Nonresidential Ventilation & Indoor Air Quality (IAQ .

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Codes and Standards Enhancement (CASE) Initiative2019 California Building Energy Efficiency StandardsNonresidential Ventilation & Indoor AirQuality (IAQ) – Final ReportMeasure Number: 2019-NR-ASHRAE62.1-FNonresidential MechanicalRevised December 2017This report was prepared by the California Statewide Codes and Standards Enhancement (CASE) Program that is funded, in part, by Californiautility customers under the auspices of the California Public Utilities Commission.Copyright 2017 Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern California Edison, Southern California Gas Company, San Diego Gas & ElectricCompany, Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, and Sacramento Municipal Utility District.All rights reserved, except that this document may be used, copied, and distributed without modification.Neither Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern California Edison, Southern California Gas Company, San Diego Gas & Electric Company,Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, or any of its employees makes any warranty, express ofimplied; or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any data, information, method, product,policy or process disclosed in this document; or represents that its use will not infringe any privately owned rights including, but not limited to,patents, trademarks or copyrights.

Document InformationCategory:Codes and StandardsKeywords:Statewide Codes and Standards Enhancement (CASE) Initiative,Statewide Utility Codes and Standards Team, 2019 Title 24 Part 6,efficiency, ventilation, indoor air quality, filters, natural ventilation,mechanical ventilation, exhaust ventilation, outdoor air treatmentAuthors:Ryan Sit and Anna Brannon (Integral Group)Marshall Hunt (PG&E)Project Management:California Utilities Statewide Codes and Standards Team: Pacific Gasand Electric Company, Southern California Edison, SoCalGas , SanDiego Gas & Electric Company, Los Angeles Department of Water andPower, and Sacramento Municipal Utility District2019 Title 24, Part 6 CASE Report – 2019-NR-ASHRAE62.1-F Revised December 2017Page i

Table of ContentsExecutive Summary.v1. Introduction .12. Measure Description .22.12.22.32.42.5Measure Overview . 2Measure History . 3Summary of Proposed Changes to Code Documents . 5Regulatory Context . 6Compliance and Enforcement. 73. Market Analysis .83.13.23.33.4Market Structure . 8Technical Feasibility, Market Availability and Current Practices . 9Market Impacts and Economic Assessments . 16Economic Impacts . 174. Energy Savings.194.14.24.3Key Assumptions for Energy Savings Analysis . 19Energy Savings Methodology. 20Per-Unit Energy Impacts Results. 255. Lifecycle Cost and Cost-Effectiveness .295.15.25.35.45.55.6Overview . 29Energy Cost Savings Methodology . 29Energy Cost Savings Results . 29Lifetime Incremental Maintenance Costs . 33Lifecycle Cost-Effectiveness . 33Health and Productivity Cost Impacts . 336. First-Year Statewide Impacts .356.16.26.36.46.5Overview . 35Statewide Energy Savings and Lifecycle Energy Cost Savings . 35Statewide Water Use Impacts . 43Statewide Material Impacts . 43Other Non-Energy Impacts . 437. Proposed Revisions to Code Language .437.17.27.37.47.57.6Title 24 Standards, Part 6. 43California Green Building Standards Code, Part 11 . 57Reference Appendices . 58Nonresidential ACM Reference Manual . 58Compliance Manuals . 58Compliance Documents . 588. Bibliography.58: Statewide Savings Methodology .622019 Title 24, Part 6 CASE Report – 2019-NR-ASHRAE62.1-F Revised December 2017Page ii

