BRAND MANAGEMENT (MARK3092) EXAM NOTES

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periences etc. linked to the brand in theminds of consumersThe brand resonance pyramid The CBBE model has been extended to address how brands should be built interms of consumer knowledge structures CBBE model views brand building as an ascending series of steps:(1) Ensuring identification of the brand with customers and an association ofthe brand in customers’ minds with a specific product class or customerneed;(2) Firmly establishing the totality of brand meaning in the minds of customersby strategically linking a host of tangible and intangible brand associations;(3) Eliciting the proper customer responses in terms of brand-relatedjudgment and feelings; and(4) Converting the brand response to create an intensive, active loyaltyrelationship between customers and the brand The CBBE model emphasises the duality of brands: the rational route to brandbuilding is on the LHS and the emotional route is on the RHS The creation of significant brand equity requires reaching the pinnacle of thebrand resonance pyramid which only occurs when the right building blocks arein placeThe building blocks of the brand resonance pyramid Brand salience: how easily and often customers think of the brand undervarious purchase or consumption situationsBrand performance: how well the product or service meets customers’functional needsBrand imagery: the extrinsic properties of the product or service, including theway in which the brand attempts to meet customers’ psychological or socialneedsBrand judgements: customers’ own personal opinions and evaluationsBrand feelings: customers’ emotional responses and reactions with respect tothe brandBrand resonance: the nature of the relationship customers have with thebrand and the extent to which the feel they’re ‘in sync’ with the brando Resonance reflects the intensity or depth of the psychological bondthat customers have with the brand, as well as the level of activityengendered by this loyalty4

Marketing communication effects on brand equity Marketing communications affect brand equity and drive sales in many ways:o Create awareness of the brand;o Link the right associations to the brand image in consumers’ memory;o Elicit positive brand judgments or feelings;o Facilitate a stronger consumer-brand connection Developing the marketing communications mixo Marketing communications must be integrated to deliver a consistentmessage and achieve strategic positioningo Marketers must assess which experiences and impressions will havethe most influence at each stage of the buying process.Integrated marketing communications (IMC) programo Several factors to consider in developing the marketingcommunications mix: type of product marketing, consumer readinessto make a purchase, stage in product life cycle, and brand’s marketshare and positioningo Marketers should be media neutral – evaluate all possiblecommunication options in terms of efficiency and effectivenesso Anything that causes a consumer to pay attention to the brand canincrease brand awareness, at least in terms of brand recognition.Brand recall may require more intense and elaborate processing.o Marketers should ‘mix and match’ communication options to buildbrand equity – choose a variety of different communication optionsthat share common meaning and content but also offer different,complementary advantages so that the whole is greater than the sumof its parts svipInteractive marketing communicationso List of some interactive marketing communication options: Brand resonance has four dimensions(1) Behavioural loyalty: customers’ repeat purchases and the amount orshare of category volume attributed to the brand(2) Attitudinal attachment: when customers view the brand as beingsomething special in a broader context(3) Sense of community: when customers feel a kinship or affiliation withother people associated with the brand(4) Active engagement: when customers are willing to invest pers

The brand meaning evolution model The brand resonance pyramid model Brand knowledge is defined in terms of two components: brand awareness and brand image o Brand awareness relates to brand recall and recognition performance by consumers o Brand image refers to the set of associations linked to

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