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.10


Working with historical df/literacy.pdfPrimary sources “It is important that all history teachers should be ina position to recognise categories of historicalsources. Broadly, a primary source is a piece ofhistorical evidence which is contemporaneouslyand directly linked with an event or series ofevents in the past. The importance of using primary sources carefully inthe classroom cannot be emphasized too highly sinceit puts students directly in touch with the past and allprimary sources do have a special fascination forchild and adult alike”CONTINUEDc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.12

Working with primary historical df/literacy.pdfSamples of Primary sources photographs and film clips cartoons from newspapers and journals drawings, sketches and paintings newspaper editorials, letters and articles extracts from speeches extracts from writings of commentators extracts from original official records and other documents maps statistics in both tabular and graphic format music and poetry print artefact material, such as posters and advertising.CONTINUEDc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.13

Working with primary historical df/literacy.pdfSIGNINGTHE TREATYOFVERSAILLESPresident AbrahamLincoln delivered theGettsyburg Addresson Nov. 19, 1863.Photo: Bettmann/Corbisc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.14

Key issues about using primary historicalsources in the /pdf/literacy.pdf Using primary source material offers students an excitingopportunity to study and work with the very building blocks ofevidence that professional historians use to construct theirviews of events from the past. As the range and availability of primary source materials isalmost overwhelming, one task for teachers is to select andoffer appropriate and relevant source material suited to studentabilities and to the learning activities specifically relating to theunit of history under study. ISSUESWhat constitutes a fact? Whose point of view?What’s missing?What is the context?What is the source?c July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.15

Working with secondary historical df/literacy.pdf Secondary sources are usually defined as sourcesthat post-date the events under study and form acommentary on these events – such as a textbook ormonograph or biography. Students must gain an awareness that secondarysources must be subjected to the same kind ofscrutiny as primary sources. CONTINUEDc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.16

Working with secondary historical ondarySources.aspx “Secondary sources are material that has taken aprimary source and summarized it, analyzed it,combined it, rephrased it and interpreted it. It is atleast one step removed from the event orphenomenon under review. A secondary source maytry to persuade or argue a position. Much of whatyou find as sources will be secondary.” Examples: Reports, summaries, textbooks, speeches, articles,encyclopedias and dictionariesc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.17

Primary Source vs. Secondary Source condarySources.aspxe.g. PRIMARYSOURCE .PersonInterviewEmail contactEventDiscussionDebateCommunity meetingSurveyArtifacte.g. SECONDARYSOURCEReference materialBookDvdEncyclopediaMagazine articleTelevision broadcastc July 2013DisciplinePrimary SourceSecondary SourceArtArchitectureOriginal artworkArchitectural ter, computergenerated graphics,photographsSongExplorer’s diaryNewspaper from 1920Article critiquing the piece of artBook on architectural style anddesignInterpretation of geologic featuresand history for a given locationBook critiquing the photographs overnment documents(i.e. text of laws)Tablets, ancientmanuscriptsScienceTheatre ArtsOriginal journal articleVideotape of aperformanceDIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.Review of the songBook about explorationArticle describing how reporting ofthe news has changed over timeCriticism on a particular genre ofpoetryArticle reviewing a law and itseffects on the citizenry.Interpretation of the meaning ofdocument created in the ancientworldBiological AbstractsBiography of a playwright18

Questions when using secondary s/assets/pdf/literacy.pdf Who wrote this book? Why?What is his or her background? Does this influence the writing?What is the evidence for that?What references were used? Are there enough? Are some keyreferences missing?How was the book structured? Does this affect the explanationsoffered?Has its position or theme been replaced by more recent books,ideas or articles?What are the other approaches advocated by other writers inthis area?Where does this book sit in the debate about the topic understudy?c July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.19

SAMPLE LESSON PLANS THAT TEACHHISTORICAL LITERACYhttp://www.echoesandreflections.org/learn about curriculum/lessons.asp Echoes and Reflections supports study in United States andWorld History, English, Holocaust Studies, Fine Arts, CharacterEducation, and the Social Sciences, and meets or reinforcesU.S. national standards in Social Studies, English/LanguageArts, and Viewing and Media Literacy. NOTE THE PRESENCE OF MULTIPLE LITERACIES FOR THEDIGITAL AGE IN THE LESSONS: Visual, Media, Historical,and ELA Literacy. CLICK ON THE URL BELOW FOR COMPARISONS OF rg/pdfs/nat stds.pdfc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.20

SAMPLE LESSON PLANS THAT TEACHHISTORICAL LITERACYhttp://www.echoesandreflections.org/learn about curriculum/lessons.asp ssonLessonc July 2013CLICK ON THE URL ABOVE TO ACCESSDETAILS OF EACH LESSONOne: Studying the HolocaustTwo: AntisemitismThree: Nazi GermanyFour: The GhettosFive: The “Final Solution”Six: Jewish ResistanceSeven: Rescuers and Non-Jewish ResistanceEight: Survivors and LiberatorsNine: Perpetrators, Collaborators, and BystandersTen: The ChildrenDIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.21

