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AuthorsJonathan Davies, Claire Ogali, Lydia Slobodian,Guyo Roba, Razingrim OuedraogoInternational Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)EditorsGregorio Velasco-Gil and Natasha MaruPastoralist Knowledge Hub of theFood and Agriculture Organization ofthe United Nations (FAO)Published bythe Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nationsandthe International Union for Conservation of NatureRome, 2018

The designations employed and the presentation of materialin this information product do not imply the expression of anyopinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and AgricultureOrganization of the United Nations (FAO), or of the InternationalUnion for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) concerning the legalor development status of any country, territory, city or area or ofits authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers orboundaries. The mention of specific companies or products ofmanufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, doesnot imply that these have been endorsed or recommended byFAO or IUCN in preference to others of a similar nature that arenot mentioned. The views expressed in this information productare those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect theviews or policies of FAO or IUCN.ISBN 978-92-5-131112-7 FAO, 2018FAO encourages the use, reproduction and dissemination ofmaterial in this information product. Except where otherwiseindicated, material may be copied, downloaded and printedfor private study, research and teaching purposes, or for use innon-commercial products or services, provided that appropriateacknowledgement of FAO as the source and copyright holder isgiven and that FAO’s endorsement of users’ views, products orservices is not implied in any way.All requests for translation and adaptation rights, andfor resale and other commercial use rights should be made or addressed information products are available on the FAO website( and can be purchased

ContentsForewordviiAcknowledgementsixAbbreviations and acronymsxExecutive summaryxiA progressive movement:an introduction to pastoral mobility1What is pastoralism?2Why is pastoralism important?6Reasons for transboundary pastoralism9The future of pastoral mobility and the implications fortransboundary pastoralismChallenges and opportunities fortransboundary pastoralismBarriers and boundaries to transboundary pastoralism131717Requirements and considerations for sustainable and safetransboundary movementLegal principles and approaches fortransboundary pastoralism2429Legal concepts relevant to transboundary pastoralism29Legal approaches to governing transboundary pastoralism35International legal principles and frameworks supportingtransboundary pastoralism38Summary53Types of legal arrangements fortransboundary pastoralism55Bilateral treaties55Regional mechanisms56National legislation58Local arrangements60Non-binding arrangements: plans, platforms and MoUs61legal and policy arrangements for cross-border pastoralismiii

Content of legal arrangementsCrossing boundariesiv65Substantive provisions65Processes for permits and border crossings70Institutional structure71Conclusions and recommendations75References81Legal instruments88

List of boxesBox 1.Protecting the environmental benefits of transhumance4Box 2.Management of transboundary ecosystems in Eastern Europe7Box 3.Pastoral conservation practices9Box 4.Cure Salée, the Niger10Box 5.Pastoralists’ views on sedentarization14Box 6.Support for transboundary pastoralism23Box 7.Frontier grazing law in Europe25Box 8.Pastoral infrastructure in Northern Cameroon33Box 9.ECOWAS Decision on regulation of transhumance37Box 10. National legislation governing transboundary pastoralism:Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan58Box 11. Facerias: local agreements between France and Spain60Box 12. The Sudan and South Sudan: local arrangements and peace62legal and policy arrangements for cross-border pastoralismv

