Business Data Architecture Data Types

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ISB PublicationBusiness Data Architecture Data TypesDoc Ref: ISB-000076Version: 7.0Issue Date: 24/06/2014Document Version HistoryVersionStatusIssue DateModified byDescription1-0FinalSeptember 2009Nirmal LaddhaNew document2-0Final23/03/2010Nirmal LaddhaUpdated with new data types required to address issue of signedinteger and characters from European languages.3-0Final28/03/2011Steve PalmerAddition of Email address to include Validating RegularExpression.Addition of Base64Binary for the transfer via XML of image data4-0Final20/09/2013Martyn GrandyTransferred to new ISB format editorial changes.5-0Final01/05/2014Steve PalmerIssued for internal release6-0Final28/04/2014Steve PalmerPublished version for review7-0Final24/06/2014Steve PalmerRevisions following external review and ISB Architecture SIGreview Crown copyright 2014

ISB-000076 - Business Data Architecture Data TypesContents1Introduction 32Requirements of the ISB Business Data Architecture 33Principles 43.1Data Types 43.2Reference Data Validation 43.3Data Types used by the ISB Business Data Architecture 53.4Logical vs Physical Primitive Data Types 64ESCS Logical Primitive Data Types 85XML Schema Primitive Data Types 11Appendix A: Notes 131.Decimal notation 132.ASCII, Unicode and UTF-8 133.base64Binary 144.Primitive/Base Data Types 145.Enumerated Data Types 15Appendix B: Other Physical Encodings 16Appendix C: Version History 18Changes from Version 4.0 18Copyright Notice 19File: Business-Data-Architecture-DatatypePage 2 of 19Version: 7.0Status: FinalIssue Date: 24/06/2014

ISB-000076 - Business Data Architecture Data Types1INTRODUCTIONThis document provides a definition of the data types in the ESCS ISB Business Data Architecture, Business Data Standards andTechnical Data Standards.The ISB Business Data Architecture and Business Data Standards identify logical data designs that can be used as the basis of: a system design,an operational data store,data exchange standards.Details can be found in: 2“Business Data Architecture (Enterprise Data Architecture for the ESCS) ISB 000108 ureBusiness Data Standards Overview and Context data-standards-overview-andcontextREQUIREMENTS OF THE ISB BUSINESS DATA ARCHITECTUREThe methodology used by the ISB for development of the Business Data Standards is based on Entity Relationship modelling (forfurther information on the methodology used please refer to the document BDA-Data-Architecture-Standards available from the ISBSecretariat and due to be published on the ISB web site). Entity Relationship Modelling covers the design of entities and attributes.Attributes in an Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) require certain meta data be assigned to them and one of the meta data items isthe data type. The objective of this document is to1) identify the data types required by the ERD model for use when developing Business Data Standards2) identify the meta data available for each data type3) identify the difference between the data types used for the logical Business Data Standards and those that would be used fora specific encoding4) provide a number of examples of encoding specific translations of the ERD data typesFile: Business-Data-Architecture-DatatypePage 3 of 19Version: 7.0Status: FinalIssue Date: 24/06/2014

