Dictionary Of Aviation - THE AIRLINE PILOTS

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Dictionary ofAviationsecond edition

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Dictionary ofAviationsecond editionDavid CrockerA & C Black 앫 London

Originally published by Peter Collin Publishingas Dictionary of Aeronautical EnglishFirst edition published 1999Second edition published 2005 by Bloomsbury Publishing PlcReprinted 2007 byA&C Black Publishers Ltd38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HBCopyright David Crocker and Peter Collin Publishing Ltd. 1999Revisions and additional material A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007All rights reserved. No part of this publication maybe reproduced in any form or by any means without theprior written permission of the publishers.A CIP record for this book is available from the British LibraryeISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0226-8Text Production and ProofreadingKaty McAdam, Sandra Anderson, Heather Bateman, Emma HarrisThis book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managed,sustainable forests. It is natural, renewable and recyclable. The logging andmanufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of thecountry of origin.Text processed and typeset by A&C BlackPrinted in Spain by GraphyCems

PrefaceEnglish is the universal language of communication used in civil aviation. Thisdictionary provides the basic vocabulary of terms used by pilots, cabin staff,maintenance crews, ground staff and travellers worldwide. The terms are those usedin everyday work on aircraft, and cover parts of the aircraft, manipulating theaircraft on the ground and in the air, instructions to passengers, conversations withair traffic control, weather, emergencies, etc.Unlike conventional aeronautical dictionaries, the Dictionary of Aviation definesvocabulary often found in conjunction with the purely technical terms as well as thetechnical terms themselves. Simple explanations are presented in simple language,making the dictionary ideal for those working towards a private or commercialpilot’s licence, as well as trainee maintenance engineers and more experiencedprofessionals. We also give examples to show how the words are used in context.We have selected quotations from various specialised magazines to show the wordsand phrases as they are used in real-life situations. The supplements at the back givefurther information in the form of tables.We are particularly grateful to the staff at Qatar Aeronautical College for their helpin the production of the first edition of this dictionary. Thanks are also due toStephen Copeland and Gavin Rowden for specialist advice and helpful suggestionsduring the preparation of this new edition.The information contained in this dictionary is not to be regarded as a substitute forformal training in a given discipline.

Pronunciation GuideThe following symbols have been used to show the pronunciation of the mainwords in the dictionary.Stress is indicated by a main stress mark ( ) and a secondary stress mark ( ) .Note that these are only guides, as the stress of the word changes according to itsposition in the sentence.Vowels ɑ ɒa aυa əaυəɔ ɔ eeəe eυ i iə əuu poolbooktourshutbdðd f hjklmnŋprsʃttʃθvwx easurezone

