A Global Framework Of Reference On Digital Literacy Skills .

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Information Paper No. 51June 2018UIS/2018/ICT/IP/51A Global Framework ofReference on Digital LiteracySkills for Indicator 4.4.2

2A Global Framework of Reference on Digital Literacy Skills for Indicator 4.4.2UNESCOThe constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was adopted by 20countries at the London Conference in November 1945 and entered into effect on 4 November 1946. The Organizationcurrently has 195 Member States and 10 Associate Members.The main objective of UNESCO is to contribute to peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration amongnations through education, science, culture and communication in order to foster universal respect for justice, the ruleof law, and the human rights and fundamental freedoms that are affirmed for the peoples of the world, withoutdistinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations.To fulfil its mandate, UNESCO performs five principal functions: 1) prospective studies on education, science, culture andcommunication for tomorrow's world; 2) the advancement, transfer and sharing of knowledge through research, trainingand teaching activities; 3) standard-setting actions for the preparation and adoption of internal instruments andstatutory recommendations; 4) expertise through technical cooperation to Member States for their development policiesand projects; and 5) the exchange of specialized information.UNESCO Institute for StatisticsThe UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is the statistical office of UNESCO and is the UN depository for global statisticsin the fields of education, science, technology and innovation, culture and communication.The UIS was established in 1999. It was created to improve UNESCO's statistical programme and to develop and deliverthe timely, accurate and policy-relevant statistics needed in today’s increasingly complex and rapidly changing social,political and economic environments.This paper was written by Nancy Law, David Woo, Jimmy de la Torre and Gary Wong, Centre forInformation Technology in Education (CITE), University of Hong Kong.Published in 2018 by:UNESCO Institute for StatisticsP.O. Box 6128, Succursale Centre-VilleMontreal, Quebec H3C 3J7CanadaTel: 1 514-343-6880Email: rgRef: UIS/2018/ICT/IP51 UNESCO-UIS 2018This publication is available in Open Access under the Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 IGO (CC-BY-SA 3.0 IGO) 3.0/igo/). By using the content of this publication, the users accept to be bound by theterms of use of the UNESCO Open Access Repository a-en).The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinionwhatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities or concerningthe delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors; they are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do notcommit the Organization.

3A Global Framework of Reference on Digital Literacy Skills for Indicator 4.4.2Table of contentsIntroduction . 51. Definitions of digital literacy . 62. Mapping of ICT and digital literacy frameworks and examples of competences . 63.1 Mapping of cross-national and selected national lCT and digital literacy frameworks . 73.2 Differences in mapped competences across frameworks . 113.3 Relative importance of the different competences . 133.4 Proficiency levels and assessment . 134. Mapping of digital literacy competences in examples of digital technology use . 134.1 Methodology for searching and selecting examples . 145. Pathways for digital literacy development and assessment: An example applicationof a Digital Literacy Global Framework . 186. Rounds of consultation leading to a proposal for a Digital Literacy Global Framework skills . 196.1 In-depth consultation methodology . 196.2 In-depth consultation findings . 206.3 Online consultation methodology . 206.4 Online consultation findings . 216.5 Summary. 227. Recommendations for the next steps. 267.1 Digital literacy assessment instruments and indicators . 277.2 Development of global digital literacy indicators should be supported by cost-effectivecross-national R&D programmes . 277.3 Proficiency levels and case examples for digital literacy frameworks . 287.4 Indicators for digital literacy to monitor progress towards SDG 4.4 . 288. Conclusion . 28Appendix 1. List of collected digital literacy frameworks . 30Appendix 2a. British Columbia Digital Literacy Framework fact sheet . 34Appendix 2b. Chile SIMCE TIC fact sheet . 36Appendix 2c. Costa Rica Student Performance Standards in Digital Technology-Enhanced Learning factsheet . 38Appendix 2d. India Pradhan Matri Gramin Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (PMGDISHA) fact sheet. 40Appendix 2e. Kenya Digital Literacy Core Competency Six of Basic Education Curriculum fact sheet . 42Appendix 2f. Philippines K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum for the Alternative Learning System(ALS-K to 12) Learning Strand 6: Digital Literacy fact sheet . 44Appendix 2g. IC3 Digital Literacy Certification fact sheet . 46