ISB-000076 - Business Data Architecture Data Types3PRINCIPLES3.1Data TypesWithin any data design, it is necessary to be specific about the nature of information so that all users can interpret data in aconsistent way. Data stored in a computer is held as a string of bits (0 or 1). However, the value 0011001000110000 can meaneither the ASCII characters “20” or the decimal number 12848. Computers interpret the string of bits depending upon its context.Context is made specific in any programming language by specifying the data type.There are commonly two categories of data type (see 6.4 below):1) Primitive data types –eg Integer, Character2) Object (or user defined class) data types – eg, enumerationTo determine whether we have a primitive data type or object (user class) data type we can use the following acid test – “Can Iassign an in stream value to the data type in a program?” ie variable name 1. If the variable name has been defined with aprimitive data type such as an integer data type then we can. However, if we wanted to use a data type of enumerated we firsthave to create a new object data type class. If we wanted to define an enumerated data type of FRUIT with the restricted values ofAPPLE, ORANGE or GRAPE we first have to define the scope of the enumerated data type and its underlying primitive data type.Thus if we say that APPLE 0, ORANGE 1 and GRAPE 2, we have assigned the primitive data type to be an integer and so thepossible values of FRUIT are cast to that primitive data type. We can now use the new object data type of FRUIT within ourprogram and it will have only the values of APPLE, ORANGE and GRAPE available to it. We cannot, as in our acid test above,assign a new value of PEACH to FRUIT by simply stating FRUIT PEACH. Therefore, an enumerated data type is not a primitivedata type. For further information on enumerated data types see section 6.53.2Reference Data ValidationWhen defining a data architecture the application of validation rules to reference data attributes requires a specific methodologyapproach for the following reasons:1. Validation rules are application and context specific. An example is age. If the age of a person was restricted to the range 199 and the particular contextual use of a person was school children, the restriction to a maximum of 99 would be excessiveFile: Business-Data-Architecture-DatatypePage 4 of 19Version: 7.0Status: FinalIssue Date: 24/06/2014

ISB-000076 - Business Data Architecture Data Types2. Validation rules can change. Again for the above age example, a specific policy area may consider a child as being aspecific age range. However, if there is a policy change then that age range may be adjusted3. In a data exchange environment, different systems may have different requirements for validation. A school MIS system mayonly hold information around children whereas an Operational Data Store could hold data around children, workforce andorganisations. The school MIS may need require a certain level of validation before it will accept the information if it isinvolved in a business 2 business exchange, whereas the ODS is interested in just reflecting the data in the enterprise andso will have a much lower validation requirement.4. The resulting data block schema design supports many data exchanges through a common schema. As each use of thesame data block can be for various contextual purposes, and we don’t want to impact the data exchange interfaces when avalidation range changes, data types are not enumerated in the schemaTo support the above principles, the Business Data Architecture does not constrain Business Data Standards attribute data typeswith range based validation rules (ie Learner age not 3 and not 20). It instead defines the common enterprise data thatapplications should ideally use when needed through the provision of the size of ranges (age field length is Integer 999) forimplementers considering transfer and storage capabilities and this ensures interoperability.The actual validation ranges for an application to apply to a reference type entity are provided through the provision of a ControlledList. Each Controlled List defines a specific list of values that a logical data item may take. The way these values are representedfor data exchange is defined in the relevant Controlled List and Technical Data Standards.Consequently, the strategy and principles for applying range validation rules is the responsibility of each application.3.3Data Types used by the ISB Business Data ArchitectureThe ISB Business Data Architecture decouples contextual use and validation ranges from the data model attributes for the reasonsexplained in sections 3.2. Therefore, the Business Data Standards only require the assignment of a primitive data type to eachattribute. Object or user class data types would be assigned as required for the specific encoding, program language or solution asthe methods used can vary. As the intention of this document is to support the Business Data Standards ERD model data typerequirements then only primitive data types are considered.File: Business-Data-Architecture-DatatypePage 5 of 19Version: 7.0Status: FinalIssue Date: 24/06/2014

ISB-000076 - Business Data Architecture Data Types3.4Logical vs Physical Primitive Data TypesWhilst all computer languages and databases use primitive data types they vary slightly in the names they use for the sameprimitive data type concept. As such there is a need to define these data types in a manner that is free from any specific tool, but ina way that can readily be realised within any tool. This implementation-independent design is called a “logical” representation.Implementation-specific designs are called “physical” representations.We define a number of primitive logical data types in this document. We also provide examples of a number of physicalrepresentations of these logical data types. This is illustrated as follows:It is expected that most data will be interchanged using XML, so this document includes a standard conversion between the logicaldata types and XML schema data types used in the set of related Technical Data Standards provided by ISB. Implementers arerequired to conform to these Technical Data Standards to ensure the correct exchange of data between systems.Other physical data representations, such as CSV, are possible but are not generally recommended as there are no standards forCSV or agreed data type declarations and so could produce data conversion problems when used across different systems ortools. Where CSV is a supported representation of data, encoding details will be specified in the relevant Technical Data Standard(TDS).File: Business-Data-Architecture-DatatypePage 6 of 19Version: 7.0Status: FinalIssue Date: 24/06/2014