Aviation.fm Page 1 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PMAAAIBAAIB abbreviation Air Accident Investigation BranchAARAAARA abbreviation air to air refuellingareaabbreviate /ə bri vie t/ verb toabbreviate shorten a word or a text 쑗 Air TrafficControl is usually abbreviated to ATC.왍 abbreviated weather report a shortened weather reportabbreviation /ə bri vi e ʃ(ə)n/ nounthe short form of a word or text 쑗 Aeronautical charts use abbreviations andsymbols. 쑗 Km is the abbreviation forkilometre.abbreviation COMMENT: Abbreviations can causeconfusion. They may range from thosewhich have a very specific meaning asdefined by an authoritative body, toothers which may come aboutbecause of personal usage in notemaking,etc.ICAOapprovedabbreviations may differ from thoseused in JARs. AC can mean‘alternating current’ or ‘altocumulus’.CPL is generally taken to meanCommercial Pilot’s Licence but theICAO definition is Current Flight Plan.Advancesintechnologyhavesignificantly increased the number ofabbreviations with which pilots andengineersmustbefamiliar.Abbreviations in this dictionary includethosewithgenerallyaccepteddefinitions and others with specificICAO definitions.ability /ə b l ti/ noun the power,ability knowledge or skill needed to do something 쑗 Strength is the ability of a material to support a load. 왍 he has greatability he has good skills or is verycleverable / e b(ə)l/ adjective skilful andcompetent 왍 to be able to to have thepower, knowledge, skill or strength todo something 쑗 Is she able to carry thisheavy suitcase?able-bodied / e b(ə)l bɒdid/ adjective referring to a person who has nophysical disabilities 쑗 Physically disadvantaged as well as able-bodied peoplecan gain a PPL.abnormal / b nɔ m(ə)l/ adjectivenot normalabnormality / bnɔ m l ti/ nounsomething that is not normal, expectedor correct, and is therefore possiblyworrying 쑗 Any abnormality in engineperformance should be checked.abnormal load / b nɔ m(ə)l ləυd/noun a load which is heavier than normalabort / ə bɔ t/ verb 1. to stop something taking place 쑗 They had to abortthe landing because of a violent storm2. to end something before it has finishedabsolute / bsəlu t/ adjective complete, total 왍 absolute necessity something that you cannot manage withoutunder any circumstances 왍 absolutesilence a condition in which no soundof any kind can be heardabsolute ceiling / bsəlu t si l ŋ /noun the maximum height above sealevel at which an aircraft can maintainhorizontal flightabsolute humidity / bsəlu t hju m dəti/ noun the vapour concentrationor mass of water in a given quantity ofairableable-bodiedabnormal abnormality abnormal load abort absoluteabsolute ceilingabsolute humidity

Aviation.fm Page 2 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PMabsolute pressure2absolute pressure / bsəlu t preʃə/ noun a unit of force per unit ofarea without comparison to other pressure 쑗 Aircraft show absolute pressurein inches of mercury on the inlet manifold pressure gauge.absolute value / bsəlu t v lju /noun the size or value of a numberregardless of its sign 쑗 The absolutevalue of –64.32 is 64.32.absolute zero / bsəlu t z ərəυ/noun the lowest temperature possible,0 K, or –273.15 Cabsorb /əb zɔ b/ verb to take in 쑗Warm air absorbs moisture more easilythan cold air. 쑗 Our bodies absorb oxygen. 왍 to absorb information to understand and remember something 쑗 Onlya few passengers absorb the pre-departure safety information.absorption /əb zɔ pʃən/ noun theact of taking something in 쑗 There isabsorption of energy by the tyre whenthe aircraft lands.AC abbreviation 1. alternating current2. altocumulus (ICAO)ACARS abbreviation airborne communication, addressing and reportingsystemACAS / e k s/ abbreviation airbornecollision avoidance systemACC abbreviation area control centreaccelerate /ək seləre t/ verb toincrease speed 쑗 After start-up, theengine accelerates up to idling speed. 쑗The aircraft accelerated down the runway and took off. Opposite decelerateacceleration/ək selə re ʃ(ə)n/noun 1. the act of increasing the speedof something or of going faster. Opposite deceleration (NOTE: Accelerationabsolute pressureabsolute valueabsolute zeroabsorb absorption ACACARSACASACCaccelerate acceleration can be felt as an aircraft begins its takeoff run.) 2. a force that pulls outwardsand is caused by a change in directionrather than a change in speed 쑗 Acceleration forces can be felt during aerobaticmanoeuvres.acceleration due to earth’s gravityacceleration due to earth’sgravity noun the pulling force exertedon a body by the Earth. It has an international standard value of 9.80665metres per second per second. Abbreviation gaccelerometer/ək selə rɒm tə/noun an instrument that measures anaircraft’s accelerationaccept /ək sept/ verb 1. to be able totake or receive 쑗 Some units acceptelectrical inputs from the autopilot. 2.to take or receive something when it isgiven to you 쑗 She accepted the awardon behalf of the whole crew. 왍 to accepta gift, to accept a prize to take a prizewhich is handed to you 3. to be willingto receive or admit something 왍 toaccept the blame to be willing to admitthat you were the person who causedsomething bad to happen 쑗 The airlineaccepted the blame for the loss of theirbaggage. 왍 to accept responsibility tobe willing to be answerable for something 쑗 The copilot accepted responsibility for the incident.acceptable /ək septəb(ə)l/ adjectiveallowed or approved of, although it maynot be perfect 왍 acceptable level ofsafety a good enough standard of safety왍 acceptable limits the limits generallyregarded as correct 왍 there must be acontinuous flow of clean oil at anacceptable temperature the temperature of the oil must be within givenmaximum and minimum figuresacceptance /ək septəns/ noun 1.willingness to believe something oragree to something 쑗 There is a growingacceptance that safety is the main priority. 2. willingness to do or use something 왍 acceptance of new technologywillingness to use new technologyaccepted /ək sept d/ adjectivebelieved or recognised 쑗 It is acceptedthat incorrect use of English played apart in the accident. 쑗 It is generallyaccepted that flying is one of the safestforms of transport.access / kses/ noun a way to find orget at something 왍 to gain access to tomanage to enter a place 왍 access toinformation the means to get at,retrieve and use information 쐽 verb tofind and use 왍 to access data, to accessinformation to find, retrieve and usedata or informationaccelerometer accept acceptable acceptance accepted access

