The Ergonomics Of Gardening - Working Well

1y ago
1.86 MB
18 Pages
Last View : 9d ago
Last Download : 4m ago
Upload by : Sutton Moon

Can you dig it?The Ergonomics of GardeningBy Tamara MitchellGardening is fun, good for you, and you can do it for your entire life! Also, gardening and yardwork can be a part of healthy, active living. Anyone who gardens will agree that it can beextremely hard work unless you limit yourself to a few potted plants on the deck. But maybethat is why so many people enjoy it. You get a good workout and you gain a beautiful garden inthe process! People who grow their own fruits and veggies are more likely to eat lots of thesehealthful foods and they are more nutritious when picked fresh and eaten from your own garden.1There are both traumatic and repetitive strain injuries (RSI) that can doom your gardening fun ifyou aren’t aware and careful. And, even though gardening is great exercise, it is best to get ingood condition before gardening! It will reduce the chances of traumatic injury and repetitivestrain injuries, and you’ll be able to garden longer without feeling exhausted afterwards. It reallyis pretty much like participating in a sport. You need the right equipment, the right form, youneed to condition your body to prepare for hard work, and you need to take time to warm upbefore embarking on gardening activities to prevent strain injuries.2Every gardener should read Barbara Pearlman's book, Gardener'sFitness: Weeding Out the Aches & Pains.3 It's a quick read and fullof excellent advice on every aspect of gardening.Heavy yard work like digging, lifting, and carrying loads improvesendurance and strength, while other gardening activities can helpincrease and maintain flexibility. In general, gardening is considereda moderate-intensity physical activity and even just 2½ hours spentgardening each week can reduce the risk for obesity, high bloodpressure, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, heart disease, stroke,depression, colon cancer, dementia, and premature death.4,5,6Exposure to sunlight helps to boost levels of Vitamin D, whichincreases your calcium levels.5 And people who get involved ingardening activities have been found to exercise an average of 40-50 minutes longer than peoplewho do other fitness activities like walking or biking.4 Even people with physical limitations orwho are recovering from injury can participate in gardening activities that help improve range ofmotion, improve motor skills, increase self-esteem, and many other physical and mentalbenefits.61

Gardeners consume a greater variety of vegetables more frequently than non-gardeners.Involving children in gardening really helps them learn to love veggies and fruits.6 You cangrow more healthful organicproduce that is really fresh andfull of nutrients, you can createhabitats for pollinators, birds, andbutterflies, and you can use yourimagination to create an oasis inyour own yard.6 Many edibleplants are really gorgeous and caneasily be integrated into thelandscape. Rosalind Creasy islikely the originator of doinglandscaping with edibles andhelping people get out of the rut ofconfining plants to a restrictedarea of the yard as shown at left.Gardening benefits the mind, too! Gardening is associated with mental clarity, feelings ofaccomplishment, and stress reduction.4,5 Nature is well known as a refuge for tranquility andhealing.4 And greater exposure to sunlight reduces feelings of depression in people who sufferfrom Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). And it has been found that lower prevalence ofAttention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is associated with areas of the world and the U.S. thathave higher solar intensity.7 Exposure to sunlight while gardening in any area may well beassociated with better mental focus, less depression, and better sleep in children and adults.7People who feel lonely can participate in community gardens where they work with other peopleto provide beauty to the community or help to raise fruits and vegetables.5 If you are a gardener,you’ll always find people excited to talk to you about gardening.6 Its pretty contagious!Traumatic InjuriesTraumatic injuries occur much less frequently than RSI, but they are often more critical. Powerlawnmowers are by far the most common source of traumatic injuries.10 While these tools canreduce the risk of RSI by eliminating tasks requiring repetitive motions, such as sawing anddigging holes, they increase risk of potential tool misuse and carelessness. Thousands of injuriesoccur with all types of non-powered gardening equipment, but the number one culprit islawnmowers as reported by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) in 2012.10Obviously, things with sharp edges or pointed tips are a potential hazard, but so many otherthings can happen!10 Wheelbarrows and lawn carts can tip over, hoses and sprinklers can causetrip hazards, power tillers and trimming or pruning equipment including chainsaws can be verydangerous.10 Be extremely careful when using a ladder.Keep equipment in good working order, follow manufacturer’s instructions, don’t remove safetyguards, and wear safety glasses.10 Wear sturdy shoes, gloves, and long pants when using power2

