Title 26—Internal Revenue - GovInfo

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Title 26—Internal Revenue (This book contains part 1, §§ 1.441 to 1.500) Part Revenue Service, Department of the Treasury (Continued) . erowe on DSK2VPTVN1PROD with CFR CHAPTER I—Internal 1 VerDate Mar 15 2010 13:08 May 22, 2012 Jkt 226091 PO 00000 Frm 00011 Fmt 8008 Sfmt 8008 Y:\SGML\226091.XXX 226091 1

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CHAPTER I—INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SUBCHAPTER A—INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) Part 1 Page Income taxes (Continued) . 5 erowe on DSK2VPTVN1PROD with CFR SUPPLEMENTARY PUBLICATIONS: Internal Revenue Service Looseleaf Regulations System. Additional supplementary publications are issued covering Alcohol and Tobacco Tax Regulations, and Regulations Under Tax Conventions. 3 VerDate Mar 15 2010 13:08 May 22, 2012 Jkt 226091 PO 00000 Frm 00013 Fmt 8008 Sfmt 8008 Y:\SGML\226091.XXX 226091

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SUBCHAPTER A—INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) year following the taxable year of destruction or damage. 1.451–7 Election relating to livestock sold on account of drought. 1.453–1—1.453–2 [Reserved] 1.453–3 Purchaser evidences of indebtedness payable on demand or readily tradable. 1.453–4 Sale of real property involving deferred periodic payments. 1.453–5 Sale of real property treated on installment method. 1.453–6 Deferred payment sale of real property not on installment method. 1.453–7—1.453–8 [Reserved] 1.453–9 Gain or loss on disposition of installment obligations. 1.453–10 Effective date. 1.453–11 Installment obligations received from a liquidating corporation. 1.453–12 Allocation of unrecaptured section 1250 gain reported on the installment method. 1.453A–0 Table of contents. 1.453A–1 Installment method of reporting income by dealers on personal property. 1.453A–2 Treatment of revolving credit plans; taxable years beginning on or before December 31, 1986. 1.453A–3 Requirements for adoption of or change to installment method by dealers in personal property. 1.454–1 Obligations issued at discount. 1.455–1 Treatment of prepaid subscription income. 1.455–2 Scope of election under section 455. 1.455–3 Method of allocation. 1.455–4 Cessation of taxpayer’s liability. 1.455–5 Definitions and other rules. 1.455–6 Time and manner of making election. 1.456–1 Treatment of prepaid dues income. 1.456–2 Scope of election under section 456. 1.456–3 Method of allocation. 1.456–4 Cessation of liability or existence. 1.456–5 Definitions and other rules. 1.456–6 Time and manner of making election. 1.456–7 Transitional rule. 1.457–1 General overviews of section 457. 1.457–2 Definitions. 1.457–3 General introduction to eligible plans. 1.457–4 Annual deferrals, deferral limitations, and deferral agreements under eligible plans. 1.457–5 Individual limitation for combined annual deferrals under multiple eligible plans. 1.457–6 Timing of distributions under eligible plans. 1.457–7 Taxation of Distribution Under Eligible Plans. 1.457–8 Funding rules for eligible plans. PART 1—INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES (CONTINUED) DEFERRED COMPENSATION, ETC. (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING PERIODS AND METHODS OF ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING PERIODS Sec. 1.441–0 Table of contents. 1.441–1 Period for computation of taxable income. 1.441–2 Election of taxable year consisting of 52–53 weeks. 1.441–3 Taxable year of a personal service corporation. 1.441–4 Effective date. 1.442–1 Change of annual accounting period. 1.443–1 Returns for periods of less than 12 months. 1.444–0T Table of contents (temporary). 1.444–1T Election to use a taxable year other than the required taxable year (temporary). 1.444–2T Tiered structure (temporary). 1.444–3T Manner and time of making section 444 election (temporary). 1.444–4 Tiered structure. METHODS OF ACCOUNTING METHODS OF ACCOUNTING IN GENERAL 1.446–1 General rule for methods of accounting. 1.446–2 Method of accounting for interest. 1.446–3 Notional principal contracts. 1.446–4 Hedging transactions. 1.446–5 Debt issuance costs. 1.446–6 REMIC inducement fees. 1.448–1 Limitation on the use of the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting. 1.448–1T Limitation on the use of the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting (temporary). 1.448–2 Nonaccrual of certain amounts by service providers. erowe on DSK2VPTVN1PROD with CFR TAXABLE YEAR FOR WHICH ITEMS OF GROSS INCOME INCLUDED 1.451–1 General rule for taxable year of inclusion. 1.451–2 Constructive receipt of income. 1.451–4 Accounting for redemption of trading stamps and coupons. 1.451–5 Advance payments for goods and long-term contracts. 1.451–6 Election to include crop insurance proceeds in gross income in the taxable 5 VerDate Mar 15 2010 13:08 May 22, 2012 Jkt 226091 PO 00000 Frm 00015 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8010 Y:\SGML\226091.XXX 226091