FAO/Eran Raizman

ForewordMongolia: Pastoralist herdinghis flock on horsebackMobility is one of the most defining features of pastoralism. Pastoralists movewith their livestock herds in search of water and pasture. These movementsmay be within national territories or cross country borders; they may adhereto fixed predictable routes or follow flexible patterns that respond to localconditions. Strategic mobility allows pastoralists to adapt to variable weatherconditions and produce food in constrained rangeland ecosystems.While mobility has been key in generating the environmental and economic benefits of pastoralism, it has also contributed to the negative perceptionof pastoralism. Historically, policies to forcefully sedentarize pastoralists andrestrict their movement, especially across national frontiers, have affectedmillions of pastoralist livelihoods across the world and sometimes resulted inviolent conflict. With increasing pressures on pastoral resources from population growth, expanding agriculture and industry, climate change and adversepolicies, the need to safeguard pastoral resource access through mobility hasbecome even more acute.There is, however, a growing recognition of the rationale of mobility forsustainable pastoralism. FAO’s Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of NationalFood Security – notably the Technical Guide, Improving governance of pastoral lands – and the African Union Policy Framework for Pastoralism in Africareflect this awareness of the importance of communal access to resources.Regional economic commissions are also facilitating transboundary mobility;for example, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)regulations on transhumance between member countries provide guidelineson how to organize domestic and transboundary mobility. In addition, severalcountries have entered into bilateral agreements to facilitate transhumanceon a voluntary basis. Moreover, these policies are embedded within a development, conservation and human rights discourse reflected in establishedprecedents in international law.These instruments, policies and agreements can serve as effective examples on which other countries may draw when designing their own transhumance policies. Initiated by the Pastoralist Knowledge Hub of the Foodand Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and authored byJonathan Davies, Claire Ogali, Lydia Slobodian, Guyo Roba and RazingrimOuedraogo of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN),this publication provides a review of various legal and policy arrangements,and offers successful examples of pastoral mobility from across the world.It aims to inspire and inform action by governments and civil society actorsto develop legislation and other forms of legal instruments and cooperativeagreements for transboundary and policy arrangements for cross-border pastoralismvii

While this document provides an overview of various legal instrumentswith a view to supporting future policymaking regarding pastoral mobility,it must be borne in mind that pastoralist contexts are dynamic and variable.Even if they have many aspects in common, pastoralist contexts differ fromplace to place and from landscape to landscape. Therefore, any policy recommendations must be made with caution and with a degree of flexibility toallow pastoralists to adapt to and manoeuvre their ever-changing landscapes.Nevertheless, the growing global drive towards sustainability – demonstratedby the Sustainable Development Goals adopted in 2015 – provides new opportunities to re-enable and adapt pastoral mobility in order to safeguard therole of pastoralists as stewards of the world’s vast and precious rangelands.Crossing boundariesviiiStewart MaginnisBerhe G. TekolaGlobal DirectorNature-based Solutions GroupIUCNDirectorAnimal Production and Health DivisionFAO

AcknowledgementsThis review “Crossing boundaries: Legal and policy arrangements for crossborder pastoralism” was authored by a team from the International Union forConservation of Nature (IUCN), led by Jonathan Davies and comprising ClaireOgali, Lydia Slobodian, Guyo Roba and Razingrim Ouedraogo. The work wasdone under the coordination and supervision of Gregorio Velasco-Gil andNatasha Maru of the Pastoralist Knowledge Hub of the Food and AgricultureOrganization of the United Nations (FAO).Several experts provided valuable input for the production of this document.The authors would like to thank Emmanuelle Moy for research assistance,and Katelijn van Hende, Yacouba Savadogo and Christina Allard for theirexpert contribution and advice. The authors are grateful to the many reviewersof the document who gave their detailed input, particularly Ann Waters-Bayer,Prolinnova and Coalition of European Lobbies for Eastern African Pastoralism(CELEP), and Jean-Pierre Biber, independent researcher. Thanks also go to colleagues at FAO, especially Vivian Onyango, Véronique Ancey, Serena Ferrariand Esther Akwii.The editors of the publication would also like to thank colleagues in the FAOLegal Office, especially Naomi Kenney, Eugenio Sartoretto and Carmen Bullonfor their expert review of this publication. They are also grateful to ClaudiaCiarlantini, Cristiana Giovannini and Ginevra Virgili of the FAO, for the wonderful design and layout, and to Ruth Duffy for the language editing.Finally, this publication was made possible through the financial supportof the German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture and FAO’s StrategicProgramme on Resilience. Sincere thanks are paid to them, and to all and policy arrangements for cross-border pastoralismix

