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US Department ofAgricultureForest ServiceNational Technology &Development Program2300—Recreation Mgmt0623 1201—SDTDCJune 2006 % 0!24-%452%%34 3%26)#%&/2.4 /& !'2)#5,Vehicle Barriers:Their Use and PlanningConsiderations

Vehicle Barriers: TheirUse and PlanningConsiderationsEllen Eubanks, Landscape ArchitectUSDA Forest ServiceSan Dimas Technology and Develoment CenterSan Dimas, CA 91773-3198June 2006Information contained in this document has been developed for the guidanceof employees of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service,its contractors, and cooperating Federal and State agencies. The USDA Forest Service assumes no responsibility for the interpretation or use of this information by other than its own employees. The use of trade, firm, or corporationnames is for the information and convenience of the reader. Such use doesnot constitute an official evaluation, conclusion, recommendation, endorsement, or approval of any product or service to the exclusion of others thatmay be suitable.The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all itsprograms and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status,religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, orbecause all or part of an individual’s income is derived from any public assistance program. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons withdisabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA’s TARGETCenter at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD). To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, 1400 Independence Avenue,S.W., Washington, D.C. 20250-9410, or call (800) 795-3272 (voice) or (202)720-6382 (TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

Table of ContentsFORWARD . 1INTRODUCTION . 1GENERAL DISCUSSION . 2Barrier TypesBollards . 3Fences. 4Gates . 6Large Rocks . 9Wooden Guardrails . 9Construction DrawingsBollards . 11Fences. 17Gates . 23Guardrails . 49Large Rocks . 65DEFINITIONS . 68WEB SITES . 69Acknowledgements . 69APPENDIX ATrail OHV-Width Limiter Gate and Nonmotorizd Trail Barriers . 70APPENDIX BObject and Barrier Markers on OHV routes . 73v

FORWARD/INTRODUCTIONFORWARDINTRODUCTIONThis publication discusses vehicle barriertypes, appropriate uses, and planningconsiderations. All barrier constructiondrawings are in the document, other fullsized drawings are on the U.S. Departmentof Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, SanDimas Technology and Development Center(SDTDC) Intranet site:http://fsweb.sdtdc.wo.fs.fed.us/.These barriers do not take the place of highway vehicle barriers or safety barriers on roads.Each year a greater number of visitorsin vehicles use the national forests andgrasslands, which increases the need forvehicle barriers. Barriers are one way todefine vehicle access and to restrict vehicleencroachment. The degree to which barriersblock vehicles varies (figures 1 and 2).Use the vehicle barriers described in thispublication at forest and grassland trailheads,picnic areas, and campgrounds, and at otherfacilities where vehicle control is needed toprotect natural resources and amenities. Thispublication is written for designers, managers,recreation and engineering staffs, trailmaintenance crews, and organized volunteertrail crews.Figure 1. Telephone pole guardrail.During the planning stage—and beforeinstalling a barrier—consult the Manualon Uniform Traffic Devices; FSH 7709.59,Chapter 10, Transportation System OperationsHandbook, the off-highway vehicle (OHV)policy; and EM-7100-15, Sign and PosterGuidelines for the Forest Service for propersigning (travel management signs) and safetyrequirements for barriers. (See appendix B.)Also, use these USDA Forest Service andU.S. Department of Transportation, FederalHighway Administration Web s.fed.us/eng/programs/signs.htm(see pages 11 through 15 for specifics onusing “Road Closed” ard.php?p num 0371%202812,andhttp://fsweb.r1.fs.fed.us/e/access and travelmgmt/atm index.shtml.(Scroll down to Field Implementation, click onATM Signing.)Figure 2. Steel framed width-limiter gate. This gateallows certain width vehicles through.1

