National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel

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Read & Write National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel In November 1999, a challenge was made: write a 50,000-word novel in just 30 days. Writer Chris Baty posed this challenge to the 21 people in his writing group. The next year, another 140 people joined in the fun, calling the celebration and challenge National Novel Writing Month, or NaNoWriMo for short. Today, there are almost 400,000 people participating each year. The challenge was created to encourage people to shake off their preconceived notions about skill, talent, time, and creativity and simply start writing. The idea was just to write freely and worry about the editing and grammar later. Anyone can be a writer, as long as they are writing. While this activity has been specifically created to mirror the official November National Novel Writing Month, you can use it at any time of the year. You will simply need two weeks for introductory sessions, 30 days for independent writing, and a more relaxed timeline for the four editing lessons. This activity is not meant to be done in one day, but as a ten-part series. These lessons can be done over the course of two to three months. The group of writers will meet once or twice a week to go through a guided lesson, and the rest of the time, writers will work independently or in groups, as personally desired. If you are concerned that a month for writing a novel may be too ambitious for your community, the lessons can be split up into longer increments. However, one of the reasons that NaNoWriMo is designed to be 30 days is because the greatest hindrances to writing are procrastination and overthinking. With a short deadline, any writer, novice or professional, can’t give in to either. Remember, the goal of this project is not writing a good novel in 30 days; it is just to finish a novel in 30 days. The second half of the guide is on how to edit. And you can take as long as you would like with editing! Writers can also predetermine their individual final word count beforehand, which will make the project very manageable. For example, while NaNoWriMo uses 50,000 words as its base number, your writers can write as few as 10,000 words, which is only 36 typed pages. That’s only slightly more than one page of writing per day! Lesson Three: Outlining will break down page count and word counts for books of any length. Some lessons will end with a homework assignment that will guide writers through the writing process. Writers can work on alone or in groups. This simple and straightforward guide will help you conduct this rather ambitious activity. It includes guiding questions, suggestions,pro-tips to make the work easier, and answers to common pushbacks or issues. However, if you feel you need help leading this project, you could ask a community member who has writing experience or seek out a volunteer from the community. Many local writers and writing teachers enjoy hosting writers’ groups. Reach out to a local writing group to see if anyone might like to help. – National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel – Page 1 of 28

If that is not an option, you can find in-depth guides on the official National Novel Writing website. It has lesson guides that are broken down into 30 smaller lessons, meant to be attended each day. You can choose the level of difficulty with a choice of four lesson plans. Host daily writers’ classes if the group is open to it. This activity has been set up to foster independence in your writers and allows for them to work independently. Author Eva Deverall also makes printable guides to help first-time writers complete the NaNoWriMo challenge. Let your group choose what style suits their personal needs best. It is recommended to start this activity before November to allow writers the full 30 days of the month to write freely and use the community support to push them toward their goal of finishing a novel in just one month. Four of the lessons (two of which are optional) will be conducted after the novel has been finished, based on what appeals to your group. The facilitator should read through the entire packet before presenting. Each lesson builds off the previous one, but reading ahead will help you answer questions as they come up. That way, you will be able to confidently say: Don’t worry about that quite yet, that’s a different day! Meet 1–2 weeks ahead of time and help writers learn how to outline their stories. Lessons One, Two, and Three will help your writers set up their novels. Lesson Four offers tips for being a productive writer. Lesson Four will take a full 30 days and is almost 100% independent. Encourage writers’ groups to form. People can bounce ideas off one another, review one another’s writing, help another writer who is experiencing writer’s block, etc. Come back together as a group in December, January or any other month that your group decides, to talk about Part 2: Editing. Props & Preparations Read each lesson before presenting. Print the documents that match that lesson; print one for yourself and one for each member of the group so they may refer to it later. There will be specific props and preparations for each lesson. Encourage people to take notes. Modification. You may have writers who are unable to attend group meetings, may miss a lesson for an appointment, or have a writer who would prefer to read along with the lessons. Print off each lesson for participants if it is needed. Alternatively, you could start a reference binder for writers and place the last lesson taught in the binder so that writers can access it throughout the month. Each writer will need at least one writer’s notebook. Alternatively, you can use a 3-Ring binder with loose leaf paper, so that paper can be added as they write. Some writers may prefer to write their text on a computer with word-processing software (such as Microsoft Word). If writers would like to publish their novel once it is complete, the text must be typed into a word-processing program and edited before it is printed. A computer is optional for writing and editing, but should you choose to print and publish finished novels, they will need to be typed up. See Modifications for those who may have physical limitations. Optional: Index cards. These can be used to track chapters—one chapter on each note card. This way the writer can rearrange chapters easily as they think through their plot. It will make editing at the end easier. – National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel – Page 2 of 28

