Fundamentals Of Modern VLSI Devices

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Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationFundamentals of Modern VLSI DevicesLearn the basic properties and designs of modern VLSI devices, as well as the factorsaffecting performance, with this thoroughly updated second edition. The first edition hasbeen widely adopted as a standard textbook in microelectronics in many major USuniversities and worldwide. The internationally renowned authors highlight the intricateinterdependencies and subtle tradeoffs between various practically important deviceparameters. An in-depth discussion of device scaling and scaling limits of CMOS andbipolar devices is also provided. Equations and parameters provided are checked continuously against the reality of silicon data, making the book equally useful in practicaltransistor design and in the classroom.New to this edition: Every chapter has been updated to include the latest developments, such as MOSFETscale length theory, high-field transport models, and SiGe-base bipolar devices. Two new chapters cover read and write operations of commonly used SRAM,DRAM, and non-volatile memory arrays, as well as silicon-on-insulator (SOI)devices, including advanced devices of future potential. More useful appendices: The number has doubled from 9 to 18, covering areas suchas spatial variation of quasi-Fermi potentials, image-force-induced barrier lowering,and power gain of a two-port network. New homework exercises at the end of every chapter engage students with real-worldproblems and test their understanding.is Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University ofCalifornia, San Diego. He spent 20 years at IBM’s T. J. Watson Research Center where hewon numerous invention and achievement awards. He is an IEEE Fellow, Editor-inChief of IEEE Electron Device Letters, and holds 14 US patents.YUAN TAURTAK H. NINGis an IBM Fellow at the T. J. Watson Research Center, New York, wherehe has worked for over 35 years. A Fellow of the IEEE and the American PhysicalSociety, and a member of the US National Academy of Engineering, he has authoredmore than 120 technical papers and holds 36 US patents. He has won several awards,including the ECS 2007 Gordon E. Moore Medal, the IEEE 1991 Jack A. Morton Award,and the 1998 Pan Wen-Yuan Foundation Outstanding Research Award. in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore information in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationFundamentals of ModernVLSI DevicesS E C O N D E DI T I O NYUAN TAURUniversity of California, San DiegoTAK H. NINGIBM T. J. Watson Research Center, New York in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationUniversity Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United KingdomCambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge.,It furthers the University ’ s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit ofeducation, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence.www.cambridge.orgInformation on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521832946 Cambridge University Press 1998, 2009This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exceptionand to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,no reproduction of any part may take place withoutthe written permission of Cambridge University Press.First published 1998Second edition 2009First paperback edition 20133rd printing 2015Printed in the United Kingdom by Clays, St Ives plc.A catalog record for this publication is available from the British LibraryLibrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication dataTaur, Yuan, 1946–Fundamentals of modern VLSI devices / Yuan Taur, Tak H. Ning. – 2nd ed.p. cm.ISBN 978-0-521-83294-61. Metal oxide semiconductors, Complementary. 2. Bipolar transistors.3. Integrated circuits – Very large scale integration.I. Ning, Tak H., 1943– II. Title.TK7871.99.M44T38 2009621.39′5–dc222009007334ISBN 978-0-521-83294-6 hardbackISBN 978-1-107-63571-5 PaperbackCambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence oraccuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet websites referred toin this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on suchwebsites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationContentsPreface to the first editionPreface to the second editionPhysical constants and unit conversionsList of symbols12page xixiiixvxviIntroduction11.1 Evolution of VLSI Device Technology1.1.1 Historical Perspective1.1.2 Recent Developments1.2 Modern VLSI