: Discussion of Impacts of Compliance Process on Market Actors .71: Background on the Development of ASHRAE 62.1 Ventilation rates andVentilation Rate Procedure .76: Feedback Survey for California Ventilation Rate Calculations .82: Space Type Breakdown for Different Building Types .84: Comparison of Space Ventilation Rates and CO2 Concentrations.86: Small School Lifecycle Costs for Outdoor Air Treatment of PM-2.5 .93List of TablesTable 1: Scope of Code Change Proposal . viTable 2: Estimated Statewide First-Yeara Energy and Water Savings. viiTable 3: Existing Title 24, Part 6 Table 120.1-A Minimum Ventilation Rates . 6Table 4: MERV filtration efficiency . 13Table 5: LBNL Pilot Study Test Results . 15Table 6: Industries Receiving Energy Efficiency Related Investment, by North American IndustryClassification System (NAICS) Code. 18Table 7: Prototype Buildings Used for Energy, Demand, Cost, and Environmental Impacts Analysis . 20Table 8: Weighted Average Minimum Ventilation Rates for Different Building Types. 21Table 9: Spaces Within Small School Prototype Where Natural Ventilation Is Allowed . 23Table 10: Example Filtration Incremental Fan Electrical Demand due to Filters . 24Table 11: First-Year Energy Impacts per Prototype Building . 25Table 12: Small School Spaces That Allow Natural Ventilation. 29Table 13: TDV Energy Cost Savings over 15-Year Period of Analysis – Per Prototype Building . 30Table 14: Matching of Building Type From Construction Forecast to Prototype Building Model for perunit savings . 36Table 15: Statewide Energy and Energy Cost Impacts for Prototype Models – New Construction. 36Table 16: Statewide Energy and Energy Cost Impacts for Prototype Models – Alterations & Additions . 40Table 17: Estimated New Nonresidential Construction Impacted by Proposed Code Change in 2020, byClimate Zone and Building Type (Million ft2) . 64Table 18: Estimated Existing Nonresidential Floor Space Impacted by Proposed Code Change in 2020(Alterations), by Climate Zone and Building Type (Million ft2) . 65Table 19 Translation from Forecast Climate Zone (FCZ) to Building Standards Climate Zone (BSCZ) . 66Table 20: Description of Building Types and Sub-types (Prototypes) in Statewide Construction Forecast. 67Table 21: Converting from Forecast Climate Zone (FCZ) to Building Standards Climate Zone (BSCZ) –Example Calculation. 682019 Title 24, Part 6 CASE Report – 2019-NR-ASHRAE62.1-F Revised December 2017Page iii

Table 22: Example of Redistribution of Miscellaneous Category - 2020 New Construction in ClimateZone 1 . 68Table 23: Percent of Floor Space Impacted by Proposed Measure, by Building Type . 69Table 24: Percent of Floor Space Impacted by Proposed Measure, by Climate Zone . 70Table 25: Roles of Market Actors in the Proposed Compliance Process. 72Table 26: Occupant Component of Ventilation Rate . 78Table 27: Building Component of Ventilation Rate . 79Table 28: Space Type Breakdown of Various Building Types from NC3 Dataset . 84Table 29: NC3 Dataset Building Type Cross Reference to Statewide Construction Forecast. 85Table 30: Estimated Average Occupancy . 86Table 31: Comparison of Effective Outdoor Air Flow rates and Total CO2 2016 T-24 vs. Proposal . 89Table 32: Filter unit costs for MERV 8 and MERV 13 . 93Table 33: Incremental first costs for MERV 8 versus MERV 13 . 93Table 34: Incremental Total Static Pressure . 94Table 35: Annual Incremental Energy Use . 94Table 36: LCC per person per year . 95List of FiguresFigure 1: Area designations for State ambient air quality standards – PM-10. . 11Figure 2: Area designations for State ambient air quality standards – PM-2.5. . 12Figure 3: Area designations for State ambient air quality standards – Ozone. . 14Figure 4: EPA 2008 Region 9 Ozone Nonattainment Map for 0.107 ppm. . 15Figure 5: Floor plan and elevation views of small school prototype . 222019 Title 24, Part 6 CASE Report – 2019-NR-ASHRAE62.1-F Revised December 2017Page iv