Abbreviations and acronymsCrossing boundariesxAUAfrican UnionCACEUCentral African Customs and Economic UnionCBDConvention on Biological DiversityCBPPContagious bovine pleuropneumoniaCEBVCattle and Livestock Economic CommunityCFSCommittee on World Food SecurityCOMESACommon Market for Eastern and Southern AfricaCOPConference of the PartiesECOWASEconomic Community of West African StatesEUEuropean UnionFAOFood and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsFMDFoot-and-mouth diseaseFPICFree, prior and informed consentICHIntangible Cultural HeritageICJInternational Court of JusticeIGADIntergovernmental Authority on DevelopmentILOInternational Labour OrganizationIOEInternational Organisation for Animal HealthITCInternational Transhumance CertificateIUCNInternational Union for Conservation of NatureLDNLand degradation neutralityMoUMemorandum of understandingNAPNational Action ProgrammeOIEWorld Organisation for Animal HealthPPRPest of small ruminantsRECRegional Economic CommunityRVFRift Valley feverSDGSustainable Development GoalSPSSanitary and phytosanitary measuresUNCCDUnited Nations Convention to Combat DesertificationUNDRIPUnited Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous PeoplesUNESCOUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganizationVGGTVoluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance ofTenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context ofNational Food SecurityWFSWorld Food SummitWHCWorld Heritage ConventionWTOWorld Trade Organization

Executive summaryPastoralism is a livelihood and land-use system that is practised worldwidein grasslands and rangelands.1 A central feature of sustainable pastoralism isthe management of herd mobility to take advantage of the heterogeneousopportunities of rangelands and to manage risk. Despite the central role ofmobility in pastoral production systems, interventions and policies by manygovernments have tended to restrict mobility, whether deliberately or inadvertently. This has weakened pastoral livelihoods and resilience and has contributed in some cases to the increased degradation of rangelands and theirnatural resources.In many countries, pastoralism has historically been practised in areas thatare now partitioned by international boundaries. This is a major barrier tosustainable resources management and to pastoral development. However,there are examples from around the world of efforts to facilitate transboundary movements and transboundary ecosystem management by pastoralists.This report examines how pastoral mobility has been impacted by the creation of unnatural boundaries within pastoral landscapes and how societiesdeal with these constraints through legal or informal arrangements.1Pastoralists are found inapproximately three-quarters ofall countries and they numberbetween 200 and 500 million.The total land area occupiedand managed by pastoralistsis estimated at around onethird of the global land mass(McGahey et al., 2014).Reasons for transboundary pastoralismPastoralists cross international borders for a number of reasons, including toutilize heterogeneous and ephemeral resources, pursue trade and opportunities for livelihood diversification, and escape from risks and threats.Transboundary movements may have social and cultural reasons, for example to connect families or to participate in traditional events and meetings.Cross-border movements also generate economic and social ties, strengthening not only communication but also the capacity of pastoralists throughexchange of knowledge and information. Cross-border movements have alsosometimes been used to seek security and shelter.Rangeland ecosystems are often divided by national boundaries, andcross-border movements may be part of the seasonal cycle of pastoralists,providing access to dry- or wet-season grazing resources, or to winter orsummer pastures. These resources may only be used periodically, for exampleas a buffer during a drought or blizzard, but their value during such periodscan be extremely high, and the nature and strength of pastoralists’ claimsover them differ accordingly. When access to seasonal resources is curtailed,not only are pastoral risk management strategies weakened, but the rangeland resources themselves risk becoming degraded through the breakdownin patterns of rest and and policy arrangements for cross-border pastoralismxi