Devices1.2.1 Modern CMOS Transistors1.2.2 Modern Bipolar Transistors1.3 Scope and Brief Description of the Book1144456Basic Device Physics112.1 Electrons and Holes in Silicon2.1.1 Energy Bands in Silicon2.1.2 n-Type and p-Type Silicon2.1.3 Carrier Transport in Silicon2.1.4 Basic Equations for Device Operation2.2 p-n Junctions2.2.1 Energy-Band Diagrams for a p–n Diode2.2.2 Abrupt Junctions2.2.3 The Diode Equation2.2.4 Current–Voltage Characteristics2.2.5 Time-Dependent and Switching Characteristics2.2.6 Diffusion Capacitance2.3 MOS Capacitors2.3.1 Surface Potential: Accumulation, Depletion, and Inversion2.3.2 Electrostatic Potential and Charge Distribution in Silicon2.3.3 Capacitances in an MOS Structure2.3.4 Polysilicon-Gate Work Function and Depletion Effects2.3.5 MOS under Nonequilibrium and Gated Diodes111117232735353846516470727278859194 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationvi34Contents2.3.6 Charge in Silicon Dioxide and at the Silicon–Oxide Interface2.3.7 Effect of Interface Traps and Oxide Charge on Device Characteristics2.4 Metal–Silicon Contacts2.4.1 Static Characteristics of a Schottky Barrier Diode2.4.2 Current Transport in a Schottky Barrier Diode2.4.3 Current–Voltage Characteristics of a Schottky Barrier Diode2.4.4 Ohmic Contacts2.5 High-Field Effects2.5.1 Impact Ionization and Avalanche Breakdown2.5.2 Band-to-Band Tunneling2.5.3 Tunneling into and through Silicon Dioxide2.5.4 Injection of Hot Carriers from Silicon into Silicon Dioxide2.5.5 High-Field Effects in Gated Diodes2.5.6 Dielectric 133135137141MOSFET Devices1483.1 Long-Channel MOSFETs3.1.1 Drain-Current Model3.1.2 MOSFET I–V Characteristics3.1.3 Subthreshold Characteristics3.1.4 Substrate Bias and Temperature Dependence of Threshold Voltage3.1.5 MOSFET Channel Mobility3.1.6 MOSFET Capacitances and Inversion-Layer Capacitance Effect3.2 Short-Channel MOSFETs3.2.1 Short-Channel Effect3.2.2 Velocity Saturation and High-Field Transport3.2.3 Channel Length Modulation3.2.4 Source–Drain Series Resistance3.2.5 MOSFET Degradation and Breakdown at High 6196201CMOS Device Design2044.1 MOSFET Scaling4.1.1 Constant-Field Scaling4.1.2 Generalized Scaling4.1.3 Nonscaling Effects4.2 Threshold Voltage4.2.1 Threshold-Voltage Requirement4.2.2 Channel Profile Design4.2.3 Nonuniform Doping4.2.4 Quantum Effect on Threshold Voltage4.2.5 Discrete Dopant Effects on Threshold Voltage204204207210212213217224234239 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationviiContents564.3 MOSFET Channel Length4.3.1 Various Definitions of Channel Length4.3.2 Extraction of the Effective Channel Length4.3.3 Physical Meaning of Effective Channel Length4.3.4 Extraction of Channel Length by C–V MeasurementsExercises242242244248252254CMOS Performance Factors2565.1 Basic CMOS Circuit Elements5.1.1 CMOS Inverters5.1.2 CMOS NAND and NOR Gates5.1.3 Inverter and NAND Layouts5.2 Parasitic Elements5.2.1 Source–Drain Resistance5.2.2 Parasitic Capacitances5.2.3 Gate Resistance5.2.4 Interconnect R and C5.3 Sensitivity of CMOS Delay to Device Parameters5.3.1 Propagation Delay and Delay Equation5.3.2 Delay Sensitivity to Channel Width, Length, and Gate Oxide Thickness5.3.3 Sensitivity of Delay to Power-Supply Voltage and Threshold Voltage5.3.4 Sensitivity of Delay to Parasitic Resistance and Capacitance5.3.5 Delay of Two-Way NAND and Body Effect5.4 Performance Factors of Advanced CMOS Devices5.4.1 MOSFETs in RF Circuits5.4.2 Effect of Transport Parameters on CMOS Performance5.4.3 Low-Temperature 99301304307308311312315Bipolar Devices3186.1 n–p–n Transistors6.1.1 Basic Operation of a Bipolar Transistor6.1.2 Modifying the Simple Diode Theory for Describing Bipolar Transistors6.2 Ideal Current–Voltage Characteristics6.2.1 Collector Current6.2.2 Base Current6.2.3 Current Gains6.2.4 Ideal IC–VCE Characteristics6.3 Characteristics of a Typical n–p–n Transistor6.3.1 Effect of Emitter and Base Series Resistances6.3.2 Effect of Base–Collector Voltage on Collector Current6.3.3 Collector Current Falloff at High Currents6.3.4 Nonideal Base Current at Low Currents318322322327329330334336337338340343347 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationviii7Contents6.4 Bipolar Device Models for Circuit and Time-Dependent Analyses6.4.1 Basic dc Model6.4.2 Basic ac Model6.4.3 Small-Signal Equivalent-Circuit Model6.4.4 Emitter Diffusion Capacitance6.4.5 Charge-Control Analysis6.5 Breakdown Voltages6.5.1 Common-Base Current Gain in the Presence of Base–CollectorJunction Avalanche6.5.2 Saturation Currents in a Transistor6.5.3 Relation Between BVCEO and BVCBOExercises367369370371Bipolar