Design Manual For Structural Stainless Steel - Imoa

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SCI (The Steel Construction Institute) is the leading, independent provider of technical expertiseand disseminator of best practice to the steel construction sector. We work in partnership withclients, members and industry peers to help build businesses and provide competitive advantagethrough the commercial application of our knowledge. We are committed to offering and promotingsustainable and environmentally responsible solutions.Our service spans the following areas:MembershipIndividual & corporate membershipAdviceMembers advisory serviceInformationPublicationsEducationEvents & trainingConsultancyDevelopmentProduct developmentEngineering supportSustainabilityAssessmentSCI AssessmentSpecificationWebsitesEngineering softwareFront cover creditsTop left:Canopy, Napp Pharmaceutical, Cambridge, UKGrade 1.4401, Courtesy: m-tecTop right:Skid for offshore regasification plant,Grade 1.4301, Courtesy: MontanstahlBottom left:Dairy Plant at Cornell University, College ofAgriculture and Life Sciences,Grade 1.4301/7, Courtesy: Stainless StructuralsBottom right:Águilas footbridge, SpainGrade 1.4462, Courtesy Acuamed 2017 SCI. All rights reserved.Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes ofresearch or private study or criticism or review,as permitted under the Copyright Designs andPatents Act, 1988, this publication may not bereproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or byany means, without the prior permission in writingof the publishers, or in the case of reprographicreproduction only in accordance with the terms ofthe licences issued by the UK Copyright LicensingAgency, or in accordance with the terms of licencesissued by the appropriate Reproduction RightsOrganisation outside the UK.Publication Number: SCI P413ISBN 13: 978-1-85942-226-7Published by:SCI, Silwood Park, Ascot,Berkshire. SL5 7QN UKT: 44 (0)1344 636525F: 44 (0)1344 636570E: reception@steel‑sci.comwww.steel‑sci.comTo report any errors, contact:publications@steel‑sci.comEnquiries concerning reproduction outside the termsstated here should be sent to the publishers, SCI.Although care has been taken to ensure, to thebest of our knowledge, that all data and informationcontained herein are accurate to the extent thatthey relate to either matters of fact or acceptedpractice or matters of opinion at the time of publication,SCI, the authors and the reviewers assume noresponsibility for any errors in or misinterpretationsof such data and/or information or any loss ordamage arising from or related to their use.Publications supplied to the members of theInstitute at a discount are not for resale by them.British Library Cataloguing‑in‑Publication Data.A catalogue record for this book is available fromthe British Library.The text paper in this publication is totally chlorine free.The paper manufacturer and the printers have beenindependently certified in accordance with the rules ofthe Forest Stewardship Council.iiLICAREP

PREFACEFourth EditionThis Fourth Edition of the Design Manual has been prepared by Nancy Baddoo of The SteelConstruction Institute as part of the RFCS Project Promotion of new Eurocode rules forstructural stainless steels (PUREST) (contract 709600).It is a complete revision of the Third Edition; the major changes are as follows: Alignment with the 2015 amendment to EN 1993-1-4, Inclusion of ferritic stainless steels, based on the work of the Structural applicationsof ferritic stainless steels (SAFSS) project (RFSR-CT-2010-00026), New data on the thermal and mechanical properties of stainless steels in fire are added, The design data, design rules and references to current versions of Europeanstandards, including EN 10088, EN 1993 and EN 1090 are updated, Addition of an annex on material modelling, Addition of an annex which gives a method for calculating an enhanced strengtharising from cold forming, Addition of an annex which gives less conservative design rules by exploiting thebenefits of strain hardening through the use of the Continuous Strength Method.The organisations who participated in the PUREST project were:The Steel Construction Institute (SCI) (co-ordinator)Silwood Park, Ascot, SL5 7QN, United Kingdomwww.steel-sci.comUniversitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)Calle Jordi Girona 31, Barcelona 08034, Spainwww.upc.eduUniversität Duisburg-Essen (UDE)Universitätsstraße 2, Essen 45141, Germanywww.uni-due.deKatholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven)Oude Markt 13, Leuven 3000, Belgiumwww.kuleuven.beRINA Consulting-Centro Sviluppo Materiali S.p.A. (CSM) Stalbyggnadinstitutet (SBI)Via Di Castel Romano 100, Rome 00128, ItalyKungsträdgårdsgatan 10, 111 47 Stockholm, echnika Rzeszowska im. IgnacegoLukasiewicza (PRz)al. Powstancow Warszawy 12, Rzeszów, 35 959, College of Science Technology and MedicineSouth Kensington Campus Exhibition Road,London, SW7 2AZ, Unitedäsrakenneyhdistys ryUnioninkatu 14 3 krs, Helsinki 00130, Finlandwww.terasrakenneyhdistys.fiČeské vysoké učení technické v Praze (CVUT)Zikova 4, Praha 16636, Czech Republicwww.cvut.czUniversidade de CoimbraPaço das Escolas, Coimbra, 3001 451, Portugalwww.uc.ptOneSource Consultoria InformáticaUrbanizaçao Ferreira Jorge - 1 dto Lote 14,Coimbra 3040 016 , Portugalwww.onesource.ptiii

