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ScrumAbout the TutorialScrum is an efficient framework within which you can develop software withteamwork. It is based on agile principles.This tutorial will help you understand agile development in general and Scrum inspecific. You will get familiar with its associated terminology along with appropriateexamples.AudienceThis tutorial is prepared for the beginners to help them understand the basics ofScrum framework and its implementation.After completing this tutorial, you will find yourself at a moderate level of expertise,from where you can take yourself to next levels.PrerequisitesBefore proceeding with this tutorial, you need a basic knowledge of softwaredevelopment concepts such as software requirements, coding, testing, etc.Disclaimer & Copyright Copyright 2015 by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd.All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of TutorialsPoint (I) Pvt. Ltd. The user of this e-book is prohibited to reuse, retain, copy,distribute or republish any contents or a part of contents of this e-book in any mannerwithout written consent of the publisher. We strive to update the contents of ourwebsite and tutorials as timely and as precisely as possible, however, the contentsmay contain inaccuracies or errors. Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. provides no guaranteeregarding the accuracy, timeliness or completeness of our website or its contentsincluding this tutorial. If you discover any errors on our website or in this tutorial,please notify us at contact@tutorialspoint.com.i

ScrumContentsAbout the Tutorial ·············· IAudience ···· IPrerequisites ······················· IDisclaimer & Copyright ······· IContents ··· II1. OVERVIEW ···· 1Waterfall �··················· 1Iterative Incremental Model ······················· 1Agile Development ············ 2Agile Manifesto ·················· 3Definition of Agile Manifesto Items ············ 3Key Principles of Agile ········ 4Agile Methodologies ·········· 4Dynamic System Development Methodology (DSDM) ············4Scrum ············5Extreme Programming ······5Test-driven Development (TDD) �·············5Kanban ··········52. FRAMEWORK ························· 7Scrum Definition ················ 7Scrum Process Framework · 8Sprint ········ 83. SCRUM ROLES ······················ 10ScrumMaster ··················· 10Product �··················· 10The Team ························· 114. � 12ii

ScrumScrumMaster Services to the Product Owner ····················· 12ScrumMaster Services to the Scrum Team ························· 12ScrumMaster Services to the Organization ························ 125. EVENTS ······· 14The Sprint ························ 14Sprint Planning ················ 15Daily Scrum Meetings ······ 15Sprint Review ··················· 16Sprint Retrospective ········ 176. �······· 18Product Backlog ··············· 18Sprint Backlog ·················· 19Increment ························ 19Sprint Burn-Down Chart ··· 207. USER STORIES ······················ 21User � 21The User Story Structure ·· 21User Story: Customer’s Cash Withdrawal ·····21User Story Acceptance Criteria g User Stories ········· 22Non-Functional Requirements in User Stories ···················· 22Managing User Stories ····· 23Benefits of User Stories ···· 238. BURN-DOWN CHARTS ·········· 249. ····· 27Estimation Techniques ····· 27Planning Poker Technique ························· 27iii

ScrumBenefits of Planning Poker Estimation ······ 2810. SCRUM TOOLS ····················· 30Available Scrum Tools ······ 3011. SCRUM – BENEFITS ·············· 32Benefits to Customer ······· 32Benefits to Organization ·· 32Benefits to Product Managers ··················· 32Benefits to Project Managers ···················· 32Benefits to Development ··················· 3312. SCRUM – CERTIFICATIONS ··· 34Certified ScrumMaster (CSM) ···················· 34Certified Scrum Product Owner (CSPO) ····· 34Certified Scrum Practitioner (CSP) ············· 34Certified Scrum Coach (CSC) ······················ 34Certified Scrum Trainer (CST) ···················· 3513. SCRUM – ······················· 36iv

1. OVERVIEWScrumAgile has become one of the big buzzwords in the software development industry.But what exactly is agile development? Put simply, agile development is a differentway of executing software development teams and projects.To understand what is new, let us recap the traditional methods. In conventionalsoftware development, the product requirements are finalized before proceeding withthe development.Waterfall ModelThe most commonly used software development model with this characteristic is theWaterfall Model as depicted in the following diagram. However, in most of the cases,new functionalities get added, and also earlier requirements may change. TheWaterfall model is not structured to accommodate such continuous changes inrequirements. Further, the user will not have clarity on the functionality of theproduct till the product becomes available in its entirety.Iterative Incremental ModelIn the iterative incremental model, the development starts with a limited number offinalized and prioritized requirements. The deliverable is a working increment of theproduct. A set of activities ranging from requirements to code development is calledan iteration. Based on the functionality of the increment and any or all of the new,modified, pending requirements, the next lot of requirements is given to thesubsequent iteration. The outcome of the subsequent iteration is an enhanced1