E XECUTIVE S UMMARYIntroductionThe Codes and Standards Enhancement (CASE) initiative presents recommendations to support theCalifornia Energy Commission’s (Energy Commission) efforts to update California’s Building EnergyEfficiency Standards (Title 24, Part 6) to include new requirements or to upgrade existing requirementsfor various technologies. The four California Investor Owned Utilities (IOUs) – Pacific Gas and ElectricCompany, San Diego Gas & Electric, Southern California Edison, and SoCalGas – and two PubliclyOwned Utilities (POUs) – Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Sacramento MunicipalUtility District – sponsored this effort. The program goal is to prepare and submit proposals that willresult in cost-effective enhancements to improve energy efficiency and energy performance inCalifornia buildings. This report and the code change proposals presented herein are part of the effort todevelop technical and cost-effectiveness information for proposed requirements on building energyefficient design practices and technologies.The Statewide CASE Team submits code change proposals to the Energy Commission, the state agencythat has authority to adopt revisions to Title 24, Part 6. The Energy Commission will evaluate proposalssubmitted by the Statewide CASE Team and other stakeholders. The Energy Commission may revise orreject proposals. See the Energy Commission’s 2019 Title 24 website for information about therulemaking schedule and how to participate in the ards/.Measure DescriptionThis measure proposes revising Title 24, Part 6 requirements using a combination of the requirements inTitle 24, Part 4 (California Mechanical Code) and ASHRAE 62.1-2016: Ventilation for AcceptableIndoor Air Quality. The ventilation requirements in 2016 Title 24, Part 4 are based on or referenceASHRAE 62.1-2013. Therefore, aligning Title 24, Part 6 with select sections in Title 24, Part 4 willconcurrently align with the corresponding section in ASHRAE 62.1-2016. All of the proposed changeswould impact the mandatory requirements for ventilation in Section 120.1 of Title 24, Part 6. Thespecific recommendations include the following:1. Replace Section 120.1(b) with the ASHRAE 62.2-2016 requirements which apply to high-riseresidential buildings.2. Require MERV 13 air filters for all ducted forced air system supply outdoor air or alloccupancies.3. Revise Natural Ventilation criteria to align with ASHRAE 62.1-2016.4. Revise Mechanical Ventilation required ventilation calculation align with 130 percent ofASHRAE 62.1-2016 and include a simplified minimum ventilation rate calculation procedure.5. Update exhaust ventilation airflow requirements.6. Add recirculated air limitations.7. Delete Table 120.1 – A: Minimum Ventilation Rates and add in its place the System VentilationEfficiency table.8. Add Table 120.1 – B: Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone which uses the expandedlist of occupancy categories at 130 percent of 62.1-2016.9. Add Table 120.1 – C: Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness.10. Add Table 120.1 – D: Minimum Exhaust Rates.2019 Title 24, Part 6 CASE Report – 2019-NR-ASHRAE62.1-F Revised December 2017Page v

The proposed code changes will apply to alterations. Title 24, Part 6 Section 120.1 is triggered whenany of the following are changed: the entire unit, duct system, dampers, or economizers. When theserequirements are met, the proposed code change will apply to additions and alterations.Scope of Code Change ProposalTable 1 summarizes the scope of the proposed changes and which sections of the Standards, ReferenceAppendices, Alternative Calculation Manual (ACM) Reference Manual, and compliance documents willbe modified as a result of the proposed changes.Table 1: Scope of Code Change Proposal 1Measure NameNonresidentialIndoor AirQuality(Proposal Basedon ASHRAE62.1-2016)Type ofRequirementMandatoryModifiedSection(s) ofTitle 24Modified Title24, Part 6AppendicesPart 6 - Section120.1 –NonresidentialRequirementsfor VentilationNone: NA7.5.1addressesventilationacceptance, butwill not bemodifiedWillComplianceSoftware BeModifiedYesCALGreen Part11 – s) NRCAMCH-02-A NRCCMCH-03-E NRCCMCH-05-E NRCC-PRF01-EMarket Analysis and Regulatory Impact AssessmentThe proposed code change is a mandatory measure that will impact all nonresidential buildings thatrequire a mechanically ventilated system, and by extension, all components of an air system.A literature review in Section 5.6 Health and Productivity Cost Impacts estimates some of the largeproductivity gains from improved indoor air quality. Although specific cost-benefit data is not used inthis report, the productivity gains are potentially greater than the costs required to improve indoor airquality.The proposed changes to Title 24, Part 6 have a negligible impact on the complexity of the standards orthe cost of enforcement. When developing this code change proposal, the Statewide CASE Teamdistributed a survey to mechanical design engineers and energy analysts to simplify and streamline thecompliance and enforcement of this proposal. Survey results demonstrated that many respondents (65percent of 34 respondents) are already performing the ASHRAE 62.1 ventilation rate calculations, likelyto fulfill requirements of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) prerequisite.Appendix D includes a summary of survey results. Additional steps were taken to keep a simplifiedventilation method for multiple-zone recirculation systems as well for those less familiar with the fullASHRAE 62.1 ventilation rate procedure.Cost-EffectivenessThis code change proposal improves indoor air quality by referencing Title 24, Part 4 and ASHRAE62.1-2016 which is based on current research on indoor air quality. ASHRAE 62.1 is a national1Statewide savings updated for the December 2017 report revision.2019 Title 24, Part 6 CASE Report – 2019-NR-ASHRAE62.1-F Revised December 2017Page vi