Modifications You may have burgeoning writers who are unable to write or type for themselves. This doesn’t mean that they don’t have a story worth telling inside of them. Try some of these modifications. 1. There are many voice to text programs that can be used on a variety of devices. These programs are not just used by writers with physical limitations; many professional writers use programs like these because they allow the mind to wander and be more creative. People often talk faster than they type, and this helps them write more pages in a day. Google Docs Voice to Text: Free and available to use in many languages, this app is relatively straightforward. Windows Dictation: If you have Windows 10, this app is free and built in. It works not only on documents but also email. You can use it in the address bar of your web browser, making it useful for doing research as well. Just turn it on and enable it. Apple Dictation: Just like the Windows version, this app is built into Macs and must be turned on and enabled. This program, also available in multiple languages, adapts to your accent over time. Speechnotes: This is a free app that allows extremely long recordings. It boasts an accuracy rate of 90% and doesn’t stop recording just because you pause to take a breath or think. However, the free version has ads and can be used only with Google Chrome and Android phones. It also keeps the document online in a browser, and while it saves work automatically, the text must be saved as a Word doc when you want to leave the site. All of these apps can be used on a variety of devices. If you have an iPhone or iPad, you have some more choices, although not all are free. 2. There are also physical modifications for writers, such as specially modified writing pens and grips. 3. You can have writers tell their story into a tape recorder or into voice notes on a phone. Then a volunteer can transcribe it. Unless you have a volunteer who can sit with the writer for several hours at a time, it will be difficult to transcribe in person. People talk faster than they can type, so unless volunteers are trained typists, the lag can leave writers feeling frustrated and wanting to quit. – National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel – Page 3 of 28

National Novel Writing Challenge 2021 Contents Part 1: Writing Lesson 1: Getting Started Character Builder Worksheet Lesson 2: Diving Deeper Story Builder Worksheet Lesson 3: Outlining The Basic Beat Sheet Worksheet Chapter-by-Chapter Worksheet Lesson 4: Write! Lesson 5: Reward! Part 2: Editing Lesson 6: Broad-Strokes Editing Broad-Strokes Editing Worksheet Broad-Strokes Editing Checklist Lesson 7: Attention-to-Detail Editing Attention-to-Detail Editing Worksheet Attention-to-Detail Editing Checklist Lesson 8: Line-by-Line Editing Line-by-Line Editing Worksheet Line-by-Line Editing Checklist Lesson 9: Feedback Lesson 10: Printing Your Book and Hosting a Book Launch Extras: Writing Prompt Ideas – National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel – Page 4 of 28

Part 1: Writing – National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel – Page 5 of 28

Lesson 1: Getting Started This activity sets the stage for the rest of the month and will be the longest piece of the program. It will take 60–90 minutes, depending on how talkative your group is. It allows for lots of brainstorming and group work. Writers can continue to work even after the facilitator wraps up. Props & Preparations Print the Character Builder Sheet, one for each writer. Have a whiteboard or easel pad available to write on. Ask writers to bring in a beloved novel to talk about. It does not have to be an adult novel. Novels written for children or for young adults, such as Anne of Green Gables or The Secret Garden, work perfectly. Prepare a notebook and a pen or pencil for each writer. Provide writers with some colorful paper choices. They will write their novel dedications on this paper and then hang them in a public space after publication. Getting Started We all have a story to tell. It may be our own personal story or it may begin as a kernel of an idea that develops into something much bigger. The National Novel Writing Month challenge offers a warm and supportive world-wide community, as well as plenty of real-world tips and tricks to get your story out of your mind and onto paper. While the goal of this activity is simply to get you writing, know that many traditionally published books have started as National Novel Writing Month projects. And with hundreds of thousands of other writers—whether they are aspiring writers or established authors—around the world joining the challenge, a supportive and encouraging community is built into the process. Common Excuse #1 How will I find time to write 50,000 words in one month?! The answer to the question is: Don’t worry about it! Believe it or not, most writers find that the busier they are, the more writing they get done. It may sound counterintuitive, but science backs up this claim. For our purposes, we have supplied a chart to show you how to write a novel with any chosen word count. If 50,000 words feels daunting, you can always write a novella, which has between 10,000 and 40,000 words. Remember: The goal of National Novel Writing Month is not to write the best novel you can or even a good novel. The goal is just to finish a novel. Just finishing your novel is 90% of the battle. Later, you will edit it until you love it. This is just a first draft. Write with your heart, not with your head! Pro-Tip: Let your friends and family know you are doing this challenge. Let them know you won’t be as available to them for 30 days and why. Give the people in your life a chance to be supportive of you and respectful of the time you have carved out for writing. – National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel – Page 6 of 28