Scrumworking increment of the product. This is repeated till the product accomplishes therequired functionalities.The user is usually not involved in the development work and it may causecommunication gaps resulting in incorrect functionalities. The involvement is positivefor the development team, but is demanding on the time of the team and can adddelays. Further, any informal requirement changes during an iteration may lead toconfusion and may also create scope creeps. With this premise, Agile developmentcame into existence.Agile DevelopmentAgile development is based on iterative incremental development, in whichrequirements and solutions evolve through team collaboration. It recommends atime-boxed iterative approach, and encourages rapid and flexible response tochange. It is a theoretical framework and does not specify any particular practice thata development team should follow. Scrum is a specific agile process framework thatdefines the practices required to be followed.Early implementations of agile methods include Rational Unified Process (1994),Scrum (1995), Crystal Clear, Extreme Programming (1996), Adaptive SoftwareDevelopment, Feature Driven Development (1997), and Dynamic SystemsDevelopment Method (DSDM) (1995). These are now collectively referred to as agilemethodologies, after the Agile Manifesto was published in 2001.2

ScrumAgile ManifestoThe Agile Manifesto was published by a team of software developers in 2001,highlighting the importance that needs to be given to the development team,accommodating changing requirements, customer involvement.The Agile Manifesto is as follows:“We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping othersdo it. Through this work, we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a planThat is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the leftmore.” Manifesto for Agile Software Development, Authors: Beck, Kent, et al. (2001)Definition of Agile Manifesto ItemsThe manifesto items on the left can be described as follows:Manifesto ItemDescriptionIndividuals andinteractionsImportance needs to be given to: self-organization and self-motivation of the teammembers continuous interaction for work, clarifications, informationamong the team membersWorking software Delivery of working software at short duration intervals helpsgain customer trust and assurance in the team.CustomercollaborationConstant involvement of customer with the development teamensures communication of necessary modifications.Responding tochangeFocus on quick response to the proposed changes, which is madepossible with short duration iterations.The key element of Agile Manifesto is that we must trust people and their ability tocollaborate. For this reason, the specific agile methodologies developed tap theabilities of team members by emphasizing teamwork and collaboration throughoutthe life-cycle of the project.3

ScrumKey Principles of AgileThe Agile Manifesto is based on the following principles:PrincipleDescriptionSatisfaction andDeliveryCustomer satisfaction through early and continuousworking software.Welcoming ChangeWelcome changing requirements, even at laterstages of development.Deliver FrequentlyDeliver working software frequently (weekly ratherthan monthly).Communication is theKeyEnsure close association of developers withbusiness people on daily basis.Environment and TrustBuild projects around motivated individuals. Givethem necessary support and trust them.Face-to-faceCommunicationEncourage face-to-face conversation to ensureefficient and effective communication.Software as Measureof ProgressSustainableDevelopmentWorking software is the primary measure ofprogress.Attention to DetailsContinuous attention to technical excellence andgood design.The Power of LessSimplicity is essential.Self-organizing TeamsRegular attention of the team on becomingeffective in changing circumstances.Promote sustainable development with the abilityto maintain a constant pace throughout thedevelopment.Agile MethodologiesAgile methodologies include the following: Dynamic System Development MethodologyScrumExtreme ProgrammingTest-driven DevelopmentLeanKanbanDynamic System Development Methodology (DSDM)It is an agile framework for software projects. It was used to fine-tune the traditionalapproaches. The most recent version of DSDM is called DSDM Atern. The name Atern4

Scrumis a short for Arctic Tern - a seabird that can travel vast distances that representsmany features of the method which are natural ways of working such as prioritizationand collaboration.ScrumIt is the most popular agile framework, which concentrates particularly on how tomanage tasks within a team-based development environment. Scrum uses iterativeand incremental development model, with shorter duration of iterations. Scrum isrelatively simple to implement and focuses on quick and frequent deliveries.Extreme Programming (XP)It is a type of agile software development. It advocates frequent releases in shortdevelopment cycles, which is intended to improve productivity and introducecheckpoints where new customer requirements can be adopted. The methodologytakes its name from the idea that the beneficial elements of traditional softwareengineering practices are taken to extreme levels. (Extreme Programming is asoftware-development discipline that organizes people to produce higher-qualitysoftware more productively.) XP addresses the analysis, development, and testphases with novel approaches that make a substantial difference to the quality of theend-product.Test-driven Development (TDD)It is a software development process that relies on the repetition of a very shortdevelopment cycle: first the developer writes an automated test case that defines adesired improvement or a new function, then it produces the least amount of code topass that test, and finally brings the new code to acceptable standards.LeanIt is a production practice that considers the expendit

Scrum 1 Agile has become one of the big buzzwords in the software development industry. But what exactly is agile development? Put simply, agile development is a different way of executing software development teams and projects. To understand what is new, let us recap the traditional methods. In conventional software development, the product requirements are finalized before proceeding with .

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