Device Design3747.1 Design of the Emitter Region7.1.1 Diffused or Implanted-and-Diffused Emitter7.1.2 Polysilicon Emitter7.2 Design of the Base Region7.2.1 Relationship between Base Sheet Resistivity and CollectorCurrent Density7.2.2 Intrinsic-Base Dopant Distribution7.2.3 Electric Field in the Quasineutral Intrinsic Base7.2.4 Base Transit Time7.3 Design of the Collector Region7.3.1 Collector Design When There Is Negligible Base Widening7.3.2 Collector Design When There Is Appreciable Base Widening7.4 SiGe-Base Bipolar Transistors7.4.1 Transistors Having a Simple Linearly Graded Base Bandgap7.4.2 Base Current When Ge Is Present in the Emitter7.4.3 Transistors Having a Trapezoidal Ge Distribution in the Base7.4.4 Transistors Having a Constant Ge Distribution in the Base7.4.5 Effect of Emitter Depth Variation on Device Characteristics7.4.6 Some Optimal Ge Profiles7.4.7 Base-Width Modulation by VBE7.4.8 Reverse–Mode I–V Characteristics7.4.9 Heterojunction Nature of a SiGe-Base Bipolar Transistor7.5 Modern Bipolar Transistor Structures7.5.1 Deep-Trench Isolation7.5.2 Polysilicon Emitter7.5.3 Self-Aligned Polysilicon Base Contact7.5.4 Pedestal Collector7.5.5 SiGe-BaseExercises374375376377 in this web service Cambridge University w.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationixContents89Bipolar Performance Factors4378.1 Figures of Merit of a Bipolar Transistor8.1.1 Cutoff Frequency8.1.2 Maximum Oscillation Frequency8.1.3 Ring Oscillator and Gate Delay8.2 Digital Bipolar Circuits8.2.1 Delay Components of a Logic Gate8.2.2 Device Structure and Layout for Digital Circuits8.3 Bipolar Device Optimization for Digital Circuits8.3.1 Design Points for a Digital Circuit8.3.2 Device Optimization When There Is SignificantBase Widening8.3.3 Device Optimization When There Is NegligibleBase Widening8.3.4 Device Optimization for Small Power–Delay Product8.3.5 Bipolar Device Optimization from Some Data Analyses8.4 Bipolar Device Scaling for ECL Circuits8.4.1 Device Scaling Rules8.4.2 Limits in Bipolar Device Scaling for ECL Circuits8.5 Bipolar Device Optimization and Scaling for RF and Analog Circuits8.5.1 The Single-Transistor Amplifier8.5.2 Optimizing the Individual Parameters8.5.3 Technology for RF and Analog Bipolar Devices8.5.4 Limits in Scaling Bipolar Transistors for RF andAnalog Applications8.6 Comparing a SiGe-Base Bipolar Transistor with a GaAs 5457458460463463464467468469472Memory Devices4769.1 Static Random-Access Memory9.1.1 CMOS SRAM Cell9.1.2 Other Bistable MOSFET SRAM Cells9.1.3 Bipolar SRAM Cell9.2 Dynamic Random-Access Memory9.2.1 Basic DRAM Cell and Its Operation9.2.2 Device Design and Scaling Considerations for a DRAM Cell9.3 Nonvolatile Memory9.3.1 MOSFET Nonvolatile Memory Devices9.3.2 Flash Memory Arrays9.3.3 Floating-Gate Nonvolatile Memory Cells9.3.4 Nonvolatile Memory Cells with Charge Stored in 514516 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationxContents10Silicon-on-Insulator Devices51710.1 SOI CMOS10.1.1 Partially Depleted SOI MOSFETs10.1.2 Fully Depleted SOI MOSFETs10.2 Thin-Silicon SOI Bipolar10.2.1 Fully Depleted Collector Mode10.2.2 Partially Depleted Collector Mode10.2.3 Accumulation Collector Mode10.2.4 Discussion10.3 Double-Gate MOSFETs10.3.1 An Analytic Drain Current Model for Symmetric DG MOSFETs10.3.2 The Scale Length of Double-Gate MOSFETs10.3.3 Fabrication Requirements and Challenges of DG MOSFETs10.3.4 Multiple-Gate 4536537Appendix 1Appendix 2538Appendix 3Appendix 4Appendix 5Appendix 6Appendix 7Appendix 8Appendix 9Appendix 10Appendix 11Appendix 12Appendix 13Appendix 14Appendix 15Appendix 16Appendix 17Appendix 18ReferencesIndexCMOS Process FlowOutline of a Process for Fabricating Modern n–p–n BipolarTransistorsEinstein RelationsSpatial Variation of Quasi-Fermi PotentialsGeneration and Recombination Processes and Space-ChargeRegion CurrentDiffusion Capacitance of a p–n DiodeImage-Force-Induced Barrier LoweringElectron-Initiated and Hole-Initiated Avalanche BreakdownAn Analytical Solution for the Short-Channel Effect inSubthresholdGeneralized MOSFET Scale Length ModelDrain Current Model of a Ballistic MOSFETQuantum-Mechanical Solution in Weak InversionPower Gain of a Two-Port NetworkUnity-Gain Frequencies of a MOSFET TransistorDetermination of Emitter and Base Series ResistancesIntrinsic-Base ResistanceEnergy-Band Diagram of a Si–SiGe n–p DiodefT and fmax of a Bipolar Transistor in this web service Cambridge University 614617623644www.