Write on a whiteboard: What is creativity? What holds us back from being creative? What is the biggest struggle with beginning a creative project? What or who is an inner editor? Ask writers to think about these questions and give them time to discuss. (5–10 minutes). Let writers know the following: They will have 30 days to write a novel or novella. They can choose their own word count. They can work independently or with a group. Working on your own project in the same room as others can be invigorating for some. They should not worry about the quality of their writing. It is better to write 10 pages in a stream of consciousness and then find three great pages during editing month than to painstakingly write three sentences in the same amount of time. Everyone is creative, and everyone deserves respect. There are no editors during the writing process. Allow writers to ask any questions they want about the project and give space to discuss the answers as a group. Ask writers the following questions: What are some of your favorite novels and why? What are some of your favorite genres of books? What makes a great novel? A narrative hook is the literary technique of creating an enticing beginning and is often the very first line or opening of a story. It is designed to capture readers’ interest. How does the novel you brought begin? What is the hook? What point of view is used in your novel? (Possible answers: first-person, third-person, omniscient, limited) Why is this helpful to the story? Where is the story set? What do you like about the writing style? What is a novel you did not enjoy? How did it differ from the novel you brought that you do enjoy? – National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel – Page 7 of 28

1. Distribute the sheets of colorful paper. Ask each writer to write a book dedication on the piece of paper. Who are they writing the book for? Themselves? Their children? Their best friend? Their cat? Examples: I am gleefully writing a novel for my best friend, Rose! I am writing a book in honor of my grandson, Adam. I dedicate my novel to my loving wife, Samantha. Collect the pieces of paper to hang on a wall in an area where the writers will be able to see them, such as a corkboard in the library area or in a communal room where the writers will be able to gather and work on their novels. This will help remind them of the “why” when they feel frustrated or overwhelmed. 2. Brainstorm Prompts and Plots Have writers brainstorm writing prompts and novel plot ideas. They can draw from their own experiences, news articles, funny stories they have heard, or something that is completely from their imagination. Ask them to work in pairs for 5 to 10 minutes and then change partners and repeat. This will maximize the number of ideas that are going around the room. New faces and people often encourage new thoughts. Writers will spend about 20 minutes brainstorming ideas and jotting them in notebooks. 3. Distribute the Character Builder Worksheet Share the following with your writers: Characters are the lifeblood of your story. Even if your plot is weak, readers will still enjoy the book if you have created strong, well-developed characters. If you have a strong plot but weak characters, it will be hard for readers to care about the story. Ask writers the following questions: What makes an interesting character? What makes a likable character? What makes an unlikeable character? What makes a hero? A villain? An anti-hero? The Character Builder Worksheet should be used for each character the writer wants to introduce. You do not need a new sheet for each character, but you can instead make notes in your writer’s notebook. You do not need to (and probably shouldn’t!) answer every single question on the worksheet, as not all will be relevant to your character or the world they live in. However, knowing things about your character that are never mentioned in the book actually helps you, the writer, know how a character will react in various situations. For example, you might have a tough guy character, but since you know that he has a rescue cat at home, he may struggle more than a character who dislikes cats when faced with the challenge to save the world or save the cat. As an author, you need to know everything about your characters to make them realistic. – National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel – Page 8 of 28