Challenges for transboundary pastoralismPastoralists face a number of barriers to transboundary resources management, the most obvious of which is the outright closure of frontiers. Frontiersmay be nominally closed without use of a physical barrier, but in some cases awall or fence is erected to ensure the closure is enforced. Closure of borders,or restriction of movement across borders, has frequently led to changes inherding practices and has undermined pastoralism in a number of ways, fromrestricting access to vital resources to narrowing the gene pool.Conflict in frontier areas can effectively close a border because of theheightened risk to pastoralists and their livestock. Pastoralists may find themselves living on the front line of conflict between two states. In some cases,the relative openness of borders in pastoral areas has been exploited byarmed groups, such as terrorist organizations, and this has placed additionalconstraints on pastoralists. Governments respond by protecting and closingtheir borders, and pastoralists are often blocked from accessing pastures andwater in neighbouring countries. This puts pressure on the resources withintheir limited reach and contributes to localized environmental degradation.Incoherence in policy between neighbouring states can create disincentives to movement, particularly if pastoralists fear that they will lose theirright to resource access and use in one country if they vacate the area, or ifconstraints to resource access are greater in one country than in the other.Differences between states in the way they respect the land and resourcerights of pastoralists may affect patterns of mobility and resources management.In an effort to control spread of disease, governments have frequentlyclosed their frontiers. Animal movements can facilitate the spread of pathogens over long distances, and quarantine measures usually impose restrictions on pastoralists. Concerns over contagious livestock diseases have frequently led to responses in pastoral areas. Less recognized is the impact ofcontrolling human diseases on transboundary management of animals. Therecent outbreak of Ebola in West Africa, for example, led to the closure of anumber of international borders and placed constraints on pastoralism.Regulation of cross-border trade may hinder the mobility of pastoralists,but can also play a facilitating role, particularly where governments recognizethe value of pastoralism and the benefits of promoting trade. However, governments often fear the flow of contraband across borders and this may leadto efforts to limit trade. Historically, cross-border trade has been intimatelyrelated to the exchange of culture, practices and knowledge. This exchangecan be lost when boundaries are closed and when cross-border trade is heavily restricted.Crossing boundariesxii

Support for transboundary pastoralismEnsuring sustainable and safe transboundary movement may require, inthe first instance, acceptance by both countries of the rights of pastoralistsand the rationale for, and merits of, herd mobility. To this end, numerouspublications have set out the logic and the merits of pastoralism, outliningthe responsibility of states towards their pastoral citizens. The FAO Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheriesand Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT – FAO, 2012a)address transboundary matters and provide good guidance to countries ontheir responsibility for respecting and upholding pastoral resources rights,despite those rights being held across borders.A number of legal principles and approaches have been established ininternational agreements and soft law2 which are relevant to developing legalarrangements for transboundary pastoralism. Relevant legal concepts includeor relate to: the bundle of rights; land tenure; communal and open accessrights; legal pluralism and customary law; participation; and free, prior andinformed consent (FPIC).Changing national legislative approaches to pastoral rights has an impacton the willingness of states to discuss transboundary arrangements. In recentdecades, legislation in several countries has begun to change in recognitionof mobile pastoralism as a legitimate and desirable form of land use. Thisincludes explicit recognition of the transboundary nature of pastoral naturalresources management. However, even when appropriate legal structures arein place, governments face challenges in implementation.Pastoralism is greatly affected by policy and investment in a number ofsectors. This can lead to overlap and conflict between different sectoral lawsrelevant to pastoralism, including forestry, land use, livestock, agriculture,water, decentralization and biodiversity. However, due to the cross-sectoralnature of the challenge, many international principles and agreements arerelevant to transboundary pastoralism, particularly with regard to environmental issues and human rights.2Soft law refers to rules thatare not legally binding andnot directly enforceable,although this does not meanthat they completely lack legalsignificance. Soft law includesinternational agreements,such as policy declarations andcodes of conduct.Legal arrangements for transboundarypastoralismLegal arrangements in support of cross-border pastoral mobility include bilateral treaties, regional agreements, decisions or protocols, national legislationthat provides for transnational movement, and local-level arrangements between communities or local government entities on either side of the border.A range of non-binding mechanisms also exist, such as joint policies, programmes or strategies, memoranda of understanding (MoUs), and informalcooperative arrangements facilitated by civil a

A progressive movement: an introduction to pastoral mobility 1 What is pastoralism? 2 . may be within national territories or cross country borders; they may adhere . This review “Crossing boundaries: Legal and policy arrangements for cross-

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