ISB-000076 - Business Data Architecture Data TypesExamples of physical representations of data types are also provided as appendices for Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle databasesystems. These are provided for illustration only to aid implementers in choosing the data types to use. See Appendix BOther physical data representations may be added by ISB if they are required in the future.File: Business-Data-Architecture-DatatypePage 7 of 19Version: 7.0Status: FinalIssue Date: 24/06/2014

ISB-000076 - Business Data Architecture Data Types4ESCS LOGICAL PRIMITIVE DATA TYPESThe following table describes the labels and definitions for those Logical Primitive Data Types used in the Business DataStandards. When compiling a list of logical data types to use, it was observed that XML refers to Simple Elements as being thebase data item, Java refers to data types as Simple Integer, Simple Decimal, etc. Oracle also uses the Simple Integer data type.Therefore, the following table uses this standard by applying the prefix of “Simple” to the commonly used data types. Only theUnicode String data type is exempt from this as to reflect this data type in XML it uses the Simple String with the application of theUTF8 character set encoding.Data TypeDescriptionParametersType ValidationNotesSimple String (a,b)A string of characters eachselected from the basicASCII character set (seeAppendix A).a minimum lengthWithin lengthconstraints.May be used forelements withconstrained value ranges,eg element IDUnicode String(a,b)A string of characters eachselected from the UnicodeCharacter Database (seeAppendix A).a minimum lengthSimple Integer(a,b)A signed numeric wholenumber value.a minimum digitsFile: Business-Data-Architecture-Datatypeb maximum lengthBasic ASCIIcharacter set only.b maximum lengthb maximum digitsPage 8 of 19Within lengthconstraints.For general purpose textfields and user enteredinformationWithin data typerange.Version: 7.0Status: FinalIssue Date: 24/06/2014

ISB-000076 - Business Data Architecture Data TypesData TypeDescriptionParametersType ValidationNotesSimple Decimal(p,s)Signed decimal value withprecision p and scale s.For example, a monetaryvalue limited to 2 decimalplaces.p maximum number ofdigitsWithin precision andscale.Eg Simple Decimal(7,2) 99999.99s maximum number ofdigits to the right of decimalpointSimple FlagBoolean.Allowed values only. The recommendedvalues are “Y” or “N”. Dueto this restriction, theactual data types used inencodings will be suitablefor handling characterdata of the values “Y” or“N” onlySimple DateDate informationcontaining year, month andday.A valid date.Simple TimeTime informationcontaining hour(s),minute(s) and second(s).May include fractions of asecond.A valid time using a24-hour clock withina specified timezone.File: Business-Data-Architecture-DatatypePage 9 of 19Version: 7.0Status: FinalMidnight is 0 hours, 0minutes, 0 seconds.Issue Date: 24/06/2014

ISB-000076 - Business Data Architecture Data TypesData TypeDescriptionSimple Date TimeDate and time informationtogether.Simple Binary(a,b)Object stored as encodedbinary data. For example,a picture.File: Business-Data-Architecture-DatatypeParametersType ValidationNotesSee above.a minimum lengthb maximum lengthPage 10 of 19Within lengthconstraints.Version: 7.0Status: FinalIssue Date: 24/06/2014

ISB-000076 - Business Data Architecture Data Types5XML SCHEMA PRIMITIVE DATA TYPESThis section maps the logical primitive data types to XML schema primitive data types for data exchange. These mappings applyconsistently across all XML Technical Data Standards produced by ECSC ISB.Logical Data TypeXML Schema Data TypeConstraintsReferenceSimple String (a,b)stringminLength aBasic ASCII character setonlymaxLength /#stringstringminLength aUTF-8 encoding is usedmaxLength bUnicode String (a,b)See Appendix A for character set 040318/#stringSee Appendix A for character set detailsSimple Integer (a,b)integer(a) parameter – no equivalentin 18/#integertotalDigits bSimple Decimal (p,s)decimaltotalDigits pfractionDigits /#decimalSimple Flagstringpattern 040318/#stringSimple mehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO 8601File: Business-Data-Architecture-DatatypePage 11 of 19Version: 7.0Status: FinalIssue Date: 24/06/2014

