Overview Of Fire Alarm Systems And Maintenance - GUARD FOR SAFETY

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Overview of Fire AlarmSystems andMaintenanceByMr. David GohVice President – Fire Safety Managers’ AssociationConvener of Working Group for CP 10 : 2005Er. Matthew KwekCommittee Member – Fire Safety Managers’ AssociationP.E., R.I.(M&E), FSE

CONTENTS1 Fire Alarm Systems – A Quick Introductiona. Why use a Fire Alarm System?b. Is Fire Alarm System a mandatory requirement?c. What is a Fire Alarm System made up of?2 Types of Fire Alarm Systems in use todaya. Non – Addressableb. Addressablec. Hybrid3 Maintenancea. Regular testing and Inspectionb. False Alarm Managementc. Common Maintenance Problems AndTroubleshooting

1. Fire Alarm Systems – A Quick IntroductionWhy use a Fire Alarm System? A fire alarm system is intended to enable a fire tobe detected at a sufficiently early stage so thatpeople who are at risk can be made safe either byescaping from the fire, or by the fire beingextinguished (also to prevent extensive propertydamage). Neither of these measures can be useduntil people are made aware of fire. The effectiveness of the fire detection and alarmsystem depends on the stage of the fire at which itis operated. In order for all the occupants to escapewithout too much difficulty, an early alarm shouldoperate before the escape routes becomes smokelogged to such an extent as will cause occupants tohave difficulty finding their way out of the building.

1. Fire Alarm Systems – A Quick IntroductionWhy use a Fire Alarm System?Fire Alarm Systems are used to protect life and property.It protects by:a. detecting a fire at an early stageb. alerting and evacuating occupantsc. notifying the relevant personneld. activating auxiliary functions e.g. smoke controls, lift homing etce. identifying and guiding fire fighters

1. Fire Alarm Systems – A Quick IntroductionIs Fire Alarm System a mandatoryrequirement?Mandatory - By the relevant authorityNon-mandatory - By Building Owner, Landlord &Insurance etc.The requirements are specified in :- Code of Practice for Fire Precautions in Buildings 2007(Fire Code 2007) – by SCDF- Code of Practice for Installation and Servicing of Electrical FireAlarm System(SS CP10-2005) – by Spring Singapore

1. Fire Alarm Systems – A Quick IntroductionWhat is a Fire Alarm System made up of?Components forming the System- 9 Items1. Smoke / Heat Detectors (Fire Detectors)2. Alarm Panels (Control and Indicating Equipment)3. Alarm Bells (Fire Alarm Devices)4. Manual Call Points5. DECAM Panel (Fire Services Signalling Transmitter)6. DECAM Station (Alarm Monitoring Station)7. Extinguishing Panels (Control for automatic fire protection equipment)8. Gas/Sprinkler (Automatic fire protection equipment)9. Charger/Battery (Power Supply Equipment)

1. Fire Alarm Systems – A Quick IntroductionWhat is a Fire Alarm System made up of?Fire DetectorsControl & IndicatingEquipmentFire Alarm DeviceFire ServiceSignallingTransmitterAlarm MonitoringStationFire Alarm SignalManual Call PointsFault SignalDECAMSFIREControl for AutomaticFire Protection EquipmentPower Supply EquipmentAutomaticFire ProtectionEquipment

Types of Fire Alarm Systemsin use today

2. Types of Fire Alarm Systems in use todayNon-Addressable System- also commonly known as “conventional”- fire detectors are wired to the panel in groups known as zone- identification of alarm status by zone- fire detectors indicates either “Fire” or “Normal” status only- system only indicate events but without event recordingfeatureZone22Zone 1ZoneFireZone1FiressssssssssZone 1Zone 2

2. Types of Fire Alarm Systems in use todayTypical Non-Addressable Fire Alarm SystemConfigurationFSFSFSAC PowerFire ProtectionSystem StatusElevator recallEssential Extract Fans, pressurization fans etcRelease escape doorsRelease normally open fire doorsPublic Address system announcementsOthers as required

2. Types of Fire Alarm Systems in use todayAddressable System-each fire detector is provided with an address- identification of alarm status by zone and by address- fire detectors indicates various condition such as smokelevel- indicates and records system eventsZoneZone1 Fire2Detector 4Zone 1ssssssssssZone 1Zone 2

2. Types of Fire Alarm Systems in use todayTypical Addressable Fire Alarm SystemConfigurationFire ProtectionSystem StatusAC PowerElevator recallEssential Extract Fans, pressurization fans etcRelease escape doorsRelease normally open fire doorsPublic Address system announcementsOthers as requiredFS

2. Types of Fire Alarm Systems in use todayHybrid System(conventional addressable)- a combination of features from both addressable andnon-addressable systems- either built from a basic conventional system with add-onhardwire addressable features- or built from an addressable system with conventional module- event recording and alarm management feature

2. Types of Fire Alarm Systems in use todayTypical Hybrid Fire Alarm System Configuration( conventional with hardwire addressable add-on)Zone SignalAddress linesConventional devices – any reputable manufacturerColour GraphicsStationRS232 CableHyBridInterface OptionsBuilt-inPrinterHand-HeldPrinterNote BookPalm PDA

2. Types of Fire Alarm Systems in use todayTypical Hybrid Fire Alarm System Configuration( conventional with hardwire addressable add-on)FSFSFSAC PowerFire ProtectionSystem StatusElevator recallEssential Extract Fans, pressurization fans etcRelease escape doorsRelease normally open fire doorsPublic Address system announcementsOthers as required