PrefaceThe following people made a valuable contribution to the preparation of this Fourth Edition: Sheida Afshan (Brunel University London, UK) Itsaso Arrayago (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain) Leroy Gardner (Imperial College London, UK) Graham Gedge (Arup, UK) Michal Jandera (Czech Technical University of Prague, Czech Republic) Esther Real (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain) Barbara Rossi (KU Leuven, Belgium) Natalie Stranghöner (Universität Duisberg-Essen, Germany) Ou Zhao (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)Preface to the Third EditionThis Third Edition of the Design Manual has been prepared by The Steel ConstructionInstitute as a deliverable of the RFCS Project - Valorisation Project – Structural design ofcold worked austenitic stainless steel (contract RFS2-CT-2005-00036). It is a completerevision of the Second Edition, extending the scope to include cold worked austeniticstainless steels and updating all the references to draft Eurocodes. The Third Editionrefers to the relevant parts of EN 1990, EN 1991 and EN 1993. The structural fire designapproach in Section 8 has been updated and new sections on the durability of stainlesssteel in soil and life cycle costing have been added. Three new design examples have beenincluded to demonstrate the appropriate use of cold worked stainless steel. A project steeringcommittee, including representatives from each partner and sponsoring organisation,oversaw the work and contributed to the development of the Design Manual. The followingorganisations participated in the preparation of the Third Edition: The Steel Construction Institute (SCI)(Project co-ordinator) Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM) CUST, Blaise Pascal University Euro Inox RWTH Aachen, Institute of Steel Construction VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland The Swedish Institute of Steel Construction (SBI) Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)Preface to the Second EditionThis Design Manual has been prepared by The Steel Construction Institute as a deliverableof the ECSC funded project, Valorisation Project – Development of the use of stainless steelin construction (contract 7215-PP-056). It is a complete revision of the Design manual forstructural stainless steel, which was prepared by The Steel Construction Institute between1989 and 1992 and published by Euro Inox in 1994. This new edition takes into accountadvances in understanding in the structural behaviour of stainless steel over the lastiv

10 years. In particular, it includes the new design recommendations from the recentlycompleted ECSC funded project, Development of the use of stainless steel in construction(contract 7210-SA/842), which has led to the scope of the Manual being extended to covercircular hollow sections and fire resistant design. Over the last ten years a great manynew European standards have been issued covering stainless steel material, fasteners,fabrication, erection, welding etc. The Manual has been updated to make reference tocurrent standards and data in these standards.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe following organisations provided financial support for this edition of the Design Manualand their assistance is gratefully acknowledged: The European Union’s Research Fund for Coal and Steel, Outokumpu, Aperam, Industeel, AcerInox, Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração (CBMM), Nickel Institute, Stalatube.v