Aviation.fm Page 3 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PMaccording to3accessibility / ək ses b l ti/ nounaccessibility the ease with which something can bereached or found 쑗 Accessibility of components and equipment during servicing enables work to be done morequickly.accessible /ək ses b(ə)l/ adjectiveeasy to get at 쑗 It is a good idea to havea set of emergency charts in an accessible place in the cockpit. 쑗 Instrumentswhich need resetting in flight must beaccessible to the crew.accessory /ək sesəri/ noun a systemor piece of equipment of secondaryimportance 쑗 a camera with severalaccessories 쐽 adjective of secondaryimportance 쑗 There are many accessorysystems which need engine power tooperate them – pumps, generators,magnetos, etc. (NOTE: The noun accesaccessible accessory sory is not connected with the nounaccess or the verb to access.)access panel / kses p n(ə)l/noun a part of the aircraft skin whichaccess panelcan be easily removed so internal components can be inspectedaccident / ks d(ə)nt/ noun 1.something which happens which seemsto have no cause 왍 it was an accidentnobody planned that it should happen ordeliberately caused it to happen 왍 byaccident by chance 왍 we met by accident we met by chance 2. an unfortunate or harmful event, something causing damage 쑗 An accident must bereported. 쑗 The flight attendant wasinjured in the accident.accident‘Mr Skidmore lost both arms in anaccident while serving in the army as ayoung man, and is believed to be the firstpilot in the UK – and possibly the world –to go solo with two artificial arms’ [Pilot]accidental / ks dent(ə)l/ adjective1. happening by accident, not deliberateaccidental or planned 쑗 There is a safety device toprevent accidental retraction of theundercarriage. 2. relating to an accident, or happening as a result of an accident 쑗 We were told of his accidentaldeath.accompanied/ə k mp(ə)nid/adjective found together with 왍 accompanied luggage luggage which belongsaccompanied to one of the passengers and is carriedon the same aircraft. 쒁 unaccompaniedaccompany /ə k mp(ə)ni/ verb togo together with something else 쑗Engine failure is sometimes accompanied by fire. 왍 Mr Smith was accompanied by his wife and children on theflight to New York Mr Smith’s wifeand children were with him on the flightaccomplish /ə k mpl ʃ/ verb (in formal technical texts) to do something 쑗Feathering is accomplished by movingthe pilot’s control lever. 쑗 Retraction ofthe undercarriage is accomplished byelectrical power. 왍 to accomplish atask to successfully finish doing something demanding 쑗 She was the firstwoman to accomplish the feat in a single-engined aircraft.accomplishment /ə k mpl ʃmənt/noun 1. an achievement 쑗 Charles Lindbergh’s flight across the Atlantic in May1927 was a great accomplishment. 2.(in physics) work done 쑗 Power is measured by units of accomplishment correlated with time.accordance /ə kɔ d(ə)ns/ noun 왍 inaccordance with in agreement with orfollowing something such as rules,instructions or laws 쑗 Fuels must beused in accordance with instructions. 왍in accordance with Buys Ballot’s Lawas described by Buys Ballot’s Lawaccompany accomplish accomplishment accordance ‘ use full heat whenever carburettorheat is applied, partial hot air should onlybe used if an intake temperature gauge isfitted and only then in accordance withthe Flight Manual or Pilot’s OperatingHandbook’ [Civil Aviation Authority,General Aviation Safety Sense Leaflet]accordingly / ə kɔ d ŋli/ adverb asneeded 쑗 Check for increasing manifoldpressure and reduce power accordingly.according to /ə kɔ d ŋ tu / preposition 1. as determined by or in relation to쑗 The force exerted by the pilot on thecontrol column will vary according to anumber of factors. 2. as written or saidby somebody else 쑗 According to thecopilot, engine vibration was detectedin engine number one. 3. in agreementwith something, e.g. instructions, etc. 왍according to instructions exactly asaccordingly according to