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationPreface to the first editionIt has been fifty years since the invention of the bipolar transistor, more than forty yearssince the invention of the integrated-circuit (IC) technology, and more than thirty-fiveyears since the invention of the MOSFET. During this time, there has been a tremendousand steady progress in the development of the IC technology with a rapid expansion ofthe IC industry. One distinct characteristic in the evolution of the IC technology is that thephysical feature sizes of the transistors are reduced continually over time as the lithography technologies used to define these features become available. For almost thirtyyears now, the minimum lithography feature size used in IC manufacturing has beenreduced at a rate of 0.7 every three years. In 1997, the leading-edge IC products have aminimum feature size of 0.25 μm.The basic operating principles of large and small transistors are the same. However, therelative importance of the various device parameters and performance factors for transistors of the 1- μm and smaller generations is quite different from those for transistors oflarger-dimension generations. For example, in the case of CMOS, the power-supplyvoltage was lowered from the standard 5 V, starting with the 0.6- to 0.8- μm generation.Since then CMOS power supply voltage has been lowered in steps once every few yearsas the device physical dimensions are reduced. At the same time, many physicalphenomena, such as short-channel effect and velocity saturation, which are negligiblein large-dimension MOSFETs, are becoming more and more important in determiningthe behavior of MOSFETs of deep-submicron dimensions. In the case of bipolar devices,breakdown voltage and base-widening effects are limiting their performance, and powerdissipation is limiting their level of integration on a chip. Also, the advent of SiGebase bipolar technology has extended the frequency capability of small-dimensionbipolar transistors into the range previously reserved for GaAs and other compoundsemiconductor devices.The purpose of this book is to bring together the device fundamentals that govern thebehavior of CMOS and bipolar transistors into a single text, with emphasis on thoseparameters and performance factors that are particularly important for VLSI (very-largescale-integration) devices of deep-submicron dimensions. The book starts with a comprehensive review of the properties of the silicon material, and the basic physics of p–njunctions and MOS capacitors, as they relate to the fundamental principles of MOSFETand bipolar transistors. From there, the basic operation of MOSFET and bipolar devices,and their design and optimization for VLSI applications are developed. A great deal ofthe volume is devoted to in-depth discussions of the intricate interdependence and subtletradeoffs of the various device parameters pertaining to circuit performance and manufacturability. The effects which are particularly important in small-dimension devices, in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationxiiPreface to the first editione.g., quantization of the two-dimensional surface inversion layer in a MOSFET deviceand the heavy-doping effect in the intrinsic base of a bipolar transistor, are covered indetail. Also included in this book are extensive discussions on scaling and limitations toscaling of MOSFET and bipolar devices.This book is suitable for use as a textbook by senior undergraduate or graduatestudents in electrical engineering and microelectronics. The necessary backgroundassumed is an introductory understanding of solid-state physics and semiconductorphysics. For practicing engineers and scientists actively involved in research and development in the IC industry, this book serves as a reference in providing a body ofknowledge in modern VLSI devices for them to stay up to date in this field.VLSI devices are too huge a subject area to cover thoroughly in one book. We havechosen to cover only the fundamentals necessary for discussing the design and optimization of the state-of-the-art CMOS and bipolar devices in the sub-0.5-μm regime. Eventhen, the specific topics covered in this book are based on our own experience of what themost important device parameters and performance factors are in modern VLSI devices.Many people have contributed directly and indirectly to the topics covered in thisbook. We have benefited enormously from the years of collaboration and interaction wehad with our colleagues at IBM, particularly in the areas of advanced silicon-deviceresearch and development. These include Douglas Buchanan, Hu Chao, T. C. Chen, WeiChen, Kent