Pt. 1 26 CFR Ch. I (4–1–12 Edition) 1.457–9 Effect on eligible plans when not administered in accordance with eligibility requirements. 1.457–10 Miscellaneous provisions. 1.457–11 Tax treatment of participants if plan is not an eligible plan. 1.457–12 Effective dates. 1.458–1 Exclusion for certain returned magazines, paperbacks, or records. 1.458–2 Manner of and time for making election. 1.460–0 Outline of regulations under section 460. 1.460–1 Long-term contracts. 1.460–2 Long-term manufacturing contracts. 1.460–3 Long-term construction contracts. 1.460–4 Methods of accounting for long-term contracts. 1.460–5 Cost allocation rules. 1.460–6 Look-back method. 1.467–8 Automatic consent to change to constant rental accrual for certain rental agreements. 1.467–9 Effective dates and automatic method changes for certain agreements. 1.468A–0 Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents. 1.468A–1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1.468A–2 Treatment of electing taxpayer. 1.468A–3 Ruling amount. 1.468A–4 Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund. 1.468A–5 Nuclear decommissioning fund qualification requirements; prohibitions against self-dealing; disqualification of nuclear decommissioning fund; termination of fund upon substantial completion of decommissioning. 1.468A–6 Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power plant. 1.468A–7 Manner of and time for making election. 1.468A–8 Special transfers to qualified funds pursuant to section 468A(f). 1.468A–9 Effective/applicability date. 1.468B Designated settlement funds. 1.468B–0 Table of contents. 1.468B–1 Qualified settlement funds. 1.468B–2 Taxation of qualified settlement funds and related administrative requirements. 1.468B–3 Rules applicable to the transferor. 1.468B–4 Taxability of distributions to claimants. 1.468B–5 Effective dates and transition rules applicable to qualified settlement funds. 1.468B–6 Escrow accounts, trusts, and other funds used during deferred exchanges of like-kind property under section 1031(a)(3). 1.468B–7 Pre-closing escrows. 1.468B–8 Contingent-at-closing escrows. [Reserved] 1.468B–9 Disputed ownership funds. 1.469–0 Table of contents. 1.469–1 General rules. 1.469–1T General rules (temporary). 1.469–2 Passive activity loss. 1.469–2T Passive activity loss (temporary). 1.469–3 Passive activity credit. 1.469–3T Passive activity credit (temporary). 1.469–4 Definition of activity. 1.469–4T Definition of activity (temporary). 1.469–5 Material participation. 1.469–5T Material participation (temporary). 1.469–6 Treatment of losses upon certain dispositions. [Reserved] 1.469–7 Treatment of self-charged items of interest income and deduction. 1.469–8 Application of section 469 to trust, estates, and their beneficiaries. [Reserved] 1.469–9 Rules for certain rental real estate activities. erowe on DSK2VPTVN1PROD with CFR TAXABLE YEAR FOR WHICH DEDUCTIONS TAKEN 1.461–0 Table of contents. 1.461–1 General rule for taxable year of deduction. 1.461–2 Contested liabilities. 1.461–3 Prepaid interest. [Reserved] 1.461–4 Economic performance. 1.461–5 Recurring item exception. 1.461–6 Economic performance when certain liabilities are assigned or are extinguished by the establishment of a fund. 1.465–1T Aggregation of certain activities (temporary). 1.465–8 General rules; interest other than that of a creditor. 1.465–20 Treatment of amounts borrowed from certain persons and amounts protected against loss. 1.465–27 Qualified nonrecourse financing. 1.466–1 Method of accounting for the redemption cost of qualified discount coupons. 1.466–2 Special protective election for certain taxpayers. 1.466–3 Manner of and time for making election under section 466. 1.466–4 Manner of and time for making election under section 373(c) of the Revenue Act of 1978. 1.467–0 Table of contents. 1.467–1 Treatment of lessors and lessees generally. 1.467–2 Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest. 1.467–3 Disqualified leasebacks and longterm agreements. 1.467–4 Section 467 loan. 1.467–5 Section 467 rental agreements with variable interest. 1.467–6 Section 467 rental agreements with contingent payments. [Reserved] 1.467–7 Section 467 recapture and other rules relating to dispositions and modifications. 6 VerDate Mar 15 2010 13:08 May 22, 2012 Jkt 226091 PO 00000 Frm 00016 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8010 Y:\SGML\226091.XXX 226091

