CIVIL PROCEDURE CODE

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CIVILPROCEDURECODESections 9 – 10Jurisdiction & Res SubjudiceDelhi Law Academy – India‟s Finest Law CoachingJudicial Services, LLM Entrancewww.delhilawacademy.comAll materials, copyrights and trademarks are rights of their respective owners

CIVILPROCEDURETOPIC 1:CODEJURISDICTION OF CIVIL COURTSSection 9 Courts shall have jurisdiction to try all suits of a civil nature except– suits whose cognizance is either expressly or impliedly barredExplanatory Notes from DLA:Suits of Civil Nature:A suit in which right to property is contested – is a suit of a civil natureA suit in which right to an office is contested – is a suit of a civil natureQuestion:Will such a suit be still of a civil nature if the right depends entirely on questions of religious rites or ceremonies?Ans:A suit in which right to property or to an office is contested is a suit of a civil nature even when such right depends entirely on questions of religious ritesor ceremoniesNormal rule regarding jurisdiction of civil courts:The court would normally lean in favour of a construction which would uphold retention of jurisdiction of the civil court.2Coaching for Judicial Services, DU LLB and CLAT www.delhilawacademy.com

Burden of proof regarding jurisdiction of civil courtsThe burden of proof in this behalf shall lie on the party who asserts that the civil court‟s jurisdiction is ousted.Authority: Dwarka Prasad Aggarwal v. Ramesh Chandra Aggarwal [2003 SC]Question:How can jurisdiction of Civil Courts be excluded? Ans:Exclusion of jurisdiction of Civil Courts is not to be readily inferred, but such exclusion must either be explicitly expressed or clearly implied.Authority: Secretary of State v. Mask[1940 PC]Where jurisdiction of civil courts is expressly barred:Example 1:Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands Act, 1948:Section 85No Civil Court shall have jurisdiction to decide any Question. which is under this Act required to be decided by the Mamlatdar.No order of the Mamlatdar. made under this Act shall be questioned in any Civil or Criminal Court.Example 2: Rajasthan Rent Control Act 2001 :Section 18(1)Only the Rent Tribunal and no civil court– shall have jurisdiction to hear and decide petitions– on disputes between a landlord and tenant under this ActQuestion Where in a suit for specific performance an issue arises whether the plaintiff isan agriculturist or not, would the Civil Court have jurisdiction to decide theissue?3Coaching for Judicial Services, DU LLB and CLAT www.delhilawacademy.com

Ans By an express provision contained in S. 85 of the Tenancy Act, jurisdiction ofthe Civil Court to decide any question under the Tenancy Act required to bedecided by the competent authority is ousted. There is, therefore, no escape from the fact that the legislature has expresslyousted the jurisdiction of the Civil Court to decide any question which is underthe Tenancy Act required to be decided by the Mamlatdar By camouflage of treating issues arising in a suit as substantial or incidental orprincipal or subsidiary, Civil Court cannot arrogate to itself jurisdictionwhich is statutorily ousted.Source: Gundaji Satwaji Shinde v. Ramchandra Bhikaji Joshi [1979 SC]Where jurisdiction of civil courts is impliedly barred:Example:Industrial disputes:Appropriate form for resolution of an industrial dispute is the forum constituted under the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947. Jurisdiction of CivilCourts is impliedly barred in such cases.Authority: C.T. Nikam v. Municipal Corporation of Ahmedabad [2002 SC]Question:Which law is to be applied for determining jurisdiction of court, existing law on the date of institution of suit or on the date on which the suit comes up forhearing ?Ans:If court has jurisdiction to try the suit when it comes for disposal, it then cannot refuse to assume jurisdiction by reason of the fact that it had nojurisdiction to entertain it at the date of institution of suit question.Authority: Sudhir Angur4v.M Sanjeev [2006 SC]Coaching for Judicial Services, DU LLB and CLAT www.delhilawacademy.com

Question:What is the Basis for determining jurisdiction? Ans:The question of jurisdiction is to be determined primarily on the averments made in the plaint.Authority: Ramesh Chand v. Anil Panjwani [2003 SC]Question:Whether jurisdiction can be conferred on a civil court by agreement?Ans:By agreement the parties cannot confer jurisdiction where none exists on a court to which the Code applies. But this principle does not apply when theparties agree to submit to the jurisdiction of a foreign court.Authority: Modi Entertainemnt Network v. WSG Cricket [2003 SC]**********************5Coaching for Judicial Services, DU LLB and CLAT www.delhilawacademy.com