tools and equipment.9 Shoes should fit properly, give good foot support, and have thick soles.25Walk around the area where you will be working and remove any objects (e.g., rocks, metal,glass, or wire) that could damage equipment or cause injuries if caught and thrown byequipment, such as lawnmowers. Keep children away from power equipment, unplug or disablepower equipment when not in use and when making adjustments. Never fill gasoline tanks whileequipment is operating or when equipment is still hot. Wipe up spills. Store gas in an approvedcontainer away from the house. Never smoke or use any type of flame around gasoline. Hire aprofessional to do a job that requires equipment you are not confident using. If you do decide todo the job yourself, know how to operate the equipment safely and correctly.Gloves protect you from blisters, but also from fertilizers, chemicals, and bacteria and fungus inthe soil.8 Many gloves protect the hands from thorns, cuts, scrapes, poison oak, and bites fromcritters that reside in the garden.8 Make sure you get gloves that fit your hand. Gloves that aretoo small restrict finger and hand movement, but gloves that are too big are awkward to use, canrequire more force to grip tools, and can createblisters. Knit gloves with rubber dipped fingersand palms can afford more dexterity. Baseballbatting gloves are another alternative to help youprotect your hands while affording greaterdexterity than heavier gardening gloves.1One of the best brands of gloves available is WestCounty Gardener. Their landscape gloves aremade from recycled plastic bottles, they haveKevlar reinforced thumb and fingertips, paddedpalms and knuckles, and a terry sweat wipe on theback. The leather palms and fingers provideexcellent protection, last a long time even whenhandling stone and pavers, yet they are breathablewith a knit back so hands do not get hot. Thisbrand is available from or aware of the danger of ticks especially when working around long grass and shrubs that arelow to the ground.9 Sharpen tools carefully. Keep chemicals, tools, and equipment out of thereach of children.9When it is hot, drink more fluids, take breaks frequently, rest in the shade, and call it quits if youstart feeling too hot, dizzy, have rapid pulse, or nausea.9 Avoid drinking alcoholic beverages ordrinks with lots of sugar or caffeine (such as energy drinks).9 Do not operate power equipmentor climb ladders if you are taking medications that cause you to be drowsy or have other sideeffects that can affect your judgement or balance.9Sunburn is always a danger, so avoid working in the middle of the day when the sun’s rays arestrongest.10 Sunblock is good, but wearing sunblocking clothing can be even better without the3

risk of dangerous chemicals and the need to reapply every 2-3 hours.10 There are many brands ofclothing that provide excellent sun protection. Shop around to find styles that work for you, butthe fabric should be breathable and durable enough to withstand the rigors of outdoor work andthe style should provide protection for as much skin as possible including the neck or wear ahat that covers the neck area.L.L. BeanWomen’s Vista Camp PantL.L. BeanMen’s Trail PantsColumbiaPFG Tidal DeflectorMen’s and Women’s ShirtsMake sure your tetanus vaccination is up-to-date. A cut or puncture from rusty tool can be verydangerous and tetanus vaccinations should be given every 10 years to provide protection fromlockjaw or death.9 A wound no larger than a pin prick (or sticker from a rose bush) can harborenough of the tetanus bacteria to kill an unvaccinated human.11 It is one of the most deadlypoisons known and a natural habitat of this bacteria is the soil!11 It isn’t the bacteria itself that istoxic; it is the toxin that the bacteria produces.11 The spores can remain dormant and result ininfection many years later with a very grim prognosis.11 Prevention with a current tetanus shot isvery important!Be extremely cautious with chemical use. Read the labels and follow the instructions. Makesure all containers are labeled and kept in a safe place away from animals and children. Whenspraying toxic substances stand upwind of the spray and use a respirator with an appropriatefilter (not just a dust mask). Better yet, avoid the use of toxic chemicals and start gardeningorganically!Legionnaires’ disease can be contracted from breathing soil, potting soil, or compost containingthe bacteria legionella longbeachae.12 It is not very common, but inhaling the bacteria or gettingthe bacteria into the mouth from the hands by smoking, eating, drinking, or touching the facewith dirty hands is highly associated with the disease.12 Working in an enclosed gardeningspace such as a greenhouse is also associated with contracting the disease.12 Wearing a facemask has not been shown to prevent the disease, but gardeners should avoid inhaling the air frombags of compost or soil amendments, and they should be wary of getting dirty hands near themouth.12 Although it is important to stay hydrated while working, be careful not to contaminatethe water or drinking surfaces with dirty hands or gloves. This is a potentially deadly infection4