Internal Revenue Service, Treasury Pt. 1 1.469–10 Application of section 469 to publicly traded partnerships. 1.469–11 Effective date and transition rules. 1.482–2 Determination of taxable income in specific situations. 1.482–3 Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a transfer of tangible property. 1.482–4 Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a transfer of intangible property. 1.482–5 Comparable profits method. 1.482–6 Profit split method. 1.482–7 Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement. 1.482–7T Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement (temporary). 1.482–8 Examples of the best method rule. 1.482–9 Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a controlled services transaction. 1.483–1 Interest on certain deferred payments. 1.483–2 Unstated interest. 1.483–3 Test rate of interest applicable to a contract. 1.483–4 Contingent payments. INVENTORIES 1.471–1 Need for inventories. 1.471–2 Valuation of inventories. 1.471–3 Inventories at cost. 1.471–4 Inventories at cost or market, whichever is lower. 1.471–5 Inventories by dealers in securities. 1.471–6 Inventories of livestock raisers and other farmers. 1.471–7 Inventories of miners and manufacturers. 1.471–8 Inventories of retail merchants. 1.471–9 Inventories of acquiring corporations. 1.471–10 Applicability of long-term contract methods. 1.471–11 Inventories of manufacturers. 1.472–1 Last-in, first-out inventories. 1.472–2 Requirements incident to adoption and use of LIFO inventory method. 1.472–3 Time and manner of making election. 1.472–4 Adjustments to be made by taxpayer. 1.472–5 Revocation of election. 1.472–6 Change from LIFO inventory method. 1.472–7 Inventories of acquiring corporations. 1.472–8 Dollar-value method of pricing LIFO inventories. 1.475–0 Table of contents. 1.475(a)–1—1.475(a)–2 [Reserved] 1.475(a)–3 Acquisition by a dealer of a security with a substituted basis. 1.475(a)–4 Valuation safe harbor. 1.475(a)–4T Valuation safe harbor (temporary). 1.475(b)–1 Scope of exemptions from markto-market requirement. 1.475(b)–2 Exemptions—identification requirements. 1.475(b)–3 [Reserved] 1.475(b)–4 Exemptions—transitional issues. 1.475(c)–1 Definitions—dealer in securities. 1.475(c)–2 Definitions—security. 1.475(d)–1 Character of gain or loss. 1.475(g)–1 Effective dates. REGULATIONS APPLICABLE FOR TAXABLE YEARS BEGINNING ON OR BEFORE APRIL 21, 1993 1.482–1A Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers. 1.482–2A Determination of taxable income in specific situations. 1.482–7A Methods to determine taxable income in connection with a cost sharing arrangement. 1.484–1.500 [Reserved] AUTHORITY: 26 U.S.C. 7805. Section 1.441–2T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 441(f). Section 1.441–3T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 441. Section 1.442–2T and 1.442–3T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 422, 706, and 1378. Section 1.444–0T through 1.444–3T and Section 1.444–4 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 444(g). Section 1.446–1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 446 and 461(h). Section 1.446–4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502. Section 1.446–6 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 446 and 26 U.S.C. 860G. Section 1.451–5 also issued under 96 Stat. 324, 493. Section 1.453–11 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 453(j)(1) and (k). Section 1.453A–3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 453A. Section 1.458–1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 458. Section 1.460–1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 460(h). Section 1.460–2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 460(h). erowe on DSK2VPTVN1PROD with CFR ADJUSTMENTS 1.481–1 Adjustments in general. 1.481–2 Limitation on tax. 1.481–3 Adjustments attributable to pre-1954 years where change was not initiated by taxpayer. 1.481–4 Adjustments taken into account with consent. 1.481–5 Effective dates. 1.482–0 Outline of regulations under section 482. 1.482–1 Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers. 7 VerDate Mar 15 2010 13:08 May 22, 2012 Jkt 226091 PO 00000 Frm 00017 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8010 Y:\SGML\226091.XXX 226091