GENERAL DISCUSSIONGENERAL DISCUSSIONBarrier design depends on an area’s intendeduse (for example, OHV use or day use forpicnicking); the area’s native materials; theRecreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS)classification; and the Built Environment ImageGuide (BEIG) character type (see Definitionson page 76). Designers and site managersdecide appropriate materials and placement ofbarriers.Figure 4. An extruded curb in a highly developedrecreation site.Consider vandalism as a factor in barrierplanning. Generally, wooden barriers are moreat risk because wood is used for campfires orcarving projects. Concrete barriers, althoughmore durable, easily succumb to vehicleramming or chipping from sledge hammers.Often metal is used as the rail portion of abarrier and is at risk from vehicle ramming, too.Some barriers keep vehicles within definedspaces such as on a road, within a spur, or ina specific parking area. (See figure 3.) Othersare meant to deter access to a road or trail.Most visitors recognize and respond to cluesand design features such as a simple curb.Use curbs to deter the majority of visitors fromdriving off-road. Curbs made of concrete orasphalt fit urban or rural ROS classificationswhile logs, native rock and stones, ormounded dirt act as curbs in less developedROS classifications. (See figures 4 and 5.)Figure 5. This rustic curb outlines a road.Plan for the strongest barriers in areas wherethere have been vehicle control problems and,in some cases, fabricate specialized barriersfor the vehicle type one is trying to control.(See figures 6 through 8.) In general, thelarger the vehicle and the more aggressive thedriver, the stronger the barrier needs to be. Tomake barriers more difficult to remove, use: Steel instead of wood. Small boulders. Larger diameter posts. Posts buried deeper. Posts set in concrete. Posts anchored with rebar spikes.Figure 3. These 4- by 4-inch timbers are wheelstops that indicate parking spaces.2

Barrier TypesTo anchor a 3- to 6-inch-diameter post, inserta rebar spike (longer than the post is wide)through the post near its bottom edge andset the post in concrete. If an area has smalldiameter trees, use two or three posts togetherto form a stronger post rather than one largepost that is out of scale for the area.Barrier TypesGenerally, barriers are divided into five types:bollards, fences, gates, large rocks, andwooden guard-rails. The barrier size and itsmaterial(s) vary depending on the problem’sseverity and the proper scale to fit with thesite’s resources. Combine materials. Forexample, use a wooden post and a steel railor plastic lumber made of recycled plastic. TheU.S. Department of the Interior’s YosemiteNational Park uses plastic lumber posts withwooden rails.Figure 6. This wood post and rail fence surrounds apicnic area.BollardsA bollard is a large post with no stringer or rail,commonly 1- to 4-feet tall, and used singly orgrouped. (See figures 9 through 11.)Figure 7. This width-limiter gate not onlyestablishes the vehicle size that can be on the trail,it also marks the forest boundary.Figure 9. Bollards define the site’s edge andseparate the road and the parking lot.Figure 8. This wood post and steel pipe railfence keeps motorcycles and ATVs on the roadand off the grass. Note the trail entrance in thebackground.3

Barrier TypesFencesA fence is a structure functioning as aboundary or barrier, usually made of posts,boards, wire, or rails.Purpose: Fences keep people and stock inor out of an area. Fences are not designed towithstand vehicular impact.How to use: Combine fences with a curb,bumper stop, wheel stop, or shrubbery toprevent vehicle intrusion.Where to use: Use fences for developedsites with urban, rural, and roaded naturalROS classifications. In wide-open spaces,use fences to line roads and trails to protectpastures and natural resources.Figure 10. Bollards outline the roadway, spurs, andcampsite areas.Materials: Use wood, metal, or plastic lumberin developed sites. On range lands, a woodenpost or steel t-post and wire fence is common.Openings between the wire strands of thefence allow small animals to go through thefence. A fieldstone wall—or rock fence—isappropriate in all ROS classifications, if therock is local.Construction techniques: Pound steel tposts into the ground or dig in a wooden post.String with wire or barbed wire (depending onanimal type) and use a come-along to tightenthe wire strands. See figures 12 through 15.The following Web site has wire-fence details:Figure 11. Bollards keep vehicles away from technical references/engineering/engdrawings.htmlPurpose: Bollards block vehicle entry.How to use: Use bollards to define edgessuch as the edge of a campground road,parking lot, or pedestrian entrance. Whenbollards define a pedestrian entrance, spacethem 32 inches apart to allow pedestrianand wheelchair passage; when they define aboundary, space close together.This Web site has information on fieldstonefenceshttp://www.dswa.org.uk/Publication framespage.htm.Note: If the fence spans a stream or drywash, use a three-strand wire fence to ensurepassage of floodwater and debris.Where to use: Use at developed sites withurban and rural ROS classifications.Materials: Make bollards out of wood,concrete, steel, or plastic lumber posts.Construction techniques: Followinstructions for a fence post.4

Barrier TypesFigure 14. Double post stacked rail fence.Figure 12. Wooden and steel t-post wire fence.Figure 15. This low wall is held together withmortar; it is similar to using fieldstones to build arock fenceFigure 13. Wooden fence with two strands ofbarbed wire.5