with flu-like symptoms of fever, chills, cough, muscle aches, headaches, tiredness, loss ofappetite, and/or occasionally diarrhea and vomiting.13Repetitive Strain InjuriesData regarding the prevalence of RSI in gardeners is lacking, however it appears to be verycommon because many websites about gardening safety and orthopedics make a specific point ofdiscussing RSI prevention. The Ontario Chiropractic Association in Toronto found that 88% ofOntario chiropractors reported that gardening is the most common source of back and neck painduring the warm weather season.14 Farming and agriculture industry research can give usinsights into many problems regarding injuries and prevention in manual workers. In developedcountries, most farming activities have been mechanized, but in less developed countries handtools are used almost exclusively.15 The tools used in these countries do not have the benefit ofergonomic design and the workers have no training in ergonomic principles and safety.15 Itshould be noted that the factors in less developed countries are different from the backyardgardener because productivity, as well as avoidance of injury and fatigue, is quite critical toindividual farmers for their income, Cost of tools is a major consideration, and training andacceptance of new tool design requires effort as farmers are used to the traditional, old design oftheir tools.15 Tools designed in wealthy countries and in laboratories often do not take thesethings into consideration. While backyard gardeners in the U.S. may not have the same issues asfarmers in developing countries, cost, acceptance of different tools, avoidance of injuries, andreduction in fatigue are important to everyone.In one study, nursery workers in India were primarily involved inspading activities. They typically worked 9 hour days, six days perweek, with just two breaks totaling 30-45 minutes off daily.16 It wasdetermined that spading was the most strenuous activity as opposed toother work duties. The spade in India is more like a large hoe, asshown at right. Over 50% of the workers reported low back pain, 36%reported thigh pain, 33% reported ankle pain, and 30% reported neckpain.16 The posture of leaning forward and bending the kneesrepeatedly are the primary problem.In another study in India, farmworkers performing crop cuttingand weeding activities in asquatting posture were found to have high discomfort fromhand tool usage, primarily in the fingers, shoulders, andlower back.17 Age, male gender, and perceived work fatiguewere all shown to be related to issues related to the neck,shoulders, upper back, and fingers.17 Workers were largelyunaware of factors responsible for ergonomic risks and itwas concluded that adding rest breaks and stretchingexercises, improving the tools used in the squatting posture,and increasing training about safety and health among5