Aviation.fm Page 4 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PMaccount4said in the instructions 왍 according torequirements as requiredaccount /ə kaυnt/ noun 왍 to takesomething into account to remembersomething and consider it carefully 쑗When planning a flight, wind speed anddirection must be taken into account. 쑗In the event of an in-flight emergency,the aircraft should be landed at thenearest suitably equipped airport, taking into account fuel available. 왍 on noaccount under no circumstances, never쑗 On no account should anybody fly anaircraft without carrying out pre-flightchecks.account for /ə kaυnt fə/ verb 1. tomake up or constitute 쑗 Kevlar and carbon fibre account for a large percentageof the materials used in modern aircraft. 2. to provide the main reason forsomething 쑗 High humidity accountedfor the longer take-off run.accrete /ə kri t/ verb to increase inamount by slow external addition, toaccumulate 왍 ice accretes on the rotorice builds up on the rotoraccretion /ə kri ʃ(ə)n/ noun increaseor accumulation by slow external addition 쑗 Ice accretion can cause loss of liftand significantly increase the weight ofthe aircraft.accumulate /ə kju mjυle t/ verb tocollect and increase 쑗 Due to katabaticeffects, cold air flows downwards andaccumulates over low ground.accumulation /ə kju mjυ le ʃ(ə)n/noun the collection and increase ofsomething 쑗 Fire in a toilet couldpresent difficulties due to the confinedspace and possible smoke accumulation.accumulator /ə kju mjυle tə/ noun1. a device for storing energy in hydraulic systems 쑗 An accumulator is fitted tostore hydraulic fluid. 2. an electric circuit in a calculator or computer, inwhich the results of arithmetical andlogical operations are formedaccuracy / kjυrəsi/ noun 1. thestate of being correct 왍 to check foraccuracy to make certain that the resultis correct 2. the ability to find, hit orshow things correctly 쑗 The accuracy ofaccount account for accrete accretion accumulate accumulation accumulator accuracy modern navigational equipment ismuch greater than older systems.accurate / kjυrət / adjective 1. correct 쑗 Skill in accurate flying can onlybe achieved by practice. 왍 accurateresults results which are exactly correct2. precise 쑗 This watch is very accurate.ACFT abbreviation aircraftachieve /ə tʃi v/ verb 1. to manage todo something demanding 쑗 In order toachieve a safe landing in a crosswind,the correct techniques must be used. 2.to obtain 쑗 In wind shear conditions, afly-by-wire system allows the pilot toachieve maximum lift by pulling hardback on the stick without risk of a stall.achievement /ə tʃi vmənt/ nounsomething difficult that somebody succeeds in doing and feels proud about 쑗For most trainee pilots, making theirfirst solo flight is a great achievement.acid / s d/ noun a chemical substance which reacts with a base to forma salt 쑗 sulphuric acid (H2SO4) (NOTE:accurateACFTachieve achievement acidAn acid turns a litmus indicator red andhas a sour taste.)acidity /ə s d ti/ noun having an acidcontent 왍 the acidity of a substance theacidity amount of acid in a substanceacid-proof / s d pru f/ adjectiveable to resist the harmful effects of anacidacid test / s d test/ noun a difficultor exacting test of worth or quality 쑗 Apilot’s ability to react appropriately inan emergency situation is the acid testof his or her professionalism.ACMS noun a computer which recordsinformation from various aircraft systems during flight. Full form aircraftacid-proofacid testACMScondition monitoring systemACN abbreviation aircraft classificaACNtion numberacoustic /ə ku st k/ adjective referacoustic ring to soundacoustic ear muffs /ə ku st k əacoustic ear muffs m fs/ plural noun coverings to protectthe ears from loud noise. Also calledear protectors, ear defendersacquire /ə kwa ə/ verb to buy or othacquire erwise obtain쑗to acquire a new air-