FOREWORDThis Design Manual has been prepared for the guidance of engineers experienced inthe design of carbon steel structural steelwork though not necessarily in stainless steelstructures. It is not in any way intended to have a legal status or absolve the engineer ofresponsibility to ensure that a safe and functional structure results.The Manual is divided into two parts: Part I - Recommendations Part II - Design ExamplesThe Recommendations in Part I are formulated in terms of limit state philosophy and, ingeneral, are in compliance with the current versions of the following Parts of Eurocode 3Design of steel structures:EN 1993-1-1Design of steel structures: General rules and rules for buildingsEN 1993-1-2Design of steel structures: Structural fire designEN 1993-1-3Design of steel structures: General rules: Supplementary rules forcold-formed members and sheetingEN 1993-1-4Design of steel structures: General rules: Supplementary rules forstainless steelsEN 1993-1-5Design of steel structures: Plated structural elementsEN 1993-1-8Design of steel structures: Design of jointsEN 1993-1-9Design of steel structures: FatigueEN 1993-1-10Design of steel structures: Material toughness andthrough-thickness propertiesEurocode 3 is currently under revision and a new version of each part, includingEN 1993-1-4, is due for publication in about 2023. In certain instances, the DesignManual gives the new rules or design data which are likely to be included in thisnext edition of EN 1993-1-4. A shaded box explains the difference between thesenew rules and those rules currently in EN 1993-1-4:2015.This Design Manual gives recommended values for certain factors. These values may besubject to modification at a national level by the National Annexes.vii

ForewordThe Design Examples contained in Part II demonstrate the use of the recommendations.A cross-reference system locates that section of the examples corresponding to aparticular recommendation.The Recommendations and Design Examples are available online at and at Steelbiz, the SCI technical information system ( Commentary to the Recommendations, which includes a full set of references, is alsoavailable online at these web sites. The purpose of the Commentary is to allow thedesigner to assess the basis of the recommendations and to facilitate the developmentof revisions as and when new data become available. Opportunity is taken to presentthe results of various test programmes conducted specifically to provide backgrounddata for the Design Manual.Online design software and apps for mobile devices are also available which calculate section properties and memberresistances for standard section sizes or user defined sections in accordance with theRecommendations in this Design Manual.The design recommendations presented in this document are based upon the bestknowledge available at the time of publication. However, no responsibility of any kindfor injury, death, loss, damage or delay, however caused, resulting from the use ofthe recommendations can be accepted by the project partners or others associatedwith its preparation.viii


CONTENTSPREFACEiiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTSvFOREWORDviiPART 1 - RECOMMENDATIONS 11INTRODUCTION35CROSS-SECTION DESIGN551.11.2What is stainless steel?Suitable stainless steels forstructural applicationsApplications of stainless steel in theconstruction industryScope of this Design ManualSymbolsConventions for member axesUnits35. width-to-thickness ratiosClassification of cross-sectionsEffective widthsStiffened elementsCalculation of geometric section propertiesResistances of cross-sections556MEMBER DESIGN6. membersCompression membersFlexural membersMembers subject to combinations ofaxial load and bending moments937JOINT DESIGN977. recommendationsBolted connectionsMechanical fasteners for thingauge materialWelded connections8DESIGN FOR FIRE RESISTANCE1138. properties at elevated temperaturesDetermination of structural fire resistanceThermal properties at elevated temperaturesMaterial modelling at elevated 61.72PROPERTIES OFSTAINLESS STEELS2. stress-strain behaviourFactors affecting stress-strain behaviourRelevant standards and design strengthsPhysical propertiesEffects of temperatureGalvanizing and contact with molten zincAvailability of product formsLife cycle costing and environmental impact3DURABILITY AND SELECTION pes of corrosion and performanceof steel gradesCorrosion in selected environmentsDesign for corrosion controlSelection of materials4BASIS OF DESIGN514.14.24.3General requirementsLimit state ress-strain curve determinationTests on members131353640424451114117124127131132xi

11FABRICATION ASPECTS13511.111.2IntroductionEN 1090 Execution of steel structuresand aluminium structuresExecution classStorage and handlingShaping operationsWeldingGalling and seizureFinishing13511.311.411.511.611.711.8ANNEX A CORRELATION BETWEENSTAINLESS STEEL DESIGNATIONS135136137138140146146ANNEX B STRENGTH ENHANCEMENT OFCOLD FORMED SECTIONS151ANNEX C MODELLING OFMATERIAL BEHAVIOUR155ANNEX D CONTINUOUS STRENGTH METHOD159ANNEX E ELASTIC CRITICAL MOMENT FORLATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING165149PART II - DESIGN EXAMPLESxii169