workers would reduce the incidence of strain injuries among workers.17 This research can berelated to backyard gardeners as well. Weeding and other activities carried out for prolongedperiods with poorly designed tools, inadequate breaks and stretching can all contribute to RSI.There are several large differences between weekend gardeners and the workers in these studies.Those of us who occasionally garden probably spend most of the week in sedentary jobs. Thenwe expect our bodies to perform the strenuous physical tasks associated with gardening one ortwo days a week. Secondly, we generally do not garden for eight or more hours per day or doingone single task like squatting and reaping with a sickle. We have the freedom to limit the timewe spend at each gardening task (even though we tend to forget this fact!) and most of us poopout long before eight hours.The wrong tools will stress your muscles, but probably 75% of the pain we suffer is due to ourhabits and attitude. In gardening, we often face very large, physically demanding tasks and setimpossible deadlines to tackle them. Gardeners plunge into these tasks with great enthusiasmand unconditioned bodies. The next day, they are exhausted and in pain. But this does not haveto happen! The injuries sustained are dependent on the types of activities, the tools, the duration,and the postures used while doing the job.18Hand Tool DesignThere are four basic factors that comprise ergonomic considerations in tool design, regardless ofwhether they are to be used in farming or gardening.15 How well a tool works to reduce strain isdependent upon how well it meets all of these criteria. When buying tools, it is important toconsider all of these factors with regard to how well they fit your body or hand individually andhow they will help you accomplish the intended tasks. A tool may be designed to do a job withgreat efficiency and power, but if it is too large and heavy for you, it will be very difficult to useand can cause injury. Human variables Biomechanical stressMuscular loadStrainEffortActivityBlistersHigh force exertionsPressure pointsWrist movementsApplied forceTorquePinch forceEfficiencyAgeGenderBody dimensionsStrength 6Qualitative variablesComfort, discomfort, satisfactionFunctional, fit, usabilityBoredom, Fatigue, restVibrationNoiseEfficiency, performance, productivityIncentive, income, maintenance, training,working hoursTactile feel, ease in useAppearance, color, excitement, emotionalresponse

Task variables Working posture, awkward positionsRepetitive motions, wrist and finger strainTool angle, orientationWorking stress or areaLifting angle, surface angle, work heightPhysical workloadCutting velocity Product variablesTool shape, size, weight, sharpness, etc.Cost and materials of toolHandle properties including grip comfort,hardness, shape, slipperiness, etc.Blade properties including dimensions,sharpness, curvature, life, stiffness, etc.Purchasing tools for any hobby is a challenge because there always seems to be another or bettertool that is important to have. You can become bankrupt by buying tools! Follow theserecommendations for buying and using gardening tools. Use the correct tool for the job. Don't use a trowel when you should be using a spade. Bigjobs require that you use more of your body and your larger, stronger muscles. Don't be lazy;walk to the shed to get the right tool! And use tools rather than your hands.8 Digging in thedirt, pulling weeds, or reducing foliage are much better accomplished with tools whichreduce strain and also reduce the possibility of getting cut or puncture wounds.Buy tools that fit you and your needs. Know your body's weak points and focus on gettingthe best tools to save that body part first. As with office equipment, gardening tools sold as"ergonomic" are only good if they fit YOU. So before you buy, try out the tool in the store.3Tools should be well-balanced and as light weight as possible.3Take care of your tools: keep them sharp and in good shape. Sharp spades and trowelsreduce the amount of effort needed to dig. Use a metal file or whetstone to sharpen the edgeswhen they become dull. If they are really dull, use a grinding wheel. Clean and dry all toolsafter use. Plunge tools up and down in a bucket filled with builder's sand and motor oil toclean and oil them. Oil unfinished wood handles with linseed oil to keep them fromsplintering and sand and refinish them when they become rough.3Determine the correct grip size for handles. Make a circle with yourfingers and thumb. Measure the inside diameter of the "O" formed by thethumb and index finger. This measurement indicates the optimum gripdiameter of a hand tool (it is generally about 1.5"). If the grip is not theright size, customization of the tool may be necessary.7