Chuang, Peter Cook, Emmanuel Crabbé, John Cressler, Bijan Davari, RobertDennard, Max Fischetti, David Frank, Charles Hsu, Genda Hu, Randall Isaac, KhalidIsmail, G. P. Li, Shih-Hsien Lo, Yuh-Jier Mii, Edward Nowak, George Sai-Halasz,Stanley Schuster, Paul Solomon, Hans Stork, Jack Sun, Denny Tang, Lewis Terman,Clement Wann, James Warnock, Siegfried Wiedmann, Philip Wong, MatthewWordeman, Ben Wu, and Hwa Yu.We would like to acknowledge the secretarial support of Barbara Grady and thesupport of our management at IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center where thisbook was written. Finally, we would like to give special thanks to our families –Teresa, Adrienne, and Brenda Ning and Betty, Ying, and Hsuan Taur – for their supportand understanding during this seemingly endless task.Yuan TaurTak H. NingYorktown Heights, New York, October, 1997 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationPreface to the second editionSince the publication of the first edition of Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices byCambridge University Press in 1998, we received much praise and many encouragingreviews on the book. It has been adopted as a textbook for first-year graduate courses onmicroelectronics in many major universities in the United States and worldwide. The firstedition was translated into Japanese by a team led by Professor Shibahara of HiroshimaUniversity in 2002.During the past 10 years, the evolution and scaling of VLSI (very-large-scaleintegration) technology has continued. Now, sixty years after the first invention of thetransistor, the number of transistors per chip for both microprocessors and DRAM(dynamic random access memory) has increased to over one billion, and the highestclock frequency of microprocessors has reached 5 GHz. In 2007, the worldwide IC(integrated circuits) sales grew to 250 billion. In 2008, the IC industry reached the45-nm generation, meaning that the leading-edge IC products employ a minimumlithography feature size of 45 nm. As bulk CMOS (complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor) technologies are scaled to dimensions below100 nm, the very factor that makes CMOS technology the technology of choice fordigital VLSI circuits, namely, its low standby power, can no longer be taken for granted.Not only has the off-state current gone up with the power supply voltage down scaled tothe 1 V level, the gate leakage has also increased exponentially from quantum mechanicaltunneling through gate oxides only a few atomic layers thick. Power management, bothactive and standby, has become a key challenge to continued increase of clock frequencyand transistor count in microprocessors. New materials and device structures are beingexplored to replace conventional bulk CMOS in order to extend scaling to 10 nm.The purpose of writing the second edition is to update the book with additionalmaterial developed after the completion of the first edition. Key new material addedincludes MOSFET scale length theory and high-field transport model, and the section onSiGe-base bipolar devices has been greatly expanded. We have also expanded thediscussions on basic device physics and circuits to include metal–silicon contacts,noise margin of CMOS circuits, and figures of merit for RF applications. Furthermore,two new chapters are added to the second edition. Chapter 9 is on memory devices andcovers the fundamentals of read and write operations of commonly used SRAM, DRAM,and nonvolatile memory arrays. Chapter 10 is on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices,including advanced devices of future potential.We would like to take this opportunity to thank all the friends and colleagues who gaveus encouragement and valuable suggestions for improvement of the book. In particular,Professor Mark Lundstrom of Purdue University who adopted the first edition early on, in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationxivPreface to the second editionand Dr. Constantin Bulucea of National Semiconductor Corporation who suggested thetreatment on diffusion capacitance. Thanks also go to Professor James Meindl of GeorgiaInstitute of Technology, Professor Peter Asbeck of University of California, San Diego,and Professor Jerry Fossum of University of Florida for their support of the book.We would like to thank many of our colleagues at IBM, particularly in the areas ofadvanced silicon-device research and development, for their direct or indirect contributions. Yuan Taur would like to thank many of his students at University of California, SanDiego, in