INTRODUCTION1.1What is stainless steel?Stainless steel is the name given to a family of corrosion and heat resistant steelscontaining a minimum of 10,5% chromium. Just as there are various structural andengineering carbon steels meeting different strength, weldability and toughnessrequirements, there is also a wide range of stainless steels with varying levels of corrosionresistance and strength. This array of stainless steel properties is the result of controlledalloying element additions, each affecting mechanical properties and the ability to resistdifferent corrosive environments. It is important to select a stainless steel which isadequate for the application without being unnecessarily highly alloyed and costly.With a combination of the chromium content above 10,5%, a clean surface and exposureto air or any other oxidizing environment, a transparent and tightly adherent layer ofchromium-rich oxide forms spontaneously on the surface of stainless steel. If scratching orcutting damages the film, it reforms immediately in the presence of oxygen. Although thefilm is very thin, about 5 10-6 mm, it is both stable and nonporous. As long as the stainlesssteel is corrosion resistant enough for the service environment, it will not react furtherwith the atmosphere. For this reason, it is called a passive film. The stability of this passivelayer depends on the composition of the stainless steel, its surface treatment and thecorrosiveness of its environment. Its stability increases as the chromium content increasesand is further enhanced by alloying additions of molybdenum and nitrogen.Stainless steels can be classified into the following five basic groups, with each groupproviding unique properties and a range of different corrosion resistance levels.Austenitic stainless steelsThe most widely used austenitic stainless steels are based on 17 to 18% chromium and 8 to11% nickel additions. In comparison to structural carbon steels, which have a body-centredcubic atomic (crystal) structure, austenitic stainless steels have a face-centred cubic atomicstructure. As a result, austenitic stainless steels, in addition to their corrosion resistance,have high ductility, are easily cold formed, and are readily weldable. Relative to structuralcarbon steels, they also have significantly better toughness over a wide range of temperatures.They can be strengthened by cold working, but not by heat treatment. Their corrosion performancecan be further enhanced by higher levels of chromium and additions of molybdenum andnitrogen. They are by far the most frequently used stainless steels in building and construction.3

IntroductionFerritic stainless steelsThe chromium content of the most popular ferritic stainless steels is between 10,5%and 18%. Ferritic stainless steels contain either no or very small nickel additions andtheir body-centred atomic structure is the same as that of structural carbon steels.They cost less than the austenitic grades of equivalent corrosion resistance and showless price volatility. They are generally less ductile and less weldable than austeniticstainless steels. The forming and machining properties of ferritic stainless steels aresimilar to those of S355 structural carbon steel. They can be strengthened by coldworking, but to a more limited degree than the austenitic stainless steels. Like theaustenitic grades, they cannot be strengthened by heat treatment. Typical applicationsare in interior and mild exterior atmospheric conditions. They have good resistance tostress corrosion cracking and their corrosion performance can be further enhanced byadditions of molybdenum. They offer a corrosion resistant alternative to many light gaugegalvanized steel applications. Ferritic grades are generally used in gauges of 4 mm and below.Duplex (austenitic-ferritic) stainless steelsDuplex stainless steels have a mixed microstructure of austenite and ferrite, and so aresometimes called austenitic-ferritic steels. They typically contain 20 to 26% chromium,1 to 8% nickel, 0,05 to 5% molybdenum, and 0,05 to 0,3% nitrogen. Because they containless nickel than the austenitic grades, they show less price volatility. They are about twiceas strong as austenitic steels in the annealed condition which can make section sizereduction possible - this can be very valuable in weight-sensitive structures like bridgesor on offshore topsides. They are suitable for a broad range of corrosive environments.Although duplex stainless steels have good ductility, their higher strength results in morerestricted formability, compared to the austenitic alloys. They can also be strengthened bycold working, but not by heat treatment. They have good weldability and good resistanceto stress corrosion cracking. They can be seen as being complementary to ferritic stainlesssteels, as they are more likely to be used in heavier gauges.Martensitic stainless steelsMartensitic stainless steels have a similar body-centred cubic structure as ferriticstainless steel and structural carbon steels, but due to their higher carbon content,they can be strengthened by heat treatment. Martensitic stainless steels are generallyused in a hardened and tempered condition, which gives them high strength, and providesmoderate corrosion resistance. They are used for applications that take advantage oftheir wear and abrasion resistance and hardness, like cutlery, surgical instruments,industrial knives, wear plates and turbine blades. They are less ductile and more notchsensitive than the ferritic, austenitic and duplex stainless steels. Although most martensiticstainless steels can be welded, this may require preheat and postweld heat treatment,which can limit their use in welded components.4