ventilation standard that is accepted as industry standard practice throughout the country. The typicalmethodology used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of proposed changes to Title 24, Part 6 evaluatesthe incremental cost over a period of time relative to the energy cost savings over the same time period.This methodology is not applicable for the proposed indoor air quality measures, because the primarybenefits are code simplification and health benefits, instead of achieving energy savings.While developing this code change proposal, the Statewide CASE Team worked with the EnergyCommission, the California Air Resources Board, and indoor air quality experts (such as those atLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)) to evaluate the costs and benefits of the proposedchanges. In some situations, ventilation air is reduced compare to 2016 Title 24, Part 6 Standards whileother occupancies have increased ventilation air. For some occupancies, calculations are required whichoptimize outside air in the breathing zones of a space. The cost of compliance is relatively small, andthere are many benefits, including harmonization with the International Mechanical Code andventilation design practice for the rest of the country; improved indoor air quality; and improvedoccupant health throughout the state. The proposed 130 percent of the ASHRAE 62.1-2016 ventilationrate will also qualify code compliant buildings for the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design(LEED) "increased ventilation" point.2 National standard levels and procedures provide common basesupon which to determine whether adequate ventilation is being provided. These benefits have indirectcost savings to both organizations and individuals that are not easily quantified. See Section 5 for adetailed description of the cost-effectiveness analysis.Statewide Energy ImpactsTable 2 shows potential energy savings over the first year that the proposed code changes would be ineffect based on statewide new construction and additions and alterations estimates.Table 2: Estimated Statewide First-Yeara Energy and Water SavingsNew ConstructionAdditions GWh/yr)2.8First-Year PeakElectrical DemandReduction(MW)0.6First-Year 00(0.87)N/A3.36First-Year NaturalGas Savings(million therms/yr)0.9First-year savings from all buildings completed statewide in 2020.Compliance and EnforcementThe Statewide CASE Team worked with stakeholders to develop a recommended compliance andenforcement process and to identify the impacts this process will have on various market actors. Thecompliance process is described in Section 2.5. The impacts the proposed measure will have on variousmarket actors are described in Section 3.3 and Appendix B. The key issues related to compliance andenforcement are summarized below: 2Mechanical designer will need to complete more complex calculations in the design phase todetermine outside air requirements and size HVAC equipment.Plans examiner must ensure that the proposed design meets the new ventilation are/v4-draft/eqc12019 Title 24, Part 6 CASE Report – 2019-NR-ASHRAE62.1-F Revised December 2017Page vii

Duties for the general contractor and subcontractors will generally remain the same to install theventilation system. Acceptance testers must verify minimum ventilation rates and issue acertificate of acceptance, although this is not a new task for them.Building inspector will need to become familiar with the new ventilation rate and filter MERV13 requirements to verify code compliance and proper installation of building features.Although a needs analysis was conducted with the affected market actors while developing the codechange proposal, the code requirements may change between the time the final CASE Report issubmitted and the time the 2019 standards are adopted. The recommended compliance process andcompliance documentation may also evolve with the code language. To effectively implement theadopted code requirements, a plan should be developed that identifies potential barriers to compliancewhen rolling out the code change and approaches that should be deployed to minimize the barriers.2019 Title 24, Part 6 CASE Report – 2019-NR-ASHRAE62.1-F Revised December 2017Page viii