4A Global Framework of Reference on Digital Literacy Skills for Indicator 4.4.2Appendix 2h. ICDL fact sheet . 48Appendix 2i. Microsoft fact sheet . 50Appendix 3. DigComp competence mapping codebook . 52Appendix 4. List of examples of use grouped by country and sector . 56Appendix 5. Summary of the different functions available on mobile and smartphones. 57Appendix 6. Functions operating in the examples collected in each of the six sectors . 58Appendix 7. Mapping of the functions involved in the examples analysed to the DigComp competences . 59Appendix 8. Pathway mapping methodology examples and guide . 61Appendix 9a. Agriculture example of use 1. 72Appendix 9b. Agriculture example of use 2 . 74Appendix 9c. Agriculture example of use 3 . 77Appendix 10a. e-Government example of use 1 . 80Appendix 10b. e-Government example of use 2 . 84Appendix 11. Proposed digital literacy competence areas and competences from in-depth consultation . 87Appendix 12. Proposed digital literacy competence areas and competences from online consultation . 88Appendix 13. Methodological notes from DLGF consultation stages . 90Appendix 14. In-depth consultation findings for proposed Digital Literacy Global Framework . 95Appendix 15. Online consultation findings . 114Appendix 16. Draft executive summary of Digital Literacy Global Framework (DLGF) for in-depth136consultation . 132Appendix 17. In-depth consultation interview protocol . 136Appendix 18. List of in-depth consultation interviewees . 140Appendix 19. Online consultation survey . 141Appendix 20. List of acknowledged online consultation respondents . 146List of tablesTable 1. DigComp 2.0 competence areas and competences . 7Table 2. Distribution of the 47 countries across geographical regions and income levels . 8Table 3. Mapping of selected digital literacy frameworks onto the extended DigComp framework . 12Table 4. List of the 20 use cases selected for mapping on to DigComp competences . 15Table 5. Proposed competence areas and competences for the Digital Literacy Global Framework . 23List of figuresFigure 1. A map of the geographic locations of the countries for which the frameworks have beencollected . 9Figure 2. A map of the geographic locations of the examples of digital literacy use identified bysector and country . 16

5A Global Framework of Reference on Digital Literacy Skills for Indicator 4.4.2IntroductionThe objective of the Digital Literacy Global Framework (DLGF) project is to develop a methodology that canserve as the foundation for Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) thematic Indicator 4.4.2: “Percentage ofyouth/adults who have achieved at least a minimum level of proficiency in digital literacy skills”.To achieve this objective, we have built on the European Commission’s Digital Competence Framework forCitizens (DigComp 2.0) as the initial framework and conducted four empirical studies to develop theproposed framework:1) a synthesis of existing regional, national and sub-national frameworks to identify competencesrelevant for the global context, and in particular, analysing the extent to which existing, welldeveloped and all-encompassing frameworks would be relevant (i) for all countries, whethereconomically rich or poor, and (ii) over time;2) an analysis of digital literacy competences demonstrated in information and communicationstechnology (ICT) use in major socio-economic sectors, with a focus on developing countries;3) an in-depth consultation to seek expert views on the appropriateness and use of a global framework;and4) an online consultation to seek experts’ feedback on the proposed framework. We have madeparticular efforts to include examples and expert views from countries in the following regions: Asia,the European Union (EU), high-income.