Precipitation hardening stainless steelsPrecipitation hardening steels can be strengthened by heat treatment to veryhigh strengths and fall into three microstructure groups depending on the grade:martensitic, semi-austenitic and austenitic. These steels are not normally used inwelded fabrication. Their corrosion resistance is generally better than the martensiticstainless steels and similar to the 18% chromium, 8% nickel austenitic stainlesssteels. Although they are mostly used in the aerospace industry, they are also used fortension bars, shafts, bolts and other applications requiring high strength and moderatecorrosion resistance.Guidance on grade selection for particular applications is given in Section stainless steels for structural applicationsThis Design Manual applies to the austenitic, duplex and ferritic stainless steels whichare most commonly encountered in structural applications. The compositions andstrengths of some grades suitable for structural applications are given in Table 2.1and Table 2.2 respectively.EN 1993-1-4 lists a wider range of austenitic but a smaller range of ferritic alloys thancovered in this Design Manual. It is expected that the range of ferritic alloys covered byEN 1993-1-4 will be extended in the next revision to include all the grades covered inthis Design Manual.The design rules in this Design Manual may also be applied to other austenitic, duplexand ferritic stainless steels covered in EN 10088, however see Section 4.2. The adviceof a stainless steel producer or consultant should be sought regarding the durability,fabrication and weldability of other grades.Austenitic stainless steelsAustenitic stainless steels are generally selected for structural applications whichrequire a combination of good strength, corrosion resistance, formability (includingthe ability to make tighter bends), excellent field and shop weldability and, for seismicapplications, very good elongation prior to fracture.Grades 1.4301 (widely known as 304) and 1.4307 (304L) are the most commonly usedstandard austenitic stainless steels and contain 17,5 to 20% chromium and 8 to 11%nickel. They are suitable for rural, urban and light industrial sites.Grades 1.4401 (316) and 1.4404 (316L) contain about 16 to 18% chromium, 10 to 14%nickel and the addition of 2 to 3% molybdenum, which improves corrosion resistance.They will perform well in marine and industrial sites.Note: The “L” in the designation indicates a low carbon version with reduced risk ofsensitisation (of chromium carbide precipitation) and of intergranular corrosion in heataffected zones of welds. Either the “L” grade, or a stabilised steel such as 1.4541 and5

Introduction1.4571 should be specified for welded sections. Low carbon does not affect corrosionperformance beyond the weld areas. When producers use state-of-the-art productionmethods, commercially produced stainless steels are often low carbon and dualcertified to both designations (e.g. 1.4301/1.4307, with the higher strength of 1.4301and the lower carbon content of 1.4307). When less modern technology is used, thiscannot be assumed and therefore the low carbon version should be explicitly specifiedin the documents of projects in which welding is involved.Grade 1.4318 is a low carbon, high nitrogen stainless steel which work hardens veryrapidly when cold worked. It has a long track record of satisfactory performance inthe railcar industry and is equally suitable for automotive, aircraft and architecturalapplications. Grade 1.4318 has similar corrosion resistance to 1.4301 and is mostsuitable for applications requiring higher strength than 1.4301 where large volumesare required. It is procured directly from the mill; specifiers interested in using 1.4318should check availability directly with the mill. Its price is likely to be slightly higherthan 1.4301, depending on the amount required.High chromium grades, containing about 20% chromium, are now available and will beintroduced into EN 10088 in future revisions. Grade 1.4420 is an example of a highchromium (and high nitrogen) grade which has a claimed corrosion resistance similarto 1.4401. It is stronger than the standard austenitic grades, with a design strength ofaround 390 N/mm2 compared to 240 N/mm2, whilst retaining good ductility.Duplex stainless steelsDuplex stainless steels are appropriate where high strength, corrosion resistance and/or higher levels of crevice and stress corrosion cracking resistance are required.1.4462 is an extremely corrosion resistant duplex grade, suitable for use in marine andother aggressive environments. An increasing use of stainless steels for load-bearingapplications has led to increasing demand for duplex steels and development of new “lean”duplex grades. These grades are described as lean due to the reduced alloy contents ofnickel and molybdenum which makes the grades significantly more cost effective. Leangrades have comparable mechanical properties to 1.4462 and a corrosion resistancewhich is comparable to the standard austenitic grades. This makes them appropriatefor use in many onshore exposure conditions. Four lean duplex grades were added intoEN 1993-1-4 in the 2015 amendment as they have become more widely available.Ferritic stainless steelsThe two “standard” ferritic grades which are suitable for structural applicationsand commonly available are 1.4003 (a basic ferritic grade containing about 11%chromium) and 1.4016 (containing about 16,5% chromium, with greater resistance tocorrosion than 1.4003). Welding impairs the corrosion resistance and toughness ofgrade 1.4016 substantially.6