Barrier TypesGatesGates allow passage; they may or may notswing open. (See figure 16.) Secure gatesto a fence or a substantial natural feature toprevent people from driving around them.Construction techniques: See constructiondrawings and the USDA Forest ServiceMissoula Technology and DevelopmentCenter’s 2006 publication Accessible Gates forTrails and Roads by James “Scott” e GatesPurpose: A right-angle gate creates apassageway for pedestrians and stock. (Seefigures 17 and 18.)Figure 16. Schematic of kissing gate—designedto allow wheelchair access while blocking ATVaccess.Accessible Kissing GatesPurpose: The accessible kissing gate hastwo openings: a swing gate secures oneopening while a person passes through theother. This gate allows wheelchair access andblocks motor vehicle access, including allterrain vehicles (ATVs).Figure 17. This wooden fence includes tworight angle turns. The width of the opening is amaximum of 32 inches (nonaccessible).How to use: Use for pedestrian andwheelchair access, while blocking stock,motorcycle, and ATV access.Where to use: Use at an accessible site. Thisgate requires flat ground, an area at least 71/2-feet square for the gate, and an additionalarea for entry and exit paths.Materials: Build the kissing gate out of woodor steel.Figure 18. This gate has a single right angle turnand may not be as effective at keeping motorcyclesout of an area.6

Barrier TypesHow to use: Use a u-turn opening with two rightangle turns, which prevent motorizedvehicle entry. A vehicle is blockedbecause the vehicle is either too wideor too long to make the right-angle turnsrequired for passage. This is not anaccessible gate. Use a one right-angle turn openingto keep out vehicles. This is not aseffective as a u-turn pattern.Figure 20. This double gate is used at an OHVarea.Where to use: Use where motorized vehiclesare prohibited.How to use: Close and lock the gate.Materials: Use wood, steel, or a combinationof both.Where to use: Use at the entrance to a roador facility.Construction techniques: Use wooden orsteel posts with wooden or pipe rails. Seeconstruction drawings.Materials: Use steel pipe to form posts andsteel guardrail material or pipe to form therails. Attach a travel management sign.Construction techniques: See constructiondrawings.Steel Road GatesPurpose: Steel road gates prevent vehicleentry to roads, trails, and other closedareas, such as administrative roads andcampgrounds. (See figures 19 and 20.)Steel Trail Gates1. Width-Limiter GatePurpose: This gate prevents certain widthvehicles from entering. (See figure 21.)Figure 21. This width-limiter gate is used attrailheads to block certain vehicle types and toallow access by other types. A cross-bar is in placeto close the trail to all uses.Figure 19. Standard Angeles National Forest roadgate. Note that large rocks and berms have beenplaced to block entry around the gate.7

Barrier TypesHow to use: Use this gate to limit the accessof four-wheel drive vehicles and ATVs whileallowing motorcycle access. (The 27-inch gateis not accessible.)Where to use: Use at the entrance to a trailor facility. This gate needs to be visible atthe trailhead and as one approaches whileriding. For safety reasons, do not let the gatecompletely blend in or disappear into thelandscape. On the other hand, do not let it bea focal point from a distance.Materials: Use steel pipes or used steel wellcasings.Figure 23. This nonmotorized trail barrier gate isshown with the upper bar closed, closing the trailto all traffic. A wire fence is attached to the gate toprevent people from skirting the gate.Construction techniques: See writtenfabrication instructions, and constructiondrawings.2. Nonmotorized Trail Barrier (Stock) GatePurpose: This gate allows stock andpedestrians on trails. (See figures 22 through25.) This gate is not accessible.Figures 24 and 25. A barbed wire fence is strungthrough the holes on the flange on the side of thepost. This prevents people from skirting the gate.Figure 22. This nonmotorized trail barrier gateallows pedestrians and stock to pass through.The gate is flanked by a steel rail fence to preventpeople from skirting the gate.How to use: Use at trail entry. Motorizedvehicle entry is impossible without heavyweight lifting (vehicle) or destruction ofproperty (government).Where to use: Use at the entrance to a trailor facility and where trail use designationchanges. Tie gates to a fence or a substantialnatural feature to prevent people from drivingaround them.8