Long-handled and short-handeled toolsTools such as hoes and rakes should have longenough handles so you can stand upright to usethem.2,13,19,20Conversely, handles that are too long arecumbersome for a person who is shorter thanaverage. Green Heron Tools has many tools thatallow you to specify your height to buy anappropriate sized tool.Green Heron Toolshttps://www.greenherontools.comWalt Nicke's Garden Talkwww.gardentalk.comA.M. Leonardwww.amleo.comLee Valleywww.leevalley.comHand tools that fitUse tools that allow your wrists to remainstraight without twisting or bending. Repeatedsqueezing of hand tools like pruners can result invarious different forms of tendonitis.21 Toolsthat are engineered to reduce force and havepadded grips help take strain out of pruning.Hand-held tools should fit your handcomfortably. They should be easy to use, havewide handles, and a padded grip.22Some people have smaller hands than average orthey are left-handed. Green Heron Tools has aselection of tools that are available in multiplesizes and some made for lefties with differentsizes, too! They are well made, light weight, andnot horribly expensive.Green Heron Toolshttps://www.greenherontools.com8

Fiskars PowerGear LoppersLightweight and powerful. Using the power ofgears, much greater leverage is provided overstandard loppers. The model with 32” handleswill cut branches up to 2” in diameter. Themodel with 25” handles will cut branches up to1.5” in diameter.Available at most hardware stores, nurseries, andgarden centers or online.Easy to operate watering nozzlesLook for watering nozzles that avoid continuoussqueezing, especially ones that use just onefinger.Pistol-grip style nozzles are good,especially if they lock into the “on” position toavoid continuous squeezing.The wand watering nozzle shown at right byGilmore allows for not only many different spraypatterns, but has a swivel head allowing the userto change the angle depending upon whether it iswatering plants on the ground, in hangingbaskets, or anything in between.Weeders for neutral wrist position or standingThere are LOTS of weeding tools on the market.Using toxic bee-killing chemicals is not a goodsolution. Whatever you choose, make sure thatyour wrist is straight. Choosing a tool for usewhile standing may not work for delicate spots,but it sure saves bending over for hours if the joballows. Shown at right are: the Hoe Dag, Ho-Midigger (available with short handle or longhandle for standing), and the loop hoe which isused while standing and slides below the surfaceto cut weeds off at the root. Finally, don’toverlook torching tools like the Weed Dragon.You can’t torch in places that would pose a firedanger or burn plants next to the weeds, but ifyou are eliminating weeds growing in patches ofdirt, in sidewalk cracks, or in gravel paths ordriveways, this can make quick work of them. Itworks by cooking the weed with the flame. Youwon’t incinerate the weed, but it will die after itis blasted with the flame.9

Green Heron Toolshttps://www.greenherontools.comLee Valleywww.leevalley.comFlame Engineeringhttps://flameengineering.comRepetitive Strain Injury PreventionThe most important rule in repetitive strain injury (RSI) prevention is to never work throughpain. If your shoulder aches even before you start your pruning job, you should either postponethe task until your shoulder is better or ask for help with overhead pruning. You will aggravatepainful forearm and hand muscles if you choose to pull weeds, and you will hurt a sore backeven more if you lift anything. RSI results from using the same muscles, tendons, or other bodyparts over and over. It all adds up! If you use one group of muscles at work, then use the samemuscles when you are playing an instrument, and use them again when you are gardening, youare not giving your body any time to recover.RSI is a serious disorder for which there is no cure. You will develop chronic pain if you pushyourself beyond your limits. It is very discouraging to put off tasks that you planned, but it iseven more frustrating when you cannot do anything because you are in too much pain due toinjury. Therefore, listen to your body! Have a list of many different tasks around the garden thatuse different body parts, so when you feel muscle fatigue or strain, switch to another task thatuses a different body part, or just call it quits for the day and enjoy sitting on your porch lookingat all the work you’ve done!Keep your body conditioned, practice healthy habits, and use the right tools so you can be asenior gardener! It's better to change your approach now and still be able to dig at 80, right?ConditioningEven if you are used to a regular program of exercise, gardening requires strength and flexibility.If you don’t train with gardening in mind, you will likely discover muscles you never knew youhad! Just as with sports, it is helpful to condition your body for gardening rather than expecting10