Modern stabilised ferritic grades, for example 1.4509 and 1.4521, contain additionalalloying elements such as niobium and titanium which lead to significantly improvedwelding and forming characteristics. Grade 1.4521 contains 2% molybdenum whichimproves pitting and crevice corrosion resistance in chloride containing environments(it has similar pitting corrosion resistance to 1.4401). 1.4621 is a recently developedferritic grade that contains around 20% chromium, with improved polishabilitycompared to 1.4509 and 1.4521.1.3Applications of stainless steel in theconstruction industryStainless steels have been used in construction ever since they were invented overone hundred years ago. Stainless steel products are attractive and corrosion resistantwith low maintenance requirements and have good strength, toughness and fatigueproperties. Stainless steels can be fabricated using a range of engineering techniquesand are fully recyclable at end-of-life. They are the material of choice for applicationssituated in aggressive environments including buildings and structures in coastalareas, exposed to de-icing salts and in polluted locations.The high ductility of stainless steel is a useful property where resistance to seismicloading is required since greater energy dissipation is possible; however, seismicapplications are outside the scope of this Design Manual.Typical applications for austenitic and duplex grades include: Beams, columns, platforms and supports in processing plant for the watertreatment, pulp and paper, nuclear, biomass, chemical, pharmaceutical, and foodand beverage industries Primary beams and columns, pins, barriers, railings, cable sheathing and expansionjoints in bridges Seawalls, piers and other coastal structures Reinforcing bar in concrete structures Curtain walling, roofing, canopies, tunnel lining Support systems for curtain walling, masonry, tunnel lining etc. Security barriers, hand railing, street furniture Fasteners and anchoring systems in wood, stone, masonry or rock Structural members and fasteners in swimming pool buildings (special precautionsshould be taken for structural components in swimming pool atmospheres due tothe risk of stress corrosion cracking in areas where condensates may form(see Section 3.5.3) Explosion- and impact- resistant structures such as security walls, gates and bollards Fire and explosion resistant walls, cable ladders and walkways on offshore platformsFerritic grades are used for cladding and roofing buildings, as well as for solar waterheaters and potable water pipes. They are also used for indoor applications such as7

Introductionelevators and escalators. In the transportation sector, they are used for load-bearingmembers, such as tubular bus frames. They also have a good track record of usagein coal railway wagons, where wet sliding abrasion resistance is important. Althoughcurrently they are not widely used for structural members in the construction industry,they have the potential for greater application for strong and moderately durablestructural elements with attractive metallic surface. For composite structures wherea long service life is required, or where the environmental conditions are moderatelycorrosive, ferritic decking may provide a more economically viable solution thangalvanized decking which may struggle to retain adequate durability for periods greaterthan 25 years. In addition to composite floor systems, other potential applicationswhere ferritic stainless steel is a suitable substitute for galvanized steel includepermanent formwork, roof purlins and supports to services such as cable trays.They could also be used economically in semi-enclosed unheated environments(e.g. railways, grandstands, bicycle sheds) and in cladding support systems,windposts and for masonry supports.1.4Scope of this Design ManualThe recommendations given in this Design Manual apply to the grades of stainlesssteel that are typically used in structural applications

EN 1993-1-4 Design of steel structures: General rules: Supplementary rules for stainless steels EN 1993-1-5 Design of steel structures: Plated structural elements EN 1993-1-8 Design of steel structures: Design of joints EN 1993-1-9 Design of steel structures: Fatigue EN 1993-1-10 Design of steel structures: Material toughness and through .

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