6A Global Framework of Reference on Digital Literacy Skills for Indicator 4.4.21. Definitions of digital literacyThe importance of digital literacy is evidenced by the many national and regional efforts to develop andimplement digital literacy frameworks and strategic plans to bolster citizens’ digital literacy. However, thereasons for countries to adopt and develop frameworks vary. For example, the Republic of Korea intends toenhance the digital literacy of public officials to increase the efficiency, transparency and delivery of servicesto citizens through public administration (Young, 2016). Oman, on the other hand, adopted the MicrosoftDigital Literacy Curriculum to bridge the digital divide, bolster its ICT industry and build young citizens’employment capacity (Sultanate of Oman Information Technology Authority, 2008).Likewise, definitions for digital literacy also differ. Some consider digital literacy as a new literacy comprisingmultiple dimensions and represented in new, multimodal social practices. For instance, Ala-Mutka (2011)defined digital literacy for DigComp as an emergent literacy from other literacies and, as such, is greater thanthe sum of the other literacies, which include information literacy, media literacy, Internet literacy, andcomputer or ICT literacy (i.e. hardware and software knowledge and skills). Similarly, in Kenya’s BasicEducation Curriculum Framework, digital literacy encompasses traditional literacies and computer literacy.The proposed DLGF is intended to serve for monitoring, assessment and further development of digitalliteracy, taking into consideration different levels of development. Hence, the resulting framework needs tobe operationalisable to serve this purpose. In reviewing related frameworks collected from government andnon-government agencies, we find that the following notions recurred constantly: “access”, “manage”,“understand”, “integrate”, “communicate”, “evaluate” and “create”. Hence, we propose the followingdefinition for digital literacy:Digital literacy is the ability to access, manage, understand, integrate, communicate, evaluate and createinformation safely and appropriately through digital technologies for employment, decent jobs andentrepreneurship. It includes competences that are variously referred to as computer literacy, ICT literacy,information literacy and media literacy.Our observations during the various stages of our empirical work show that there is a general acceptancethat competence in digital literacy requires the person to have the necessary knowledge and skills, but viewsdiffer regarding attitudes. We hold the view that attitudes are necessary for a person to have the commitmentand motivation to achieve competent performance, and should be included in the DLGF.2. Mapping of ICT and digital literacy frameworks and examples of competencesAs mentioned, DigComp 2.0 was selected as the reference digital literacy framework for this project. It hasbeen synthesized from other, major digital literacy frameworks and undergone a long consultation anddevelopment process, thus presenting a comprehensive view on competence areas and competences fromeconomically-advanced countries. The DigComp 2.0 framework (Vuorikari et al., 2016) is presented inTable 1.

7A Global Framework of Reference on Digital Literacy Skills for Indicator 4.4.2Table 1. DigComp 2.0 competence areas and competencesCompetence areaCompetences1. Information and dataliteracy1.1 Browsing, searching and filtering data, information and digital content1.2 Evaluating data, information and digital content1.3 Managing data, information and digital content2. Communication andcollaboration2.1 Interacting through digital technologies2.2 Sharing through digital technologies2.3 Engaging in citizenship through digital technologies2.4 Collaborating through digital technologies2.5 Netiquette2.6 Managing digital identity3. Digital content creation3.1 Developing digital content3.2 Integrating and re-elaborating digital content3.3 Copyright and licenses3.4 Programming4. Safety4.1 Protecting devices4.2 Protecting personal data and privacy4.3 Protecting health and well-being4.4 Protecting the environment5. Problem solving5.1 Solving technical problems5.2 Identifying needs and technological responses5.3 Creatively using digital technologies5.4 Identifying digital competence gapsIn order to ensure that the proposed global framework is relevant to countries at different levels ofdevelopment, we began the study with two mapping exercises, one on cross-national and selected nationallCT and digital literacy frameworks and the other on digital literacy competences required in use cases ofdigital technology in some major economic sectors. These are reported in this section.3.1 Mapping of cross-national and selected national lCT and digital literacy frameworksWe conducted a systematic search for digital literacy frameworks in the targeted regions and countries usingcountry names in combination with search terms, including digital, literacy, competences, skills, ICT,computer and information. A key limitation to the search results is our searches being constrained toinformation in the English language. Nonetheless, we were able to find information about specific digitalliteracy frameworks being adopted in 47 countries (see Appendix 1). Table 2 shows the distribution of the 47countries across geographical regions and the income level of the country according to the World Bankincome levels. Figure 1 presents the geographic locations of the countries for which the frameworks havebeen collected.

8A Global Framework of Reference on Digital Literacy Skills for Indicator 4.4.2Table 2. Distribution of the 47 countries across geographical regions and income levelsIncome level of countryGeographical regionHighUppermiddleLowermiddle1. Asia1372. European Union113.High-income countries outside theEuropean Union24. Latin America145. Middle East and North Africa4446. Sub-Saharan Africa467. Other111718Total9LowTotal11225123132347

9A Global Framework of Reference on Digital Literacy Skills for Indicator 4.4.2Figure 1. A map of the geographic locations of the countries for which

Digital literacy is the ability to access, manage, understand, integrate, communicate, evaluate and create information safely and appropriately through digital technologies for employment, decent jobs and . 2.3 Engaging in citizenship through digital technologies 2.4 Collaborating through digital technologies 2.5 Netiquette ). 2 . Framework .

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