Aviation.fm Page 5 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PMadapt5craft 쑗 Speed control is used to acquireand maintain a selected airspeed.acquisition / kw z ʃ(ə)n/ nounthe act of buying or otherwise obtaining쑗 Each computer checks data acquisition. 쑗 The image of the airlineimproved after the acquisition of thenew aircraft.acronym / krən m/ noun a wordwhich is made up of the initial letters ofa name, and is pronounced as a word 쑗NASA is the acronym for National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 쑗VASI is the acronym for visualapproach slope indicator.act / kt/ verb 1. to behave in a particular way 쑗 The crew must act withauthority. 2. to take the role of 쑗 Mountain ranges act as a barrier. 쑗 The governor spill valve also acts as a safetyrelief valve. 3. 왍 to act on to produce aneffect 쑗 Bending and twisting forces acton a propeller. 쑗 Gravity acts verticallydownwards.acting / kt ŋ / adjective temporarilytaking on the responsibilities of somebody 쑗 Captain Smith will be actingChief Flying Instructor while CaptainWhite is absent from work.action / kʃən/ noun 1. somethingdone or to be done 왍 to take action toso something 쑗 If there is a risk of collision, the crew should take the appropriate action. 2. an effectactivate / kt ve t/ verb to make asystem or a piece of equipment or a procedure start to work or to operate 쑗 Thesystem is activated by the pilot or copilot. 쑗 The sounding of the alarm willactivate emergency procedures.activation / kt ve ʃ(ə)n/ noun theact of making something start to workor to operate 쑗 Activation may bemechanical or electrical.active / kt v/ adjective 1. live, inaction or use 왍 the system is active thesystem is on and working 2. not passive왍 in a secondary radar system, thetarget is active in a secondary radarsystem the target transmits a signalwhile in a primary radar system it doesnot 3. 왍 active Cb clouds developingcumulonimbus cloudsacquisition acronymactactingactionactivateactivation activeactive runway / kt v r nwe /active runwaynoun a runway that is being used‘ never cross an active runway withoutpermission from the tower: there may bemore than one active runway’ [CivilAviation Authority, General AviationSafety Sense Leaflet]activity / k t v ti/ noun a movementor action of some kind 쑗 Sunspot activity can affect the amount of solar radiation.actual / ktʃuəl/ adjective real 쑗 Theactual path of the aircraft over theground is called its track, which maynot be the same as the desired course.actually / ktʃuəli/ adverb in fact, inreality 쑗 The design is such that,although the aircraft loses altitude rapidly, it does not actually stall.actuate / ktʃu e t/ verb 1. to move adevice or a part 쑗 The fore and aft movement of the control column actuates theelevators. 2. to switch on a system or apiece of equipment, or put it into operation 쑗 A lever actuates the fire delugesystem. 3. to put a procedure into action쑗 Receipt of the distress signal willactuate the support facilities at the airport.actuation / ktʃυ e ʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.the act of making a device or a partmove 왍 electrical actuation the use ofan electric motor to make somethingmove 왍 mechanical actuation the useof a mechanical part such as a rod, armor lever to make something move 2. amovement made by a device or partactuator / ktʃυe tə/ noun a devicewhich changes electrical or hydraulicenergy into mechanical motion 쑗 Theactuator control is sensitive to enginerpm. 쑗 Actuators are classified as eitherlinear or rotary.AD abbreviation airworthiness directiveA/D abbreviation aerodromeADA abbreviation advisory airspaceadapt /ə d pt/ verb 1. to change ormodify for special use 쑗 The turbopropengine is often used in transport aircraft and can be adapted for use in single-engine aircraft. 2. to change to suitactivity actualactuallyactuate actuation actuatorADA/DADAadapt