1. I NTRODUCTIONThe Codes and Standards Enhancement (CASE) initiative presents recommendations to support theCalifornia Energy Commission’s (Energy Commission) efforts to update California’s Building EnergyEfficiency Standards (Title 24, Part 6) to include new requirements or to upgrade existing requirementsfor various technologies. The four California Investor Owned Utilities (IOUs) – Pacific Gas and ElectricCompany, San Diego Gas & Electric, Southern California Edison and SoCalGas – and two PubliclyOwned Utilities (POUs) – Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Sacramento MunicipalUtility District – sponsored this effort. The program goal is to prepare and submit proposals that willresult in cost-effective enhancements to energy efficiency and energy performance in Californiabuildings. This report and the code change proposal presented herein are part of the effort to developtechnical and cost-effectiveness information for proposed regulations on building energy-efficientdesign practices and technologies.The Statewide CASE Team submits code change proposals to the Energy Commission, the state agencythat has authority to adopt revisions to Title 24, Part 6. The Energy Commission will evaluate proposalssubmitted by the Statewide CASE Team and other stakeholders. The Energy Commission may revise orreject proposals. See the Energy Commission’s 2019 Title 24 website for information about therulemaking schedule and how to participate in the ards/.The overall goal of this CASE Report is to present a code change proposal for nonresidential indoor airquality and ventilation. Proposed code changes include updating the minimum ventilation rates andcalculation procedure for mechanical ventilation, revising requirements for natural ventilation,requirements for outdoor air treatment, and including exhaust ventilation requirements. The reportcontains pertinent information supporting the code change.When developing the code change proposal and associated technical information presented in thisreport, the Statewide CASE Team worked with a number of industry stakeholders including buildingofficials, manufacturers, builders, utility incentive program managers, Title 24, Part 6 energy analysts,and others involved in the code compliance process. The proposal incorporates feedback receivedduring public stakeholder meetings that the Statewide CASE Team held on September 27, 2016 andMarch 16, 2017.Section 2 of this CASE Report provides a description of the measure and its background. This sectionalso presents a detailed description of how this change is accomplished in the various sections anddocuments that make up the Title 24, Part 6.Section 3 presents the market analysis, including a review of the current market structure. Section 3.2describes the feasibility issues associated with the code change, including whether the proposed measureoverlaps or conflict with other portions of the building standards such as fire, seismic, and other safetystandards and whether technical, compliance, or enforceability challenges exist.Section 4 presents the per unit energy and demand savings associated with the proposed code change.This section also describes the methodology that the Statewide CASE Team used to estimate energy anddemand savings. As discussed in Section 2.2.1, the Energy Commission has a responsibility to establishrequirements in which code requirements that improve building energy performance are considered inconjunction with impacts on public health and safety. This code change proposal adjusts requirementspertinent to indoor air quality to ensure that public health and safety is maintained as building enveloperequirements become more stringent. This measure will result in increased energy use in somebuildings. This CASE Report discusses the likely energy impacts while providing data that the Energy2019 Title 24, Part 6 CASE Report – 2019-NR-ASHRAE62.1-F Revised December 2017Page 1

Commission can use to make informed decisions about the adoption of code change proposals thatimprove energy performance while preserving or improving indoor air quality.Section 5 presents information on the costs and cost benefits of the proposed code changes. The primaryobjective of this code change is to protect public health and safety by recommending requirements thatwill preserve or improve indoor air quality. As discussed in Section 2.2.1, a cost-effectiveness analysisis not required if the primary objective of the code change proposal is to protect public health andsafety. Hence, this CASE Report does not include a cost-effectiveness analysis. However, the StatewideCASE Team did evaluate the energy and energy cost impacts associated with the proposed codechanges. The Statewide CASE Team also investigated the cost benefits of improved health andproductivity associated with improved indoor air quality.Section 6 presents the statewide energy impacts and environmental impacts of the proposed code changefor the first year after the 2019 Standards take effect. This includes the amount of energy that will besaved by California building owners and tenants.Section 7 concludes the report with specific recommendations with strikeout (deletions) and underlined(additions) language for the Standards, Reference Appendices, Alternative Calculation Manual (ACM)Reference Manual, Compliance Manual, and compliance documents.2. M EASURE D ESCRIPTION2.1 Measure OverviewThe proposed code change will update the ventilation and

NRCA-MCH -02 A NRCC-MCH-03-E NRCC-MCH-05-E NRCC-PRF-01-E . Market Analys is and Regulatory Impact Assessment . The proposed code change is a mandatory measure that will impact all nonresidential buildings that require a mechanically ventilated s

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