4. Brainstorm Details Share the following with your writers: Once you know who your characters are, you can begin to write their story. Are you writing for adults? For children? Or for young adults? Women? Men? Mystery lovers or those who love happy endings? Will this be set in the modern world or is it historical fiction? Or will it be set in a fantasy world or sometime in the future? Have writers break out from the guided lesson. They can work alone or with others to brainstorm ideas in their notebooks and on their Character Builder Worksheets. They are free to: Brainstorm Give supportive feedback to one another Fill out their Character Builder Worksheet Sketch out ideas The length of this part of the activity is up to the writers. They may work as long as they like. Homework Tell friends and family about the challenge and be realistic about the amount of time it will take. Knowing it is just for 30 days typically encourages people to be as helpful as possible to make sure you reach the deadline. If you have many social commitments, spend some time thinking about how to arrange your schedule. What can you skip for 30 days? Ideas for freeing up some time might include something as simple as not sweeping every day or something more complicated like having a friend take your dog for its evening stroll so you can write. Freewriting. Between today and the next lesson, writers should spend some time freewriting, which is just a fancy way of saying that they should take each idea they thought of while brainstorming and write for 3–5 minutes without stopping to think or judge themselves on each idea they had. If they are struggling with ideas about what to write, you can distribute the Writing Prompts Ideas Worksheet to help them. Encourage writers to use their own ideas first, as it is often easier to write a whole novel about something you feel personally passionate about. However, there is nothing wrong with being inspired by a writing prompt, a news article, or a moment in history—these are all fantastic ways to get your creative juices flowing! Have writers work with each other outside of the Writers Group to choose their favorite idea for their novel. Then they can fill out their worksheets for each character. Remember, the more detailed you are before you start and the more familiar you are with your characters and setting, the easier it is to free write, which is the goal. Pro-Tip: Write without any inner critic! If you don’t know how something really “works,” that’s okay for now—just write it as you imagine it goes and move along. Later, when we edit, you can look up the mechanics of things and fine-tune details. For now, just write as though you know everything! – National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel – Page 9 of 28

Lesson 2: Diving Deeper Props & Preparations A whiteboard or easel pad to write on Drawing paper Pencils, crayons, markers Old magazines and scissors Glue sticks The writers’ Character Builder worksheet from the last lesson and their writing notebooks Diving Deeper Share the following with your writers: Now that everyone has filled out their Character Builder worksheet, we’re ready to move on to the next step. Today we’ll be making sure we feel comfortable and confident in who our characters are. 1. Have each writer identify their main character. On their drawing paper, have them either draw their main character or create a vision board of that character using magazine images. For example, cut out pictures of clothes you think they would wear, a pet they might have, or their favorite foods. Give this part of the project around 15–20 minutes. Then, have the writers gather as a group and share the ideas for their novels, including a few specific details about their main characters. 2. Once they have their main character down, they can focus with their supporting characters. Ask the writers: How do the supporting characters interact with the main character? How do they affect each other? How did they meet? What will they do to help or harm the main character? 3. The villain, whether they are a tangible person or a metaphorical influence, is what will drive the main character to change or work hard to stay the same. In short, they are the catalyst for action. Defining the villain will make ALL future action in a story much easier to write. After discussing villains, be sure to fill out a Character Builder Worksheet for your villain. Ask the writers the following questions: What villains in books or movies do you remember the most? What makes a good villain? – National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel – Page 10 of 28

When have you been bored by a villain? Why? What motivates your favorite villains? What motivates your villain? Homework: Elements of a Story Now that we know who is in our story, we want to explore what they are going to do. What are your characters’ hopes and dreams? What are their fears? What are their goals? Have writers start with the prompt “The one thing I want most in the world is .” Use this prompt to write freely for 5–10 minutes, first from the perspective of the main character and then from the perspective of the villain. This way, you can truly understand the motives for each action that happens in your novel. Then, take another 5–10 minutes to write freely about the prompt “What holds me back from achieving my dreams is .” Once you have answered this prompt for both the main character and the villain, you will better understand how to develop the dramatic action in your story. Common Excuse #2 I’m not writing an adventure novel, so I don’t need a villain or to know what my characters’ dreams are. Look at the film Chinatown as a great example of a story where it seems that the main character, Jake Gittes, doesn’t have dreams or an obvious enemy. However, Jake is an anti-hero (the main character who doesn’t conform to the Superman version of a hero). He does have dreams: he wants to live without being dragged into drama and maybe meet a nice woman. The villain in the film is Old Man Cross, who is ruining the water supply in Los Angeles and keeping a terrible family secret by any means necessary. Old Man Cross dreams of unlimited wealth and for his secrets to be kept secrets. What the two men will do to achieve their dreams is where the action comes in. What flaws or weaknesses does each character have that affect the possibility that they will achieve their dreams? – National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel – Page 11 of 28