the gardening to be your total workout routine. You’ll be able to garden longer if you areconditioned.Barbara Pearlman explains and diagrams numerous exercises you can perform on a regular basisto strengthen your body in preparation for gardening in her excellent book, Gardener's Fitness:Weeding Out the Aches & Pains. 3Please do not participate in any strengthening exercises if you already are experiencing painfrom injury! Back. For low back strength and flexibility, work on strengthening core muscles, especiallyall of the abdominals. There are many excellent strength and stretching exercises to work onyour abdominals, extensor muscles, hip flexors, and hamstrings. Arms and shoulders. Activities in the garden require lifting, reaching overhead, and diggingwith a trowel that can result in strain injuries if muscles are weak. To prevent this,strengthen them and increase your flexibility by working on your biceps, triceps, chest,shoulder, and forearm muscles. Hands. The hands are used extensively in gardening. Unfortunately, hand strengtheningexercises to increase grip strength consist of gripping and squeezing. These exercises are notadvisable for people who are experiencing any hand, wrist, or forearm pain. Therefore, donot do the recommended hand strengthening exercises in the Pearlman book if you have anyhand, wrist or forearm pain. Focus on the stretches that will relax and lengthen these musclesand increase flexibility in these generally rigid body parts. Leg and Knees. There are several exercises in Barbara Pearlman’s book for before, during,and after gardening that will help you strengthen your quadriceps, release hamstring tension,and work on your calves and groin.3 Strong quadriceps are very important in squatting,lifting, and carrying activities. This video demonstrates an excellent exercise forstrengthening your quads with Dr. Gail Dubinsky: Yedk .Pre-gardening warmups and during-gardening rest breaks. Warm-up and cool-down is as important in gardening as it is for any sport. Beforegardening, go for a brisk walk around the block to get your heart pumping and circulationgoing. Dynamic warm-ups. Current research has shown that stretching before athletic activitiesdoes not prevent injuries and can actually damage muscles if done quickly.23,24 Werecommend that you include similar motions that you will be doing in your gardeningactivity during your warm-up. Start with small movements and gradually increase to fullrange of motion. To avoid fatigue, take breaks throughout the day as you are working. 25 Change positions frequently to avoid stiffness and muscle cramping. Wind down. Just walking around to put your tools away is probably the best way to let yourbody cool down after a strenuous gardening session.11

Proper FormUnlike sports, nobody ever teaches you proper form in the garden. People just get out there andstart digging without thinking much about the right or wrong way to dig. By learning a bit aboutbody mechanics, you will not only save yourself pain and strain, but also your movements willbe more economical, so you don't waste energy.Bending and Lifting.3,14,18,25 When you lift heavy objects, squat with your feetshoulder-width apart and bend your knees. Use yourpowerful thigh and buttock muscles, not your backmuscles. Tighten your stomach muscles before youlift. Keep the object close to your body and center ofgravity. This will cause much less strain on your backand will allow you to keep your arms close to yourbody and comfortably bent. Stand upright when working at ground level or whenusing long-handled gardening tools such as hoes,spades and rakes. Garden in raised beds if possible. Move close to theobject you are working on.Carrying.3 Use a cart or other device for carrying equipment and containersaround the garden. (Shown at right: Suncast garden scooter,available from 34.99). Use larger arm muscles rather than pinch-gripping heavyobjects (like pots) with your hands. Hold them from underneathwith your whole hand and keep the load close to your body. Use two hands for a balanced load, if possible. If not possible,trade between your arms so that you don't pull your body out ofalignment, which stresses both the back and hips. Drop any load immediately if you find it's too heavy. Make more trips with lighter loads. Test the load before you carry it. If you need help, make sure you get it! Sometimes putting the load on a tarp and dragging it works if it is too heavy to lift and itdoesn’t have to move far.12