Aviation.fm Page 6 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PMadaptation6new conditions 쑗 Crew flying long-haulroutes have to adapt to time changes.adaptation / d p te ʃ(ə)n/ noun 1.the act of changing or modifying something for special use 쑗 Doppler VOR isan adaptation of VOR to reduce errorscaused by location. 2. adjustment tonew conditions 쑗 Adaptation to timechanges when travelling west to easttakes time.adapter /ə d ptə/ noun 1. a piece ofequipment or device which allows achange or modification 왍 a ‘T’ pieceadapter a device for connecting twoinputs to one output or vice versa 2. adevice that allows two incompatibledevices to be connectedADC / e di si / abbreviation air datacomputeradd / d/ verb 1. to put figures togetherto form a sum, to make a total 쑗 Add thetwo numbers together to find the sum. 2.to put together to make a larger group ora group with different properties 쑗There are only nine chairs, add anotherone. 쑗 A substance is added to the fuelto clean fuel injectors.addition /ə d ʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. a mathematical operation consisting in puttingnumbers together 쑗 Addition is normally taught before subtraction, multiplication and division. 쑗 The additionsign is . 2. the act of adding something쑗 With the addition of methanol, the turbine inlet temperature is restored. 3. 왍in addition also 왍 in addition to aswell asadditional /ə d ʃ(ə)nəl/ adjectiveadded or extraadditive / d t v/ noun a chemicalsubstance, often liquid, added toanother substance to give it extra qualities 쑗 Additives are used in engine oilsto prolong the life of the engine. 쑗 Antiicing additives are used in radiatorcoolants.adequate / d kwət/ adjectiveenough, sufficient 쑗 The compressormust provide an adequate airflowthrough the engine. 왍 adequate fuelenough fuelADF abbreviation automatic directionfinderadaptation adapter ADCaddaddition additional additiveadequateADFadhere /əd h ə/ verb to stick as ifglued 쑗 Clear ice adheres strongly toairframes.adhesive / əd hi s v / noun glue 쐽adjective having the sticking quality ofglue 쑗 adhesive tape 쑗 Adhesive bonding of aluminium parts is widelyemployed.ADI /e di a / abbreviation attitudedirection indicator or attitude directorindicatoradiabatic / d ə b t k/ adjective 1.referring to processes through whichheat cannot be lost or gained 2. referring to a change in temperature in amass of air, which occurs when the airis compressed or expanded by anincrease or decrease in atmosphericpressure and does not involve the airlosing heat to, or gaining heat from, itssurroundingsadhere adhesive ADI adiabatic adiabaticcompressionadiabatic compression/ d əb t kkəm preʃ(ə)n/ nouncompression caused by atmosphericfactors, which makes descending airwarm upadiabatic cooling / d əb t k ku l ŋ/ noun a process in whichascending air is cooled by a decrease inatmospheric pressure without heattransferadiabatic expansion / d əb t k k sp nʃ(ə)n/ noun expansion causedby atmospheric factors, which makesascending air cool down 쑗 Cooling byadiabatic expansion may result in cloudformation.adiabatic heating / diə b t k hi t ŋ/ noun a process in whichdescending air is heated by an increasein atmospheric pressure without heattransferadjacent /ə d"e s(ə)nt/ adjectivenext to or near 쑗 Fire extinguishersshould be positioned adjacent to theaircraft during all ground-runningoperations.adjust /ə d" st/ verb to change andimprove the position or setting of apiece of equipment 쑗 The pilot adjuststhe throttle or propeller controls. 왍 toadjust the seat to move the seat into aposition suitable for yourself 왍 to adiabatic coolingadiabatic expansion adiabatic heating adjacent adjust