ISB-000076 - Business Data Architecture Data TypesLogical Data TypeXML Schema Data TypeConstraintsReferenceSimple Timetimehh:mm:ss(.sss)[Z ( -)hh:mm]http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-datetimeseconds and additionalfractions of time such ashundredths of seconds areoptionalhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO 8601CCYY-MMDDThh:mm:ss(.sss)[Z ( )hh:mm]http://www.w3.org/TR/NOTE-datetimeSimple Date TimedateTimehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO 8601seconds and additionalfractions of time such ashundredths of seconds areoptionalSimple Binary(a,b)base64BinaryminLength amaxLength bFile: Business-Data-Architecture-DatatypePage 12 of 8/#base64BinaryVersion: 7.0Status: FinalIssue Date: 24/06/2014

ISB-000076 - Business Data Architecture Data TypesAPPENDIX A: NOTES1. Decimal notation“p” specifies the maximum total number of decimal digits available, both to the left and to the right of the decimal point. Theprecision must be a value from 1 through to the maximum precision.“s” specifies the maximum number of decimal digits available to the right of the decimal point. Scale must be a value from 0through to p. Scale can be specified only if precision is specified. The default scale is 0; therefore, 0 s p.2. ASCII, Unicode and UTF-8Character standards are needed to define consistent representations and manipulation of text expressed or used in writingsystems.The Unicode character standard lists the characters from the alphabets used around the world (including Latin, Cyrillic, Farsi etcetc) within the Unicode Character Database. This specifies each character from each alphabet and assigns to each a uniquenumber. Unicode standards are maintained by the Unicode Consortium, a non-profit organisation that coordinates Unicode'sdevelopment. See http://www.unicode.org/.ESCS ISB has approved data types that can contain the basic ASCII character set (referred to as Basic Latin (ASCII)) and theextended Latin Unicode character set. The approved list is based on the XML 1.0 character range (Section 2.2 Characters). Thisincludes: U 0009, U 000A, U 000D U 0020–U D7FF, U E000–U FFFD: all surrogates, U FFFE and U FFFF are forbidden; U 10000–U 10FFFF: this includes all code points in supplementary planes, including non-characters.The following controls are only valid in certain contexts in XML 1.0 documents, and therefore prohibited U 007F–U 0084, U 0086–U 009F: this includes a C0 control character and all but one C1 control.To see how to use special characters refer to W3Schools.com – CharactersThe following are the references to the code pages that cover the above. When referring to the following always observe therestrictions above:File: Business-Data-Architecture-DatatypePage 13 of 19Version: 7.0Status: FinalIssue Date: 24/06/2014

ISB-000076 - Business Data Architecture Data Types1.Basic Latin (ASCII): page with code points U 0000 to U 007F2.Latin-1 Supplement: page with code point U 0080 to U 00FF3.Latin Extended A: page with code points U 0100 to U 017F4.Latin Extended B: page with code points U 0180 to U 024F5.Latin Extended C: page with code points U 2C60 to U 2C7F6.Latin Extended D: page with code points U A720 to U A7FF7.Latin Extended Additional: page with code points U 1E00 to U 1EFFThe Unicode Consortium also recommends use of the UTF-8 encoding for the physical encoding of the Unicode CharacterDatabase. Support for the transfer of UTF-8 (Unicode Transformation Format) is required within a physical TDS. This is a variablelength encoding of the full Unicode character set whilst also giving an effic

The ISB Business Data Architecture decouples contextual use and validation ranges from the data model attributes for the reasons explained in sections 3.2. Therefore, the Business Data Standards only require the assignment of a primitive data type to each attribute. Object or user class data types would be assigned as required for the specific encoding, program language or solution as the .

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