particular Jooyoung Song and Bo Yu, for their help with the completion ofthe second edition. He would also like to thank Katie Kahng for her love, support, andpatience during the course of the work.We would like to give special thanks to our families for their support and understanding during this seemingly endless task.Yuan TaurTak H. NingJune, 2008 in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationPhysical constants and unit conversionsDescriptionSymbolValue and unitElectronic chargeBoltzmann’s constantVacuum permittivitySilicon permittivityOxide permittivityVelocity of light in vacuumPlanck’s constantFree-electron massThermal voltage (T 300 K)qkε0εsiεoxchm0kT/q1.6 10 19 C1.38 10 23 J/K8.85 10 14 F/cm1.04 10 12 F/cm3.45 10 13 F/cm3 1010 cm/s6.63 10 34 J-s9.1 10 31 kg0.0259 VAngstromNanometerMicrometer � 10 8 cm1 nm 10 7 cm1 μm 10 4 cm1 mm 0.1 cm1 m 102 cm1eV 1.6 10 19 JEnergy charge voltageCharge capacitance voltagePower current voltageTime resistance capacitanceCurrent charge/timeResistance voltage/currentE qVQ CVP IVt RCI Q/tR V/IJoule Coulomb VoltCoulomb Farad VoltWatt Ampere Voltsecond Ω (ohm) FaradAmpere Coulomb/secondΩ (ohm) Volt/AmpereA word of caution about the length units: strictly speaking, MKS units should be used forall the equations in the book. As a matter of convention, electronics engineers often workwith centimeter as the unit of length. While some equations work with lengths in eithermeter or centimeter, not all of them do. It is prudent always to check for unit consistencywhen doing calculations. It may be necessary to convert the length unit to meter beforeplugging into the equations. in this web service Cambridge University Presswww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationList of eaEmitter areaCommon-base current gainStatic common-base current gainForward common-base current gain in the Ebers–Moll modelReverse common-base current gain in the Ebers–Moll modelBase transport factorElectron-initiated rate of electron–hole pair generation perunit distanceHole-initiated rate of electron–hole pair generation per unitdistanceBreakdown voltageCollector–base junction breakdown voltage with emitteropen circuitCollector–emitter breakdown voltage with base open circuitEmitter–base junction breakdown voltage with collectoropen circuitCurrent gainStatic common-emitter current gainForward common-emitter current gain in the Ebers–MollmodelReverse common-emitter current gain in the Ebers–MollmodelVelocity of light in vacuum ( 3 1010 cm/s)CapacitanceDepletion-layer capacitance per unit areaTotal depletion-layer capacitanceBase–collector diode depletion-layer capacitance per unitareaTotal base–collector diode depletion-layer capacitanceBase–emitter diode depletion-layer capacitance per unit areaTotal base–emitter diode depletion-layer capacitanceMaximum depletion-layer capacitance (per unit area)Diffusion capacitancecm2cm2NoneNoneNoneNoneNonecm ,totCdBECdBE,totCdmCD in this web service Cambridge University Presscm 1VVVVNoneNoneNoneNonecm/sFF/cm2FF/cm2FF/cm2FF (F/cm2)Fwww.cambridge.org

Cambridge University Press978-0-521-83294-6 - Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices: Second EditionYuan Taur and Tak H. NingFrontmatterMore informationxviiList of �Eg,maxΔEg,SiGeΔLΔQtotalEEcEvEaDiffusion capacitance due to excess electronsDiffusion capacitance due to excess holesEmitter diffusion capacitanceEquivalent density-of-states capacitanceMOS capacitance at flat band per unit areaCapacitance between the floating gate and the control gate ofa MOSFET nonvolatile memory deviceIntrinsic gate capacitance per unit areaTotal gate capacitance of MOSFETInversion-layer capacitance per unit areaInterface trap capacitance per unit areaJunction capacitance per unit areaJunction capacitanceLoad capacitanceEquivalent input capacitance of a logic gateMOSFET capacitance in inversion per unit areaMinimum MOS capacitance per unit areaEquivalent output capacitance of a logic gateGate-to-source (-drain) overlap capacitance (per edge)Oxide capacitance per unit areaPolysilicon-gate depletion-layer capacitance per unit areaSilicon capacitance per u

Preface to the first edition page xi Preface to the second edition xiii Physical constants and unit conversions xv List of symbols xvi 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Evolution of VLSI Device Technology 1 1.1.1 Historical Perspective 1 1.1.2 Recent Developments 4 1.2 Modern VLSI Devices 4 1.2.1 Modern CMOS Transistors 4 1.2.2 Modern Bipolar Transistors 5

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