Aviation.fm Page 7 Wednesday, November 24, 2004 3:45 PMadvice7adjust the volume to increase ordecrease the volume to improve thesound qualityadjustable / ə d" stəb(ə)l/ adjectivedesigned to be adjusted 쑗 An adjustablestop on the throttle control ensures apositive idling speed.adjustment /ə d" stmənt/ noun 1. achange to improve the setting, positionor operation of something 쑗 A slightadjustment to the seat will make it muchmore comfortable to sit in. 2. the act ofchanging something to improve its setting or position 쑗 Maximum systempressure is often controlled by adjustment of the main engine-driven pump.admit /əd m t/ verb to allow to enter 쑗Cold air can be admitted to the cabinthrough adjustable louvres or shutters.adopt /ə dɒpt/ verb to choose to usesomething as standard equipment or tomake it standard procedure 쑗 A policy ofno smoking on all flights has beenadopted by many airlines. 왍 widelyadopted now in standard use with manycompanies, institutions and organisationsadoption /ə dɒpʃən/ noun the act ofusing something as standard equipmentor making it standard procedure 쑗 Inspite of the adoption of the axial flowtype compressor, some engines retainthe centrifugal type.ADR abbreviation accident datarecorderADS abbreviation automatic dependent surveillanceADT abbreviation approved departuretimeadvance /əd vɑ ns/ noun 1. a changethat improves something 왍 enormousadvances in aircraft design greatprogress or developments in aircraftdesign 2. 왍 in advance of ahead of 쑗The Gulf region is three hours inadvance of GMT. 쐽 verb 1. to move forwards, or move something forwards 왍the throttle lever is advanced thethrottle lever is moved forwards 2. tomake something happen at an earliertime 왍 to advance the ignition to adjustthe timing of the ignition so that thespark occurs earlier/əd vɑ nst/ adjectivemodern and sophisticated 쑗 The A340 isan advanced type of aircraft.advancedadvanced adjustable adjustment admit adopt adoption ADRADSADTadvance ‘ a Seattle-based modification companyspecializing in advanced winglet designsis developing a lightweight winglet forthe Boeing 747 200F’ [FlightInternational 1–7 May 1996]advantage /əd vɑ nt d"/ noun aadvantage good or beneficial factor 쑗 The multiwheel combination has the advantageof smaller and lighter undercarriagestructures. 왍 to take advantage of toget benefit from a situation 왍 to takeadvantage of favourable winds to usetailwinds to increase ground speed andthus save time and money. Oppositedisadvantage/ dvən te d"əs/adjective better 왍 the most advanta-advantageousadvantageous geous the best 쑗 The minimum time pathis the most advantageous for economy.advect /əd vekt / verb to move in ahorizontal direction due to convection 쑗Dispersal of hill fog takes place whensurface heating lifts the cloud base ordrier air is advected.advection /əd vekʃ(ə)n/ noun themovement of air in a horizontal directionadvection fog /əd vekʃ(ə)n fɒ /noun fog which forms when warmermoist air moves over a colder surfaceadvent / dvent/ noun an arrival,especially of something very important쑗 With the advent of satellite navigationsystems, pilots of light aircraft have amore accurate means of knowing theirposition.adverse / dv% s/ adjective 1. bad orpoor 쑗 Only in extremely adverse conditions should the crew evacuate the aircraft. 왍 adverse handling characteristics aspects of an aircraft’s handlingwhich are poor 2.

Dictionary of Accounting 0 7475 6991 6 . Dictionary of Computing 0 7475 6622 4 Dictionary of Economics 0 7136 8203 5 Dictionary of Environment and Ecology 0 7475 7201 1 Dictionary of Food Science and Nutrition 0 7136 7784 8 Dictionary of Human Resources and Personnel Management 0 7136 8142 X

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