TOPIC 2:STAY OF SUIT:RES SUB JUDICESection 10No Court shall proceed with the trial of any suit – in which the matter in issue is also directly and substantially in issue– in a previously instituted suit between the same parties or betweenparties under whom they claimwhere such suit is pending – in the same or any other Court in India or– before the Supreme CourtExplanationPendency of a suit in a foreign Court – does not preclude Courts in India from trying a suit founded on thesame cause of actionExplanatory Notes from DLA:OBJECT OF SECTION 10The object of the prohibition contained in Section 10 is to prevent the Courts of concurrent jurisdiction from simultaneously trying two parallel suits andalso to avoid inconsistent findings on the matters in issue.SCOPE OF SECTION 10The provision is in the nature of a rule of procedure and does not affect the jurisdiction of the Court to entertain and deal with the later suit nor does itcreate any substantive right in the matters. It is not a bar to the institution of a suit. It has been construed by the Courts as not a bar of the passing ofinterlocutory orders such as an order for consolidation of the later suit with6Coaching for Judicial Services, DU LLB and CLAT www.delhilawacademy.com

the earlier suit or appointment of a Receiver or an injunction or attachmentbefore judgment.The course of action which the Court has to follow according to Section 10 is not to proceed with the ‘trial’ of the suit but that does not mean that it cannotdeal with the subsequent suit any more or for any other purpose.Fundamental test for applicability of section 10The fundamental test to attract section 10 is whether on final decision being reached in the previous suit, such decision would operate as res judicata in thesubsequent suit. Section 10 applies only in a case where the whole of thesubject matter in both the suits is identical.The words “directly and substantially in issue” are used in contra-distinction to “incidentally or collaterally in issue”. Therefore section 10 would apply onlyif there is identity of the matter in issue in both the suits.Source: National Institute of Mental Health v. C Parameshwara [2005 SC]Meaning of ‘TRIAL’ in section 10The word „trial‟ is no doubt of a very wide import. In legal parlance it means a judicial examination and determination of the issue in civil or criminal Courtby a competent Tribunal.According to Webster Comprehensive Dictionary, it means the examination, before a tribunal having assigned jurisdiction, of the facts or law involved inan issue in order to determine that issue.Thus in its widest sense it would include all the proceedings right from the stage of institution of a plaint in a civil case to the stage of final determinationby a judgment and decree of the Court.The word “trial” in Section 10 will have to be interpreted and construed keeping in mind the object and nature of that provision.7Coaching for Judicial Services, DU LLB and CLAT www.delhilawacademy.com

SECTION 10v.ORDER 37The provision contained in Section 10 is a general provision applicable to all categories of cases. The provisions contained in Order 37 apply to certainclauses of suits.One provides a bar against proceeding with the trial of a suit, the other provides for granting of quick relief.Both these provisions have to be interpreted harmoniously so that the objects of both are not frustrated.The stage of determination of the matter in issue will arise in a summary suit only after the defendant obtains leave. The trial would really begin only afterleave is granted to the defendant.The word „trial‟ in Section 10 in the context of a summary suit cannot be interpreted to mean the entire proceedings starting with institution of the suitby lodging a plaint.Question:Whether the bar to proceed with the trial of subsequently instituted suit, contained in Section 10 of the Code of Civil Procedure is applicable to asummary suit filed under Order 37 of the Code?Ans: In a summary suit the ‘trial’ really begins after the Court or the Judge grantsleave to the defendant to contest the suit.the Court dealing with the summary suit can proceed up to the stage of hearing the summons for judgment and passing the judgment in favour of theplaintiff if– (a) the defendant has not applied for leave to defend or if suchapplication has been made and refused or– (b) the defendant who is permitted to defend fails to comply with theconditions on which leave to defend is grantedSource: Indian Bank v. Maharashtra Co-Op. Marketing Federation [1998 SC]8Coaching for Judicial Services, DU LLB and CLAT www.delhilawacademy.com

Question: Can a civil court pass an order in contravention of section 10?Ans:Section 10 enacts merely a rule of procedure and a decree passed in contravention thereof is not a nullity.Where a subsequently instituted suit can be decided on purely legal points without taking evidence, it is always open to the court to decide the relevantissues and not to keep the suit pending which has been instituted with anoblique motive and to cause harassment to the other side.Source: Pukhraj Jain v. Gopal Krishna [2004 SC]LIMITATIONS OF SECTION 10The language of section 10 suggests that it is referable to a suit instituted in a civil court and it cannot apply to proceedings of other nature instituted underany other statute.******************9Coaching for Judicial Services, DU LLB and CLAT www.delhilawacademy.com

CIVIL PROCEDURE CODE Sections 9 – 10 Jurisdiction & Res Subjudice Delhi Law Academy – India‟s Finest Law Coaching Judicial Services, LLM Entrance www.delhilawacademy.com All materials, copyrights and trademarks are rights of their respective owners

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