erowe on DSK2VPTVN1PROD with CFR Pt. 1 26 CFR Ch. I (4–1–12 Edition) Section 1.460–3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 460(h). Section 1.460–4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 460(h) and 1502. Section 1.460–5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 460(h). Section 1.460–6 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 460(h). Section 1.461–1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 461(h). Section 1.461–2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 461(h). Section 1.461–4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 461(h). Section 1.461–4(d) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 460 and 26 U.S.C. 461(h). Section 1.461–5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 461(h). Section 1.461–6 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 461(h). Section 1.465–8 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 465. Section 1.465–20 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 465. Section 1.465–27 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 465(b)(6)(B)(iii). Section 1.466–1 through 1.466–4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 466. Section 1.467–1 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 467. Section 1.467–2 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 467. Section 1.467–3 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 467. Section 1.467–4 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 467. Section 1.467–5 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 467. Section 1.467–6 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 467. Section 1.467–7 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 467. Section 1.467–8 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 467. Section 1.467–9 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 467. Section 1.468A–5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 468A(e)(5). Section 1.468A–5T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 468A(e)(5). Section 1.468B–1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 461(h) and 468B(g). Section 1.468B–2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 461(h) and 468B(g). Section 1.468B–3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 461(h) and 468B(g). Section 1.468B–4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 461(h) and 468B(g). Section 1.468B–5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 461(h) and 468B(g). Section 1.468B–7 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 461(h) and 468B(g). Section 1.468B–9 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 461(h) and 468B(g). Section 1.469–1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 469. Section 1.469–1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 469. Section 1.469–2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 469(l). Section 1.469–2T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 469(l). Section 1.469–3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 469(l). Section 1.469–3T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 469(l). Section 1.469–4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 469(l). Section 1.469–5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 469(l). Section 1.469–5T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 469(l). Section 1.469–7 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 469(l). Section 1.469–9 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 469(c)(6), (h)(2), and (l)(1). Section 1.469–11 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 469(l). Section 1.471 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 471. Section 1.471–4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 263A. Section 1.471–5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 263A. Section 1.471–6 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 471. Section 1.472–8 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 472. Section 1.475(a)–3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 475(e). Section 1.475(a)–4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 475(g). Section 1.475(b)–1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 475(b)(4) and 26 U.S.C. 475(e). Section 1.475(b)–2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 475(b)(2) and 26 U.S.C. 475(e). Section 1.475(b)–4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 475(b)(2), 26 U.S.C. 475(e), and 26 U.S.C. 6001. Section 1.475(c)–1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 475(e). Section 1.475(c)–2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 475(e) and 26 U.S.C. 860G(e). Section 1.475(d)–1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 475(e). Section 1.475(e)–1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 475(e). Section 1.481–1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 481. Section 1.481–2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 481. Section 1.481–3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 481. Section 1.481–4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 481. Section 1.481–5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 481. Section 1.482–1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 482 and 936. Section 1.482–2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 482. Section 1.482–3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 482. 8 VerDate Mar 15 2010 13:08 May 22, 2012 Jkt 226091 PO 00000 Frm 00018 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8010 Y:\SGML\226091.XXX 226091