DOWNLOADABLE CURRICULUMMATERIALS FOR ECHOES & REFLECTIONS CLICK ON THE URL BELOW TO DOWNLOAD MATERIALS FOR EACHOF THE 10 LESSONS IN THE iculum components/materials.asp“Many of the pages labeled “Transparency Masters” and “Student Handouts”in Echoes and Reflections are available here to download and use in theclassroom. In addition, an interactive map on the extermination camps andkilling sites developed by Yad Vashem has been included for classroom essonLessonLessonc July 2013One: Studying the HolocaustTwo: AntisemitismThree: Nazi GermanyFour: The GhettosFive: The “Final Solution”Six: Jewish ResistanceSeven: Rescuers and Non-Jewish ResistanceEight: Survivors and LiberatorsNine: Perpetrators, Collaborators, and BystandersTen: The ChildrenDIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.22

SAMPLE TEACHING MATERIALS THATDEMONSTRATE HISTORICAL LITERACY Internationalizing History Discover the resources you need to "globalize" your U.S.history lesson plans! [.] » Crop It Use this four-step learning routine to deeply explore visualprimary sources. [.] » Four Reads: Learning to Read Primary Documents Teach your students to read like a historian with this guidedfour-step reading process for primary documents. [.] » Document-Based Whole-Class Discussion Classroom discussions need not be argumentative andunproductive. Discover a way to facilitate healthy discussionin your classroom. [.] »CONTINUEDc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.23

SAMPLE TEACHING MATERIALS THATDEMONSTRATE HISTORICAL LITERACY The Research Paper: Developing HistoricalQuestions Research papers are not an archaic form of assessment.Learn how to help your students with the research papercomposition process. [.] » Visiting History: A Professional Development Guide Learn strategies for creating quality professionaldevelopment experiences using the museums, historicsites, archives, and cultural institutions. [.] » Webquest, Inquiry, and Lincoln’s Views onTechnology Searching for new, exciting ways to engage your studentsin the classroom? Why not make them internet detectives?[.] »CONTINUEDc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.24

SAMPLE TEACHING MATERIALS THATDEMONSTRATE HISTORICAL LITERACY Concept Formation In order to understand topics, you must first understandconcepts. Learn all about conceptualization here! [.] » Using Historical Ephemera in the Classroom Ticket stubs. Report cards. Photographs. All of thesethings have historical meaning. [.] » Stop Action and Assess Alternatives Teach students to explore contingency with this greatlesson plan idea. [.] » http://www.echoesandreflections.org/ Echoesand Reflections, A Multimedia Curriculum on theHolocaust for 21st Century Classroomsc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.25

Teaching Literacy ThroughHistory Units and Lesson Plans The following units target the skills and strategies studentsmust learn before they can gain academic independence. Each unit develops key skills as outlined in the Common CoreState Standards, such as examining vocabulary text, discerningargument construction, analyzing non-fiction texts, and writingcritical common-core Please explore and use our Teaching Literacy Through Historyunits and lesson plans below. Explore additional TeachingLiteracy Through History courses and resources.c July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.26

TEACHING HISTORY WITHTECHNOLOGY CLICK ON THE URL BELOW TO OPEN LESSONPLANS THAT ENHANCE HISTORICALLITERACY & TECHNOLOGY. http://thwt.org/index.php/lessons-activities Library of Congress Lesson Plans National Archives Lesson Plans New York Times Learning Network LessonPlansc July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.27

SAMPLE HISTORICAL LITERACYOBJECTIVE1. Learning objective: Conduct libraryresearch on Haitian history, identifyingkey people and events, and criticallyanalyzing the sources and nature ofavailable information.CONTINUEDc July racy/#Global%20LiteracyDIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.28

SAMPLE HISTORICAL LITERACYASSESSMENT Assessment: Students engage in a group brainstorming sessionaddressing the question: How can we find information aboutHaitian history? The brainstorm prompts discussion about arange of issues, such as different cultural perceptions ofhistorical events, gaps in reliable data, the credibility of a rangeof potential sources, strategies for accessing these sources, etc.Individual students then investigate different sources (includingFrench language sources) as homework. The next class they getinto small groups, pool the information they have found,present it to the class, and collectively construct a time-line ofHaitian history, which they then make use of throughout thesemester as they address different aspects of Haitian life. Thisassignment helps students develop a more critical view ofhistory and assesses their ability to conduct research effectivelybefore they encounter higher-stakes assignments.c July 2013DIGITAL AGE LITERACIESL.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.29

CIVIC LITERACY SOURCES http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/ National Assessment ofEducational Progress (NAEP) http://nationsreportcard.gov/about.aspx /pdf/ncss.pdf NATIONALCOUNCIL FOR THE SOCIAL STUDIES (NCSS), Curriculum Standards for SocialStudies, I-X evisedNCSSStandards Golston.pdf The Revised NCSS Standards: Ideas for the Classroom Teacher, by SydGolston es-collegesbase n 1954987.html History Literacy Failing Among American Students,Study Faults Colleges Lack Of Core Subject Requirements (SLIDESHOW), k.aspx Historical Literacy by Jeffery D. Nokes,April 18, 2011, in Utah S

• Historical literacy does not require an encyclopedic knowledge of historical facts from every era or global location (Wineburg, 2004) • Historical literacy requires the use of historians’ strategies for working with historical evidence. c July 2013 DIGITAL AGE LITERACIES 7 L.G.STAMBLER, Ph.D.