Lesson 3: Outlining Props & Preparations Print and distribute the Chapter-By-Chapter Worksheet, Basic Beat Sheet Worksheet, and Story Builder Worksheet A whiteboard or easel pad to write on. Writer’s notebooks (Optional) Index cards. These can be used to track chapters—one chapter on each note card. This way, the writer can rearrange chapters easily as they think through their plot. It will make editing at the end easier. Now that we know what motivates our characters and what will trip them up as they try to achieve their dreams, it’s time for arguably the most fun part of writing a novel: creating a plot that is a roller coaster ride for the readers! 1. What makes a novel? Distribute the Basic Beat Sheet Worksheet First, we’ll want to decide how many words the writers are going to aim for. This is a simple way to help them determine when they will need to create drama—or resolve it—in order to keep the story flowing and exciting to the readers. Some basic understanding of how novels work will come in handy. First, novels typically have three acts. This is the most common structure used in writing—for novels, plays, and film scripts. It can basically be described as “a beginning, a middle, and an end.” Act I is the beginning, Act II is the middle, and Act III is the end. But to make writing even easier, we’ll use our beat sheet, which is basically a writer’s term for a template that subdivides the beginning, middle, and end into 15 smaller “beats,” or plot points. Think of a beat as you would in music: just as you have to “keep the beat” to make your music flow, you have to “keep the beat” in your writing to make your writing move forward. Why do we use a beat sheet? Basically, novels are complicated. Short stories may simply have just one character who never interacts with anyone else. But novels are going to have multiple characters, a plot, and of course, many thousands of words that you, the writer, are going to need to keep track of. You will need to remember who did what, when they did it, how their actions affected others, and other minor details, such as what they were wearing. All your details should move the story along in such a way that the writer doesn’t get bored. And that can be really hard to do. A beat sheet helps you outline all of that at the beginning, so you never get stuck. Once you are writing, you are writing! You don’t have to decide what happens next in the middle of your writing session. You can even skip around from chapter to chapter and write only those parts you feel like writing that day. You won’t have to worry that you will go off-track because it’s all already outlined for you in your beat sheet. – National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel – Page 12 of 28

First, let’s learn what each act will contain. Act I Setup: Exposition, Inciting Incident, Plot Point One Act II Confrontation: Rising Action, Midpoint, Plot Point Two, Crisis Act III Resolution: Pre-Climax, Climax, Conclusion Act I Act I typically takes up about a quarter of the novel. You set the stage, build a world, and let your reader connect with your main character. Point out their good qualities and their weaknesses to make them seem more real and to set up why they may fail in the future. This builds tension. First, there will be an inciting incident. Why does your story start NOW? What happens to the main character that causes them to need to do something different than usual? You will then need to address your first plot point. Sometimes the inciting incident and the first plot point are one and the same, but sometimes they are different. For example, in The Wizard of Oz, Dorothy’s beloved dog Toto is threatened by mean Mrs. Gulch, and Dorothy’s family is not supportive of her fears that Mrs. Gulch will take Toto away. This is an inciting incident that is out of the ordinary for Dorothy. As she tries to come to terms with how she is feeling, a tornado strikes and separates Dorothy from her family. That is certainly an inciting incident that is out of the ordinary for Dorothy. However, the first plot point happens when Dorothy lands in Oz and must figure out her first steps for returning home. The inciting incident (family dispute) is what causes Dorothy to not be home when the tornado strikes, leaving her without shelter, which leads her straight into plot point one: how to get home. Pro-tip: Sometimes plot points are called “pinch points.” It may be easier to think of them this way. What pinches or hurts the characters and makes them move forward? Act II Act II will be your longest stretch of writing. It will take up half of your novel, whatever the length is. This is really where the story becomes a roller coaster. You will want the main character to experience both wins and losses (big and little) through this part, giving the reader concern about failure and hope for success, again and again. Basically, this is where you will throw roadblocks at your characters and the characters will have to adapt to the challenges they face—or suffer consequences. Going back to Oz, Dorothy gets some nice “rising action” when she starts to meet her merry band of fellow travelers. They are all aligned with a shared goal: get to the Emerald City and have their lives fixed. However, the villain, the Wicked Witch of the West, is determined to get in their way. When the group makes a bit of progress, she sets an obstacle in their path, such as flying monkeys and sleepy-time flowers. Why? Because the Wicked Witch of the West’s ultimate goal is to have complete power in Oz, and Dorothy and her companions are throwing a wrench into her plans by keeping the magical ruby slippers. This is why it’s important to have a fleshed-out villain with clear motives. – National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel – Page 13 of 28

After some power struggles, you will reach the middle of your novel, obviously called “the midpoint.” This is typically where the character thinks they have achieved—or nearly achieved— their goals, but then something truly terrible happens. Their ultimate goal is threatened, and things look pretty hopeless and grim. For our friend Doroth - National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel - Page 1 of 28 Read Write National Novel Writing Month: Write Your Own Novel In November 1999, a challenge was made: write a 50,000-word novel in just 30 days. Writer Chris Baty posed this challenge to the 21 people in his writing group. The next year, another

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