Internal Revenue Service, Treasury § 1.441–0 § 1.441–2 Section 1.482–4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 482. Section 1.482–5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 482. Section 1.482–7 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 482. Section 1.482–7T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 482. Section 1.482–9 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 482. Section 1.482–2A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 482. Section 1.482–7A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 482. Section 1.482–9 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 482. Section 1.483–1 through 1.483–3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 483(f). Section 1.483–4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 483(f). (a) In general. (1) Election. (2) Effect. (3) Eligible taxpayer. (4) Example. (b) Procedures to elect a 52–53-week taxable year. (1) Adoption of a 52–53-week taxable year. (i) In general. (ii) Filing requirement. (2) Change to (or from) a 52–53-week taxable year. (i) In general. (ii) Special rules for short period required to effect the change. (3) Examples. (c) Application of effective dates. (1) In general. (2) Examples. (3) Changes in tax rates. (4) Examples. (d) Computation of taxable income. (e) Treatment of taxable years ending with reference to the same calendar month. (1) Pass-through entities. (2) Personal service corporations and employee-owners. (3) Definitions. (i) Pass-through entity. (ii) Owner of a pass-through entity. (4) Examples. (5) Transition rule. DEFERRED COMPENSATION, ETC. (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING PERIODS AND METHODS OF ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING PERIODS § 1.441–0 Table of contents. This section lists the captions contained in §§ 1.441–1 through 1.441–4 as follows: erowe on DSK2VPTVN1PROD with CFR § 1.441–1 Election of taxable year consisting of 52–53 weeks § 1.441–3 Period for computation of taxable income. Taxable year of a personal service corporation (a) Taxable year. (1) Required taxable year. (2) Exceptions. (b) Adoption, change, or retention of taxable year. (1) Adoption of taxable year. (2) Change in taxable year. (3) Retention of taxable year. (4) Procedures for obtaining approval or making a section 444 election. (5) Examples. (c) Personal service corporation defined. (1) In general. (2) Testing period. (i) In general. (ii) New corporations. (3) Examples. (d) Performance of personal services. (1) Activities described in section 448(d)(2)(A). (2) Activities not described in section 448(d)(2)(A). (e) Principal activity. (1) General rule. (2) Compensation cost. (i) Amounts included. (ii) Amounts excluded. (3) Attribution of compensation cost to personal service activity. (a) Computation of taxable income. (1) In general. (2) Length of taxable year. (b) General rules and definitions. (1) Taxable year. (1) Required taxable year. (i) In general. (ii) Exceptions. (A) 52–53-week taxable years. (B) Partnerships, S corporations, and PSCs. (C) Specified foreign corporations. (3) Annual accounting period. (4) Calendar year. (5) Fiscal year. (i) Definition. (ii) Recognition. (6) Grandfathered fiscal year. (7) Books. (8) Taxpayer. (c) Adoption of taxable year. (1) In general. (2) Approval required. (i) Taxpayers with required taxable years. (ii) Taxpayers without books. (d) Retention of taxable year. (e) Change of taxable year. (f) Obtaining approval of the Commissioner or making a section 444 election. 9 VerDate Mar 15 2010 13:08 May 22, 2012 Jkt 226091 PO 00000 Frm 00019 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8010 Y:\SGML\226091.XXX 226091