Reaching.3 Work below shoulder levelwhenever possible to avoidstrain on your back andshoulders. Use a ladder tobring yourself up to thelevel you are working. When you have to workabove shoulder level, workfor no more than fiveminutes. Holding yourarms up and looking upcreates tremendous strainon your neck. Take a break to stretchyour neck and backmusclesandperformanother activity for a fewminutes before returning tooverhead work.Pruning, picking, and shoveling.1,3,22,25 Never over reach. Move to the job and keep moving to be close to your work. Avoid twisting the forearms back and forth repeatedly. When weeding, if the ground is hard and the weed is resistant, use a weeding tool. If it is ahand-held tool, look for one with a wide padded grip. The gripping and pulling motioninvolved in weeding can cause a tremendous amount of hand strain. Always face your work without twisting whether it is shoveling, hand digging, or weeding.Move your body to face what you are working on. Keep your wrists and forearms in a neutral position (i.e., handshake position). Avoid bendingyour wrists up, down and sideways. This is especially important when working againstresistance. When shoveling, keep the shovel close to your body, knees slightly bent, and scoop with aforward motion. Don’t reach out too far and don’t twist your body. This video shows propershoveling technique, though we would prefer that the wheelbarrow be closer to the person sothrowing forward several feet is not required: Hold objects with a light grasp for a short period of time. Avoid a tight, sustained gripping. Change hands and change the position of your hands to take the strain off. You really canweed with either hand! Don’t sit back on your knees. Bending your knees this far is hard on the knee joint. Use knee pads or a kneeling mat when kneeling. Use a short gardening stool or bench. Keep your back straight.13

Raking.25Put one leg in front, the other behind and switch legsand hands every now and then. Use a tool with a longenough handle so you can stand up straight.Other things to remember:1,3,25 Schedule jobs when it's easier to do them. Moistearth is easier to dig than dry, compact earth orsoggy, saturated earth. Do something else ifconditions aren't right! Water a day in advance to have good soil conditions for digging. Work in the shade; don't force yourself to work in the sun on a hot da

Jun 12, 2019 · Gardening benefits the mind, too! Gardening is associated with mental clarity, feelings of accomplishment, and stress reduction.4,5 Nature is well known as a refuge for tranquility and healing.4 And greater exposure to sunlight reduces feelings of depression in

Related Documents:

May 02, 2018 · D. Program Evaluation ͟The organization has provided a description of the framework for how each program will be evaluated. The framework should include all the elements below: ͟The evaluation methods are cost-effective for the organization ͟Quantitative and qualitative data is being collected (at Basics tier, data collection must have begun)

On an exceptional basis, Member States may request UNESCO to provide thé candidates with access to thé platform so they can complète thé form by themselves. Thèse requests must be addressed to esd rize unesco. or by 15 A ril 2021 UNESCO will provide thé nomineewith accessto thé platform via their émail address.

̶The leading indicator of employee engagement is based on the quality of the relationship between employee and supervisor Empower your managers! ̶Help them understand the impact on the organization ̶Share important changes, plan options, tasks, and deadlines ̶Provide key messages and talking points ̶Prepare them to answer employee questions

Chính Văn.- Còn đức Thế tôn thì tuệ giác cực kỳ trong sạch 8: hiện hành bất nhị 9, đạt đến vô tướng 10, đứng vào chỗ đứng của các đức Thế tôn 11, thể hiện tính bình đẳng của các Ngài, đến chỗ không còn chướng ngại 12, giáo pháp không thể khuynh đảo, tâm thức không bị cản trở, cái được

Ergonomics Risk Factor Ergonomic risk factors are characteristics of a job that facilitate ergonomics stress on the body. Risk factors occur at different jobs and tasks. The greater exposed to these risk factors the greater probability of ergonomics. According to [1], ergonomics risk factors can be divided into seven categories as follows:

plants. Tuck a plant or two in a basket and place it on a shelf. Dwarf and slow growing plant varieties, vertical gardening and square foot gardening methods can add to your eye appeal as well as your table. Flowers, fruits and herbs can be Gardening for Small Spaces Article and photos by Terri Simon, Master Gardener cont’d on pg. 6