2. Types of Fire Alarm Systems in use todayTypical Hybrid Fire Alarm System Configuration( addressable with conventional module add-on)Fire ProtectionSystem StatusAC PowerElevator recallEssential Extract Fans, pressurization fans etcRelease escape doorsRelease normally open fire doorsPublic Address system announcementsOthers as requiredFS

Maintenance

5. MaintenanceMaintenance Regular Testing and Inspection False Alarm Management Common Maintenance Problems AndTroubleshooting

5. MaintenanceMaintenanceObjectivesa. to ensure continuous reliability of the fire alarmsystemResponsibilitya. building owner or owner representatives to engage manufacturer’s representative or competent contractor owner representative with suitable experienceand special training

5. MaintenanceRegular Testing and InspectionAs per SS : CP10-2005 Requirements Daily Check Weekly Test Monthly Test Annual Test

5. MaintenanceRegular Testing and InspectionDaily Checks- Checks to ensure system is operating normally.- Rectify and record any faults foundWeekly Tests- Checks to ensure signal to monitoring station are functioning- Check battery and voltage conditions- Rectify and record any faultsMonthly Tests- Simulatefire and fault conditions on all zones- Check that power supply, indicator, alarm outputs etc are operatingcorrectly- Rectify and record any faultsYearly Tests- All monthly tests- Test 20 percent of all detectors over as many zones as possible such that alldetectors will be check over a 5 year period- Test interlocking circuits to ancillary equipment- Check and cleaning of dirty detectors- Rectify and record any faults

5. MaintenanceLog RecordBuilding NameAddressDATETIMEDESCRIPTION OFEVENTSREMARKSINITIALSFOLLOWUP ACTIONDATECOMPLETEDINITIALS

5. MaintenanceFalse Alarm Management1. false alarm causes disruption to the normal operationof business and create a drain to the fire services2. responsibility for reducing false alarms rest withevery party involved in- specification- design- installation- commissioning- management at the operation level- maintenanceof the fire alarm system

5. MaintenanceFalse Alarm ManagementCategory of False AlarmsUnwanted Alarms / False Alarma.environmental influencesb.fire like phenomenac.inappropriate action by people in buildingd.accidental damagee.alarms arising out of faulty equipment

5. MaintenanceFalse Alarm ManagementCommon Causes of False Alarms fumes from cooking processsteam from bathrooms, showers etctobacco smokedust ( whether built up over time or not)insectsincense, candlehigh humidityaccidental damage (manual call point)aerosol sprayhigh air velocitieswater egresstesting or maintenance of the system without properdisablement.arises from fault in equipment

5. MaintenanceFalse Alarm ManagementRecommendationsa. system designer should ensure that that the system designtakes into account of the guidance provided the Code ofPracticesb. installer identifies any circumstances that might lead to a highrate of false alarm and inform the designer, or useraccordinglyc. at commissioning, checks should be carried out to ensurethere is no obvious potential for an unacceptable level of falsealarmsd. the designer and supplier should jointly provide sufficientinformation to user who may not be familiar with thetechnology of the Fire Alarm system.

5. MaintenanceFalse Alarm ManagementRecommendations – cont’de. the user should arrange for suitable investigation and ifappropriate, action to be taken on every occasion that afalse alarm occurs and record the details which shouldinclude the following details :-date & time-identity and location of device-category of false alarm-reason for false alarm (if known)-activity in the area ( if the reason of false alarm isunknown)-action taken-the person responsible for recording the information

5. MaintenanceFalse Alarm ManagementSome Useful Tools to helpminimize False Alarms

5. MaintenanceFalse Alarm managementSensitivity SettingsHIGH4321LOW This is a feature normally in both addressable and nonaddressable type Fire Alarm System. Addressable – Adjusted from Panel Non-Addressable – Physical Device Selection

5. MaintenanceFalse Alarm ManagementTo reduce the effects of transient environmental conditions whichmay cause various types of detectors to be activated, an automaticfire alarm system may be provided with an alarm verificationfeature, subject to the approval of the relevant authority.Receipt of1st alarmsignalNormalstateAuto resetOf 1st alarmsignalAlarm retardstate020Alarm confirmationstateNormalstateTime (s)140 (min)320 (max)The following components of the fire alarm system shall not besubject to this feature;a) Alarm Zone facilities containing only manual call points;b) Circuit between sub-alarm panels and the main alarm panels;c) Detectors used to activate fire suppression systems;d) Detectors installed in high risk areas; ande) Alarm zone circuits from fire suppression systems.

5. MaintenanceFalse Alarm ManagementSensor Auto Contamination AdjustmentsAutoadjustedalarm levelInitialalarmpointRising idlelevel due NTHS

Common Maintenance Problems

5. MaintenanceCommon Maintenance Problems4 Storey High Atrium that is protected by point typesmoke detectorsProblem:Detectors cannot be testedFaulty detectors cannot be reach for replacementDetector insensitive due to the mounting height exceeding10metreSolution :Select an alternative detection systemAble to comply with the Listed Installation RequirementsEasy to maintain without having to access from the atriumFloor

5. Maintenance

5. Maintenance

5. Maintenance

Thank Youforyour attention

fire alarm system may be provided with an alarm verification feature, subject to the approval of the relevant authority. The following components of the fire alarm system shall not be subject to this feature; a) Alarm Zone facilities containing only manual call points; b) Circuit between sub-alarm panels and the main alarm panels;

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