Barrier TypesWooden GuardrailsWooden guardrails are a series of low poststied together by wooden rails.Materials: Use steel pipes that will withstandvehicle and equestrian bumps.Construction techniques: See photographs,construction drawings, and narrative inappendix A.Purpose: Guardrails block and controlvehicular access. (See figures 27 and 28.)Large RocksRocks are difficult to drive over in a standardautomobile and most drivers would not try.However, OHV users may view the rocks as achallenge. (See figure 26.)Figure 27. This guardrail delineates a parking lot.Figure 26. These grouped rocks were placed toprotect a fire hydrant.Purpose: Large rocks prevent people fromparking off the pavement and keep driverswithin designated parking areas. Rocks blockentry to decommissioned roads and trails.Figure 28. Close up view.How to use: Mimic nature by planting rocksin clusters of one to five and varying spacebetween the rocks and the clusters. Enda cluster of rocks where there is sufficientvegetation to prohibit vehicle entry.How to use: Combine guardrails with acurb, bumper stop, wheel stop, or shrubberyto increase effectiveness against vehicleintrusion.Where to use: Use where large rocks occurnaturally. If large rocks are not common, donot use them; they will appear out of place.Where to use: Use them to line roads orareas, such as trailheads or turnouts, in urbanand rural ROS classifications, and in limitedareas in a roaded natural ROS classification.Materials: Use barrier rocks that weigh 200 to400 pounds each.Materials: Combine materials, such asconcrete posts and wooden rails.Construction techniques: Bury one-third ofthe rock for stability, anchoring, and a morenatural look. See drawings.Construction techniques: See photographsand construction drawings, which include a nodig barrier.9

Construction DrawingsConstruction DrawingsThe following drawings show many differentbarriers. Some were described previously,others were not. The drawings are divided intofive types: bollards, fences, gates, large rocks,and wooden guardrails.10

BOLLARDS

1-1/2" CHAMFER1-1/2"4"8"6"2 EACH 1" x 8" DIA. PIPE,PLASTIC OR ELECTRICALCONDUIT SLEEVE1-1/2"5"1-1/2" CHAMFER3'-6"1-1/2"5"8"PLAN6"#3 REBAR2" CLEAR1-1/2" CHAMFER1-1/2"5"1-1/2"8"ELEVATIONPRECAST CONCRETE POST131-1/2"

1'-4 1/2"8 1/2"1 1/2"2"3"8 1/2"5"8 1/2"6"6"OPEN AREA FOR DEBRIS1/2" DIA. x 7" BOLT W/NUT & WASHERS (FORSUPPORT OF TIMBER POST)TRIM POST TO FITINSIDE STEEL TUBINGCONCRETE FOOTING1/2" DIA. x 7" BOLT W/NUT & WASHERS (FORSUPPORT OF TIMBER POST)6" x 4" x 3/16" STRUCTURALSTEEL TUBING4"CONCRETE FOOTING1/2" x 6" BOLT WITH"VANDALEGARD NUT"PADLOCK (GOVERNMENTFURNISHED)4" x 4" PLATEWITH STAPLE5 3/4" x 9" METAL PLATEWITH 180 HINGE1 1/2" DEEP HANDLEPOCKET4" x 6" x 5' TREATEDTIMBER POSTSIDE ELEVATIONFINISHED GRADE2" x 21" x 1/2" ROUTEDRECESS FOR "NO PARKING" SIGN1/2" NOTCH45 CHAMFERSTEEL SLEEVE DETAIL6" x 4" x 3/16" STRUCTURALSTEEL TUBING4" x 6" x 5' TREATEDTIMBER POST (POSTTO FIT INSIDE STEELTUBE)STEEL TUBE DETAIL1/2" DIA. x 7" BOLT W/NUT & WASHERS (FORSUPPORT OF TIMBER POST)6" x 4" x 3/16" STRUCTURALSTEEL TUBINGPLAN7"4"8 1/2"1'-0"FRONT ELEVATION2'-0"14

152"WOOD POST OR BOLLARD5" CRUSHED GRAVELMAX. SIZE 1-1/2"OPTIONAL: 8" - 10" DIA.PRESSURE TREATEDDOUGLAS FIR POST.LEAVE NATURAL ORSTAIN TO M

spaces such as on a road, within a spur, or in a specific parking area. (See figure 3.) Others are meant to deter access to a road or trail. Most visitors recognize and respond to clues and design features such as a simple curb. Use curbs to deter the majority of visitors from driving off-road. Curbs made of concrete or

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