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC GARDENING WHAT IS ORGANIC GARDENING Organic gardening is a process that promotes and enhances biodiversity, natural biological cycles and soil biological actives that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony. Organic gardening basic tenets are feeding the soil though decaying organic matter and utilizing

94 GardeninG Gardening resources. Gardening Resources Scouting Literature Architecture and Landscape Architecture, Bird Study, Insect Study, Nature, Plant Science, and Soil and Water Conservation merit badge pamphlets Books Bartholomew, Mel. All New Square Foot Gardening. Cool Springs P

Straw Bale gardening is more economical, easier on your back, and is great for people with mobility issues. After over 40 years of gardening in four states, Wanda has experimented with many forms of gardening including Ruth Stout’s raised beds, keyhole gardening, and the French Intensive Gardening Method. She has tried many

Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.

Le genou de Lucy. Odile Jacob. 1999. Coppens Y. Pré-textes. L’homme préhistorique en morceaux. Eds Odile Jacob. 2011. Costentin J., Delaveau P. Café, thé, chocolat, les bons effets sur le cerveau et pour le corps. Editions Odile Jacob. 2010. 3 Crawford M., Marsh D. The driving force : food in human evolution and the future.

MARCH 1973/FIFTY CENTS o 1 u ar CC,, tonics INCLUDING Electronics World UNDERSTANDING NEW FM TUNER SPECS CRYSTALS FOR CB BUILD: 1;: .Á Low Cóst Digital Clock ','Thé Light.Probé *Stage Lighting for thé Amateur s. Po ROCK\ MUSIC AND NOISE POLLUTION HOW WE HEAR THE WAY WE DO TEST REPORTS: - Dynacó FM -51 . ti Whárfedale W60E Speaker System' .

Glossary of Social Security Terms (Vietnamese) Term. Thuật ngữ. Giải thích. Application for a Social Security Card. Đơn xin cấp Thẻ Social Security. Mẫu đơn quý vị cần điền để xin số Social Security hoặc thẻ thay thế. Baptismal Certificate. Giấy chứng nhận rửa tội

More than words-extreme You send me flying -amy winehouse Weather with you -crowded house Moving on and getting over- john mayer Something got me started . Uptown funk-bruno mars Here comes thé sun-the beatles The long And winding road .

Phần II: Văn học phục hưng- Văn học Tây Âu thế kỷ 14- 15-16 Chương I: Khái quát Thời đại phục hưng và phong trào văn hoá phục hưng Trong hai thế kỉ XV và XVI, châu Âu dấy lên cuộc vận động tư tưởng và văn hoá mới rấ

Food outlets which focused on food quality, Service quality, environment and price factors, are thè valuable factors for food outlets to increase thè satisfaction level of customers and it will create a positive impact through word ofmouth. Keyword : Customer satisfaction, food quality, Service quality, physical environment off ood outlets .

the issues involved in manual pushing and pulling, including ergonomics; cart, wheel, and caster design; and important operating environment factors. I Introduction. Pushing and Pulling Tasks 2 The Ergonomics of Manual Material Handling Wojciech Jastrzebowski, a Polish scholar, first used the term ergonomics in 1857. He derived it from the Greek words ergon (work) and nomos (principle or law .

ERGONOMICS GUIDELINES FOR MANUAL HANDLING. INTRODUCTION. As part of its ergonomics strategy, WorkSafeNB has developed . Ergonomics . Guidelines for Manual Handling. This booklet is designed to be used by all industries, and to help Joint Health and Safety Committees, s

A proactive approach to Ergonomics will ensure that: Designers will receive training in ergonomics and have appropriate information and guidelines regarding risk reduction Decision-makers planning new work processes should have knowledge of Ergonomics principles

Ch. 7—Ergonomics and Human Factors 125 Information Ergonomics Information ergonomics is generally concerned with what the worker senses in the workplace and how that information is processed by the worker, The two major sources of sensory information are visual and auditory. Visu