§ 1.441–1 26 CFR Ch. I (4–1–12 Edition) (i) Employees involved only in the performance of personal services. (ii) Employees involved only in activities that are not treated as the performance of personal services. (iii) Other employees. (A) Compensation cost attributable to personal service activity. (B) Compensation cost not attributable to personal service activity. (f) Services substantially performed by employee-owners. (1) General rule. (2) Compensation cost attributable to personal services. (3) Examples. (g) Employee-owner defined. (1) General rule. (2) Special rule for independent contractors who are owners. (h) Special rules for affiliated groups filing consolidated returns. (1) In general. (2) Examples. § 1.441–4 required taxable year (as defined in paragraph (b)(2) of this section), if applicable; (iii) Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section, the taxpayer’s annual accounting period (as defined in paragraph (b)(3) of this section), if it is a calendar year or a fiscal year; or (iv) Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section, the calendar year, if the taxpayer keeps no books, does not have an annual accounting period, or has an annual accounting period that does not qualify as a fiscal year. (2) Required taxable year—(i) In general. Certain taxpayers must use the particular taxable year that is required under the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations thereunder (the required taxable year). For example, the required taxable year is— (A) In the case of a foreign sales corporation or domestic international sales corporation, the taxable year determined under section 441(h) and § 1.921–1T(a)(11), (b)(4), and (b)(6); (B) In the case of a personal service corporation (PSC), the taxable year determined under section 441(i) and § 1.441–3; (C) In the case of a nuclear decommissioning fund, the taxable year determined under § 1.468A–4(c)(1); (D) In the case of a designated settlement fund or a qualified settlement fund, the taxable year determined under § 1.468B–2(j); (E) In the case of a common trust fund, the taxable year determined under section 584(i); (F) In the case of certain trusts, the taxable year determined under section 644; (G) In the case of a partnership, the taxable year determined under section 706 and § 1.706–1; (H) In the case of an insurance company, the taxable year determined under section 843 and § 1.1502–76(a)(2); (I) In the case of a real estate investment trust, the taxable year determined under section 859; (J) In the case of a real estate mortgage investment conduit, the taxable year determined under section 860D(a)(5) and § 1.860D–1(b)(6); Effective date erowe on DSK2VPTVN1PROD with CFR [T.D. 8996, 67 FR 35012, May 17, 2002] § 1.441–1 Period for computation of taxable income. (a) Computation of taxable income—(1) In general. Taxable income must be computed and a return must be made for a period known as the taxable year. For rules relating to methods of accounting, the taxable year for which items of gross income are included and deductions are taken, inventories, and adjustments, see parts II and III (section 446 and following), subchapter E, chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code, and the regulations thereunder. (2) Length of taxable year. Except as otherwise provided in the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations thereunder (e.g., § 1.441–2 regarding 52–53week taxable years), a taxable year may not cover a period of more than 12 calendar months. (b) General rules and definitions. The general rules and definitions in this paragraph (b) apply for purposes of sections 441 and 442 and the regulations thereunder. (1) Taxable year. Taxable year means— (i) The period for which a return is made, if a return is made for a period of less than 12 months (short period). See section 443 and the regulations thereunder; (ii) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, the taxpayer’s 10 VerDate Mar 15 2010 13:08 May 22, 2012 Jkt 226091 PO 00000 Frm 00020 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8010 Y:\SGML\226091.XXX 226091

erowe on DSK2VPTVN1PROD with CFR Internal Revenue Service, Treasury § 1.441–1 (K) In the case of a specified foreign corporation, the taxable year determined under section 898(c)(1)(A); (L) In the case of an S corporation, the taxable year determined under section 1378 and § 1.1378–1; or (M) In the case of a member of an affiliated group that makes a consolidated return, the taxable year determined under § 1.1502–76. (ii) Exceptions. Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, the following taxpayers may have a taxable year other than their required taxable year: (A) 52–53-week taxable years. Certain taxpayers may elect to use a 52–53week taxable year that ends with reference to their required taxable year. See, for example, §§ 1.441–3 (PSCs), 1.706–1 (partnerships), 1.1378–1 (S corporations), and 1.1502–76(a)(1) (members of a consolidated group). (B) Partnerships, S corporations, and PSCs. A partnership, S corporation, or PSC may use a taxable year other than its required taxable year if the taxpayer elects to use a taxable year other than its required taxable year under section 444, elects a 52–53-week taxable year that ends with reference to its required taxable year as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A) of this section or to a taxable year elected under section 444, or establishes a business purpose to the satisfaction of the Commissioner under section 442 (such as a grandfathered fiscal year). (C) Specified foreign corporations. A specified foreign corporation (as defined in section 898(b)) may use a taxable year other than its required taxable year if it elects a 52–53-week taxable year that ends with reference to its required taxable year as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A) of this section or makes a one-month deferral election under section 898(c)(1)(B). (3) Annual accounting period. Annual accounting period means the annual period (calendar year or fiscal year) on the basis of which the taxpayer regularly computes its income in keeping its books. (4) Calendar year. Calendar year means a period of 12 consecutive months ending on December 31. A taxpayer who has not established a fiscal year must make its return on the basis of a calendar year. (5) Fiscal year—(i) Definition. Fiscal year means— (A) A period of 12 consecutive months ending on the last day of any month other than December; or (B) A 52–53-week taxable year, if such period has been elected by the taxpayer. See § 1.441–2. (ii) Recognition. A fiscal year will be recognized only if the books of the taxpayer are kept in accordance with such fiscal year. (6) Grandfathered fiscal year. Grandfathered fiscal year means a fiscal year (other than a year that resulted in a three month or less deferral of income) that a partnership or an S corporation received permission to use on or after July 1, 1974, by a letter ruling (i.e., not by automatic approval). (7) Books. Books include the taxpayer’s regular books of account and such other records and data as may be necessary to support the entries on the taxpayer’s books and on the taxpayer’s return, as for example, a reconciliation of any difference between such books and the taxpayer’s return. Records that are sufficient to reflect income adequately and clearly on the basis of an annual accounting period will be regarded as the keeping of books. See section 6001 and the regulations thereunder for rules relating to the keeping of books and records. (8) Taxpayer. Taxpayer has the same meaning as the term person as defined in section 7701(a)(1) (e.g., an individual, trust, estate, partnership, association, or corporation) rather than the meaning of the term taxpayer as defined in section 7701(a)(14) (any person subject to tax). (c) Adoption of taxable year—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, a new taxpayer may adopt any taxable year that satisfies the requirements of section 441 and the regulations thereunder without the approval of the Commissioner. A taxable year of a new taxpayer is adopted by filing its first Federal income tax return using that taxable year. The filing of an application for automatic extension of time to file a Federal income tax return (e.g., Form 11 VerDate Mar 15 2010 13:08 May 22, 2012 Jkt 226091 PO 00000 Frm 00021 Fmt 8010 Sfmt 8010 Y:\SGML\226091.XXX 226091

erowe on DSK2VPTVN1PROD with CFR § 1.441–2 26 CFR Ch. I (4–1–12 Edition) 7004, ‘‘Application for Automatic Extension of Time to File Corporation Income Tax Return’’), the filing of an application for an employer identification number (i.e., Form SS–4, ‘‘Application for Employer Identification Number’’), or the payment of estimated taxes, for a particular taxable year do not constitute an adoption of that taxable year. (2) Approval required—(i) Taxpayers with required taxable years. A newlyformed partnership, S corporation, or PSC that wants to adopt a taxable year other than its required taxable year, a taxable year elected under section 444, or a 52–53-week taxable year that ends with reference to its required taxable year or a taxable year elected under section 444 must establish a business purpose and obtain the approval of the Commissioner un

1.460-1 Long-term contracts. 1.460-2 Long-term manufacturing contracts. 1.460-3 Long-term construction contracts. 1.460-4 Methods of accounting for long-term contracts. 1.460-5 Cost allocation rules. 1.460-6 Look-back method. TAXABLE YEAR FOR WHICH DEDUCTIONS TAKEN 1.461-0 Table of contents. 1.461-1 General rule for taxable year .

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